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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(7): e34285, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The issue of food insecurity is becoming increasingly important to public health practitioners because of the adverse health outcomes and underlying racial disparities associated with insufficient access to healthy foods. Prior research has used data sources such as surveys, geographic information systems, and food store assessments to identify regions classified as food deserts but perhaps the individuals in these regions unknowingly provide their own accounts of food consumption and food insecurity through social media. Social media data have proved useful in answering questions related to public health; therefore, these data are a rich source for identifying food deserts in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop, from geotagged Twitter data, a predictive model for the identification of food deserts in the United States using the linguistic constructs found in food-related tweets. METHODS: Twitter's streaming application programming interface was used to collect a random 1% sample of public geolocated tweets across 25 major cities from March 2020 to December 2020. A total of 60,174 geolocated food-related tweets were collected across the 25 cities. Each geolocated tweet was mapped to its respective census tract using point-to-polygon mapping, which allowed us to develop census tract-level features derived from the linguistic constructs found in food-related tweets, such as tweet sentiment and average nutritional value of foods mentioned in the tweets. These features were then used to examine the associations between food desert status and the food ingestion language and sentiment of tweets in a census tract and to determine whether food-related tweets can be used to infer census tract-level food desert status. RESULTS: We found associations between a census tract being classified as a food desert and an increase in the number of tweets in a census tract that mentioned unhealthy foods (P=.03), including foods high in cholesterol (P=.02) or low in key nutrients such as potassium (P=.01). We also found an association between a census tract being classified as a food desert and an increase in the proportion of tweets that mentioned healthy foods (P=.03) and fast-food restaurants (P=.01) with positive sentiment. In addition, we found that including food ingestion language derived from tweets in classification models that predict food desert status improves model performance compared with baseline models that only include socioeconomic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Social media data have been increasingly used to answer questions related to health and well-being. Using Twitter data, we found that food-related tweets can be used to develop models for predicting census tract food desert status with high accuracy and improve over baseline models. Food ingestion language found in tweets, such as census tract-level measures of food sentiment and healthiness, are associated with census tract-level food desert status.


Subject(s)
Census Tract , Food Deserts , Social Media , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infodemiology/methods , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
2.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 1619-1632, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: British Pakistani women have exceptionally high rates of obesity and yet are seldom heard in a research priority setting concerning weight management. The objectives of this study were (i) to ascertain what multisectoral professionals perceive to be the most pressing unmet obesity needs or topic areas that need more research in relation to Pakistani women living in deprived areas of Bradford and (ii) to determine the top 10 obesity health priorities for this group to develop an obesity research agenda. METHODS: A two-step process was adopted using the following: (i) a survey of a wide range of multisectoral professional stakeholders (n = 159) and (ii) a ranking exercise involving Pakistani women living in deprived areas of Bradford (n = 32) to select and prioritize their top 10 obesity health concerns and unmet needs from a list of 31 statements identified in the survey and previous research. Survey data were analysed using inductive content analysis and themes were identified. Themes were translated into statements to be ranked by Pakistani women. The ranking exercise was conducted by telephone either via voice or video call. Data were analysed using a reverse scoring system. RESULTS: Survey responses were grouped into statements reflecting the following three categories: education needs; healthy behaviour barriers and mental well-being. The highest rankings were given by Pakistani women to statements on mental health and the need for education. The top 10 prioritized statements were developed with members of the public into an obesity research agenda that reflected the target population. CONCLUSION: Actively engaging British Pakistani women in setting research priorities provided a unique opportunity to understand the key areas they think are important for future research. The culminating research agenda can be used by researchers to advance the field of obesity research in Pakistani communities, thus producing research outputs that are relevant to and have impact in this population. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Participants in the ranking exercise collected data. Public contributors were involved in developing the prioritized statements into a research agenda.


Subject(s)
Health Priorities , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services Research , Obesity , Poverty Areas , Social Determinants of Health , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Health Services Research/methods , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pakistan/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Stakeholder Participation , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant adverse social and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has cast broader light on the importance of addressing social determinants of health (SDOH). Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MMCOs) have increasingly taken on a leadership role in integrating medical and social services for Medicaid members. However, the experiences of MMCOs in addressing member social needs during the pandemic has not yet been examined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe MMCOs' experiences with addressing the social needs of Medicaid members during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was a qualitative study using data from 28 semi-structured interviews with representatives from 14 MMCOs, including state-specific markets of eight national and regional managed care organizations. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: the impact of the pandemic, SDOH response efforts, an expanding definition of SDOH, and managed care beyond COVID-19. Specifically, participants discussed the impact of the pandemic on enrollees, communities, and healthcare delivery, and detailed their evolving efforts to address member nonmedical needs during the pandemic. They reported an increased demand for social services coupled with a significant retraction of community social service resources. To address these emerging social service gaps, participants described mounting a prompt and adaptable response that was facilitated by strong existing relationships with community partners. CONCLUSION: Among MMCOs, the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the importance of addressing member social needs, and the need for broader consideration of what constitutes SDOH from a healthcare delivery standpoint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Medicaid/trends , Social Determinants of Health/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Managed Care Programs/statistics & numerical data , Managed Care Programs/trends , Medicaid/economics , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Work , Stakeholder Participation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
4.
Circ Res ; 130(5): 782-799, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723985

ABSTRACT

Social determinants of health (SDoH), which encompass the economic, social, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence health, play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as CVD morbidity and mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic and the current social justice movement sparked by the death of George Floyd have laid bare long-existing health inequities in our society driven by SDoH. Despite a recent focus on these structural drivers of health disparities, the impact of SDoH on cardiovascular health and CVD outcomes remains understudied and incompletely understood. To further investigate the mechanisms connecting SDoH and CVD, and ultimately design targeted and effective interventions, it is important to foster interdisciplinary efforts that incorporate translational, epidemiological, and clinical research in examining SDoH-CVD relationships. This review aims to facilitate research coordination and intervention development by providing an evidence-based framework for SDoH rooted in the lived experiences of marginalized populations. Our framework highlights critical structural/socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial factors most strongly associated with CVD and explores several of the underlying biologic mechanisms connecting SDoH to CVD pathogenesis, including excess stress hormones, inflammation, immune cell function, and cellular aging. We present landmark studies and recent findings about SDoH in our framework, with careful consideration of the constructs and measures utilized. Finally, we provide a roadmap for future SDoH research focused on individual, clinical, and policy approaches directed towards developing multilevel community-engaged interventions to promote cardiovascular health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Humans
6.
CMAJ ; 194(6): E195-E204, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with the social determinants of health could help the development of effective mitigation strategies that are responsive to local transmission dynamics. This study aims to quantify social determinants of geographic concentration of SARS-CoV-2 cases across 16 census metropolitan areas (hereafter, cities) in 4 Canadian provinces, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. METHODS: We used surveillance data on confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and census data for social determinants at the level of the dissemination area (DA). We calculated Gini coefficients to determine the overall geographic heterogeneity of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in each city, and calculated Gini covariance coefficients to determine each city's heterogeneity by each social determinant (income, education, housing density and proportions of visible minorities, recent immigrants and essential workers). We visualized heterogeneity using Lorenz (concentration) curves. RESULTS: We observed geographic concentration of SARS-CoV-2 cases in cities, as half of the cumulative cases were concentrated in DAs containing 21%-35% of their population, with the greatest geographic heterogeneity in Ontario cities (Gini coefficients 0.32-0.47), followed by British Columbia (0.23-0.36), Manitoba (0.32) and Quebec (0.28-0.37). Cases were disproportionately concentrated in areas with lower income and educational attainment, and in areas with a higher proportion of visible minorities, recent immigrants, high-density housing and essential workers. Although a consistent feature across cities was concentration by the proportion of visible minorities, the magnitude of concentration by social determinant varied across cities. INTERPRETATION: Geographic concentration of SARS-CoV-2 cases was observed in all of the included cities, but the pattern by social determinants varied. Geographically prioritized allocation of resources and services should be tailored to the local drivers of inequalities in transmission in response to the resurgence of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , Canada/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography/economics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 34, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world's poorest people who have little or no access to health care and yet the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but silent global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. RESULTS: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. CONCLUSION: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in 'normal' circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/standards , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/standards , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania/epidemiology
8.
Phys Ther ; 101(11)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402560

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the health of people from communities of color and people of limited socioeconomic means in a disproportionate way due to social determinants of health (SDoH). The Centers for Disease Control defines SDoH as the "conditions in the places where people live, learn, work, and play that affect a wide range of health and quality-of life-risks and outcomes." A related construct, social determinants of learning (SDoL), includes contextual conditions and variables that impact students' ability to optimally participate in their education, including academic and clinical development. SDoL directly impact students' ability to participate in the educational process. During the COVID-19 pandemic, students struggling with SDoH and, by extension SDoL, may be more likely to have sick family members, caregiving responsibilities, food and housing insecurity, and obligations to supplement lost family wages. SDoL are also influenced by individual experiences within and outside of the classroom. Beyond bringing this matter to the attention of our profession, especially clinical and academic educators, we must take action to reach and support students who are at higher academic risk due to the SDoL. The purpose of this paper is to (1) define SDoL, (2) explain how SDoL are impacting doctor of physical therapy and physical therapist assistant students, and (3) discuss actions that physical therapists and physical therapist assistants can take to mitigate the effects of SDoL on current doctor of physical therapy and physical therapist assistant students. IMPACT: This Perspective is one of the first explorations of how SDoL affect physical therapy students during the pandemic and provides concrete suggestions on how educators in both academic and clinical settings can help students succeed when they are negatively affected by SDoL.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physical Therapists/psychology , Physical Therapy Specialty/education , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Humans , Interprofessional Relations
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1489-1496, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381329

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its social and health impact have underscored the need for a new strategic science agenda for public health. To optimize public health impact, high-quality strategic science addresses scientific gaps that inform policy and guide practice. At least 6 scientific gaps emerge from the US experience with COVID-19: health equity science, data science and modernization, communication science, policy analysis and translation, scientific collaboration, and climate science. Addressing these areas within a strategic public health science agenda will accelerate achievement of public health goals. Public health leadership and scientists have an unprecedented opportunity to use strategic science to guide a new era of improved and equitable public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Equity/organization & administration , Health Planning/methods , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Public Health/standards , United States
10.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1704-1712, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367605

ABSTRACT

In the United States, the nation's health is not an organic outcome. It is not a coincidence that certain groups of people living in the United States experience higher premature death rates or poorer health outcomes than others. For centuries, racial and ethnic as well as geographic differences in health outcomes have been part of the American landscape, so entrenched in society that many people fail to recognize that health inequities were intentionally derived. A national crisis tends to magnify inequities in our society, but even more alarming is the fact that as the country becomes more racially and ethnically diverse in the coming years, the health inequities are projected to worsen if we do not proactively and immediately address them. As we continue to grapple with the lasting impact of the pandemic, it is of vital importance that we utilize this time to acknowledge, understand, and seriously address the health inequities that have historically plagued the country for over 400 years. As the United States works overtime to stem the tide of the COVID-19 pandemic, it must also work equally hard to move in a more equitable, inclusive, and healthier direction, not only because of the more than 83 000 Americans dying prematurely each year but also because of the economic and national security toll it will have if not effectively addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Physician's Role , Racism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Politics , Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racism/prevention & control , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons , United States/epidemiology
11.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(3): 261-262, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291046

ABSTRACT

As we enter the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is much hope about the eventual containment of the virus, leading to some form of a new normalcy. Multiple COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be effective, and the vaccination of individuals in the United States has reached several million per day, with an ever-growing percentage of the population having been vaccinated. However, there are stark reminders of the continued disparities that have been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with different levels of vaccine accessibility across states and communities. In addition, multiple countries have not begun any vaccination implementation. Case and death rates continue to be unevenly distributed, with higher death rates in minority populations, particularly African American and Latinx individuals. This pandemic has raised to a higher level of awareness the ongoing and multiple forms of disparity associated with health and illness. For oncology nurses and scientists, how do we look to the issues so starkly presented by the pandemic and raise our awareness that the issues are not specific to COVID-19?


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oncology Nursing , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Syndemic , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Pediatr ; 237: 115-124.e2, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether telehealth acceptance by parents of children with heart disease is predicted by sociodemographic and/or by parental digital literacy, and to assess parental perceptions of telehealth usability and reliability. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a single center study comparing telehealth acceptance versus visit cancellation/rescheduling for pediatric cardiology visits during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. All parent/guardians who consented to survey completion received a validated survey assessing their digital literacy. Consenting parents who accepted telehealth received an additional validated survey assessing their perceptions of telehealth usability and reliability. RESULTS: A total of 849 patients originally were scheduled for in-person visits between March 30 and May 8, 2020. Telehealth acceptance was highest among younger, publicly insured, Hispanic patients with primary diagnoses of arrhythmia/palpitations, chest pain, dysautonomia, dyslipidemia and acquired heart disease. Among parents who completed surveys, a determinant of telehealth acceptance was digital literacy. Telehealth was determined to be a usable and reliable means for health care delivery. CONCLUSION: Although the potential for inequitable selection of telehealth due to sociodemographic factors exists, we found that such factors were not a major determinant for pediatric cardiology care within a large, diverse, free-standing pediatric hospital.


Subject(s)
Computer Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiology/organization & administration , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(3): 219-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249346

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed communities. Physical, emotional, and financial struggles have heightened, especially with our vulnerable populations. People have been afraid to return to their provider's office. For children, there has been an interruption of well-visits and immunizations. As the nation saw a decline in immunization uptake, a pilot nurse-led program was designed to increase vaccinations and address the social determinant needs during a global pandemic. The purpose of this article is to describe the planning and implementation of a curbside immunization event. The Logic model was used as a framework to ensure an efficient and replicable process. Initial observations showed an overall increase in immunization uptake and 97% of participants current with recommended vaccinations. Most parents (93%) would attend again and recommend it to others. They also felt that infection control precautions helped make the care delivered safe and efficient. Social determinants of health were assessed and addressed. This method of vaccine delivery is a viable model going into the future. Others may replicate this model, and it may also serve as a platform regarding flu or COVID-19 vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
Immunization/nursing , Models, Nursing , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/standards , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Michigan , Pilot Projects
15.
CMAJ ; 193(20): E723-E734, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimizing the public health response to reduce the burden of COVID-19 necessitates characterizing population-level heterogeneity of risks for the disease. However, heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 testing may introduce biased estimates depending on analytic design. We aimed to explore the potential for collider bias in a large study of disease determinants, and evaluate individual, environmental and social determinants associated with SARS-CoV-2 testing and diagnosis among residents of Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We explored the potential for collider bias and characterized individual, environmental and social determinants of being tested and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using cross-sectional analyses among 14.7 million community-dwelling people in Ontario, Canada. Among those with a diagnosis, we used separate analytic designs to compare predictors of people testing positive versus negative; symptomatic people testing positive versus testing negative; and people testing positive versus people not testing positive (i.e., testing negative or not being tested). Our analyses included tests conducted between Mar. 1 and June 20, 2020. RESULTS: Of 14 695 579 people, we found that 758 691 were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 25 030 (3.3%) had a positive test result. The further the odds of testing from the null, the more variability we generally observed in the odds of diagnosis across analytic design, particularly among individual factors. We found that there was less variability in testing by social determinants across analytic designs. Residing in areas with the highest household density (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-1.98), highest proportion of essential workers (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.48-1.69), lowest educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.26-1.41) and highest proportion of recent immigrants (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15) were consistently related to increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis regardless of analytic design. INTERPRETATION: Where testing is limited, our results suggest that risk factors may be better estimated using population comparators rather than test-negative comparators. Optimizing COVID-19 responses necessitates investment in and sufficient coverage of structural interventions tailored to heterogeneity in social determinants of risk, including household crowding, occupation and structural racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(5): e1388, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The understanding of the impact of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is evolving, with need for rapid analysis. AIMS: This study aims to compare the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with cancer (with and without COVID-19) and characterize the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-world data (RWD) from two health systems were used to identify 146 702 adults diagnosed with cancer between 2015 and 2020; 1267 COVID-19 cases were identified between February 1 and July 30, 2020. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics were extracted. Incidence of all-cause mortality, hospitalizations, and invasive respiratory support was assessed between February 1 and August 14, 2020. Among patients with cancer, patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be Non-Hispanic black (NHB), have active cancer, have comorbidities, and/or live in zip codes with median household income <$30 000. Patients with COVID-19 living in lower-income areas and NHB patients were at greatest risk for hospitalization from pneumonia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, cough, respiratory failure, and acute renal failure and were more likely to receive hydroxychloroquine. All-cause mortality, hospital admission, and invasive respiratory support were more frequent among patients with cancer and COVID-19. Male sex, increasing age, living in zip codes with median household income <$30 000, history of pulmonary circulation disorders, and recent treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors or chemotherapy were associated with greater odds of all-cause mortality in multivariable logistic regression models. CONCLUSION: RWD can be rapidly leveraged to understand urgent healthcare challenges. Patients with cancer are more vulnerable to COVID-19 effects, especially in the setting of active cancer and comorbidities, with additional risk observed in NHB patients and those living in zip codes with median household income <$30 000.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Data Analysis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Community Psychol ; 49(6): 1718-1731, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231854

ABSTRACT

Large amounts of text-based data, like study abstracts, often go unanalyzed because the task is laborious. Natural language processing (NLP) uses computer-based algorithms not traditionally implemented in community psychology to effectively and efficiently process text. These methods include examining the frequency of words and phrases, the clustering of topics, and the interrelationships of words. This article applied NLP to explore the concept of equity in community psychology. The COVID-19 crisis has made pre-existing health equity gaps even more salient. Community psychology has a specific interest in working with organizations, systems, and communities to address social determinants that perpetuate inequities by refocusing interventions around achieving health and wellness for all. This article examines how community psychology has discussed equity thus far to identify strengths and gaps for future research and practice. The results showed the prominence of community-based participatory research and the diversity of settings researchers work in. However, the total number of abstracts with equity concepts was lower than expected, which suggests there is a need for a continued focus on equity.


Subject(s)
Community Psychiatry/methods , Community-Based Participatory Research/methods , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge Discovery/methods , Natural Language Processing , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Periodicals as Topic
18.
Can Rev Sociol ; 58(2): 146-164, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214776

ABSTRACT

Race-based and other demographic information on COVID-19 patients is not being collected consistently across provinces in Canada. Therefore, whether the burden of COVID-19 is falling disproportionately on the shoulders of particular demographic groups is relatively unknown. In this article, we first provide an overview of the available geographic and demographic data related to COVID-19. We then make creative use of these existing data to fill the vacuum and identify key demographic risk factors for COVID-19 across Canada's health regions. Drawing on COVID-19 counts and tabular census data, we examine the association between communities' demographic composition and the number of COVID-19 infections. COVID-19 infections are higher in communities with larger shares of Black and low-income residents. Our approach offers a way for researchers and policymakers to use existing data to identify communities nationwide that are vulnerable to the pandemic in the absence of more detailed demographic and more granular geographic data.


Les renseignements fondés sur la race et d'autres données démographiques sur les patients atteints du COVID-19 ne sont pas recueillis de manière uniforme dans toutes les provinces du Canada. Par conséquent, si le fardeau du COVID-19 tombe de manière disproportionnée sur les épaules de groupes démographiques particuliers est relativement inconnu. Dans cet article, nous fournissons d'abord un aperçu des données géographiques et démographiques disponibles liées au COVID-19. Nous utilisons ensuite de manière créative ces données existantes pour combler le vide et identifier les principaux facteurs de risque démographiques du COVID-19 dans les régions sociosanitaires du Canada. En nous basant sur les dénombrements de COVID-19 et les données tabulaires du recensement, nous examinons l'association entre la composition démographique des communautés et le nombre d'infections au COVID-19. Les infections au COVID-19 sont plus élevées dans les communautés avec une plus grande proportion de résidents Noirs et à faible revenu. Notre approche offre aux chercheurs et aux décideurs un moyen d'utiliser les données existantes pour identifier les communautés à l'échelle nationale qui sont vulnérables à la pandémie en l'absence de données démographiques plus détaillées et géographiques plus granulaires.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1518-1523, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207326

ABSTRACT

Public health crises palpably demonstrate how social determinants of health have led to disparate health outcomes. The staggering mortality rates among African Americans, Native Americans, and Latinx Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic have revealed how recalcitrant structural inequities can exacerbate disparities and render not just individuals but whole communities acutely vulnerable. While medical curricula that educate students about disparities are vital in rousing awareness, it is experience that is most likely to instill passion for change. The authors first consider the roots of health care disparities in relation to the current pandemic. Then, they examine the importance of salient learning experiences that may inspire a commitment to championing social justice. Experiences in diverse communities can imbue medical students with a desire for lifelong learning and advocacy. The authors introduce a 3-pillar framework that consists of trust building, structural competency, and cultural humility. They discuss how these pillars should underpin educational efforts to improve social determinants of health. Effecting systemic change requires passion and resolve; therefore, perseverance in such efforts is predicated on learners caring about the structural inequities in housing, education, economic stability, and neighborhoods-all of which influence the health of individuals and communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Medical/ethics , Racism/ethnology , African Americans , Awareness , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Education, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Problem-Based Learning/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/ethics , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Justice/ethics , Stakeholder Participation , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
20.
CMAJ ; 193(20): E723-E734, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimizing the public health response to reduce the burden of COVID-19 necessitates characterizing population-level heterogeneity of risks for the disease. However, heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 testing may introduce biased estimates depending on analytic design. We aimed to explore the potential for collider bias in a large study of disease determinants, and evaluate individual, environmental and social determinants associated with SARS-CoV-2 testing and diagnosis among residents of Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We explored the potential for collider bias and characterized individual, environmental and social determinants of being tested and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using cross-sectional analyses among 14.7 million community-dwelling people in Ontario, Canada. Among those with a diagnosis, we used separate analytic designs to compare predictors of people testing positive versus negative; symptomatic people testing positive versus testing negative; and people testing positive versus people not testing positive (i.e., testing negative or not being tested). Our analyses included tests conducted between Mar. 1 and June 20, 2020. RESULTS: Of 14 695 579 people, we found that 758 691 were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 25 030 (3.3%) had a positive test result. The further the odds of testing from the null, the more variability we generally observed in the odds of diagnosis across analytic design, particularly among individual factors. We found that there was less variability in testing by social determinants across analytic designs. Residing in areas with the highest household density (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-1.98), highest proportion of essential workers (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.48-1.69), lowest educational attainment (adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.26-1.41) and highest proportion of recent immigrants (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15) were consistently related to increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis regardless of analytic design. INTERPRETATION: Where testing is limited, our results suggest that risk factors may be better estimated using population comparators rather than test-negative comparators. Optimizing COVID-19 responses necessitates investment in and sufficient coverage of structural interventions tailored to heterogeneity in social determinants of risk, including household crowding, occupation and structural racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Young Adult
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