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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844560, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776054

ABSTRACT

Objective: Governments across the world have deployed a wide range of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Certain NPIs, like limiting social contacts or lockdowns, had negative consequences for mental health in the population. Especially elder people are prone to mental illnesses during the current pandemic. This article investigates how social factors, infections rates, and stringency of NPIs are associated with a decline in mental health in different European countries. Methods: Data stem from the eighth wave of the SHARE survey. Additional data sources were used to build macro indicators for infection rates and NPIs. Two subsamples of persons with mental health problems were selected (people who reported being depressed, n = 9.240 or nervous/anxious, n = 10.551). Decline in mental health was assessed by asking whether depressive symptoms or nervousness/anxiety have become worse since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. For each outcome, logistic regression models with survey-design were used to estimate odds ratios (OR), using social factors (age, gender, education, living alone, and personal contacts) and macro indicators (stringency of NPIs and infection rates) as predictors. Results: Higher age was associated with a lower likelihood of becoming more depressed (OR 0.87) or nervous/anxious (OR 0.88), while female gender increased the odds of a decline in mental health (OR 1.53 for being more depressed; OR 1.57 for being more nervous/anxious). Higher education was only associated with becoming more nervous/anxious (OR 1.59), while living alone or rare personal contacts were not statistically significant. People from countries with higher infection rates were more likely to become more depressed (OR 3.31) or nervous/anxious (OR 4.12), while stringency of NPIs showed inconsistent associations. Conclusion: A majority of European older adults showed a decline in mental health since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. This is especially true in countries with high prevalence rates of COVID-19. Among older European adults, age seems to be a protective factor for a decline in mental health while female gender apparently is a risk factor. Moreover, although NPIs are an essential preventative mechanism to reduce the pandemic spread, they might influence the vulnerability for elderly people suffering from mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Government , Humans , Social Factors
2.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221084185, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765269

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adherence to COVID-19 preventative guidelines may be influenced by a variety of factors at the individual, societal, and institutional levels. The current study sought to investigate the social factors of adherence to those preventive measures from the perspective of health professionals. METHODS: In October 2020, we performed qualitative research in Tehran, Iran, using the directed content analysis method. For the preparation of our interview guide and data analysis, we employed the WHO conceptual framework of socioeconomic determinants of health. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 health professionals and policymakers who were chosen using a purposive sampling approach. MAXQDA-18 software was used to analyze the data. The Goba and Lincoln criteria were used to assess the quality of the results. RESULTS: There are 23 subcategories and 9 categories, which include socio-economic and political context (unstable macroeconomic environment, poor management of the pandemic, media and knowledge transfer), cultural and social values (fatalism, cultural norms, value conflicts, social customs), socio-economic positions (livelihood conditions), social capital (social cohesion, low trust), living conditions (housing conditions), occupational conditions (precarious employment), individual characteristics (demographic characteristics, personality traits, COVID-19 knowledge, and attitude), psycho-social factors (normalization of the disease, social pressure, and stigma), and health system leadership (health system problems, not taking evidence-based decisions, non-comprehensive preventive guidelines, non-operational guidelines, inadequate executive committee) were obtained. CONCLUSION: To limit the new COVID-19 transmission, people must be encouraged to follow COVID-19 prevention instructions. Improving adherence to COVID-19 preventive guidelines necessitates dealing with the complexities of responding to social determinants of those guidelines. Increasing public health literacy and knowledge of COVID-19, informing people about the consequences of social interactions and cultural customs in the spread of COVID-19, strengthening regulatory lockdown laws, improving guarantees for adhering to preventive guidelines, providing easy access to preventive supplies, and strengthening financial support for households with precarious employment are all important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Iran , Qualitative Research , Social Factors
3.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 10, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence of how social factors affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors is limited. Our study explores the association between socio-demographic, health-related and psycho-social (stigma) factors and EVD survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study among 358 EVD survivors between January and August 2018. We used a multistage sampling method to recruit EVD survivors, and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey item was used to assess the HRQoL. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: When comparing by each dimension in relation to their respective summary scores, role limitation physical [0.00 (50.00)] and role limitation emotional [0.00 (33.33)] were the most affected physical health and mental health domains among EVD survivors respectively. EVD survivors who were older (ß = - 3.90, 95% CI - 6.47 to - 1.32, p = 0.003), had no formal education (ß = - 2.80, 95% CI - 5.16 to - 0.43, p = 0.021), experienced a unit increase in the number of post-Ebola symptoms (ß = - 1.08, 95% CI - 1.74 to - 0.43, p < 0.001) and experienced a unit increase in enacted stigma (ß = - 2.61, 95% CI - 4.02 to - 1.20, p < 0.001) were more likely to report a decreased level of physical health. EVD survivors who experienced a unit increase in the time spent in the Ebola treatment centre (ß = - 0.60, 95% CI - 0.103 to - 0.18, p = 0.006) and those who experienced a unit increase in enacted Stigma were more likely to report decreased levels of mental health (ß = - 1.50, 95% CI - 2.67 to - 0.33, p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic, health-related, and psycho-social factors were significantly associated with decrease levels of HRQoL. Our findings improve our understanding of the factors that might influence the HRQoL and suggest the need for EVD survivors to be provided with a comprehensive healthcare package that caters for their physical and mental health needs.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Social Factors , Survivors
4.
Environ Res ; 208: 112761, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633057

ABSTRACT

As a highly contagious disease, COVID-19 caused a worldwide pandemic and it is still ongoing. However, the infection in China has been successfully controlled although its initial transmission was also nationwide and has caused a serious public health crisis. The analysis on the early-stage COVID-19 transmission in China is worth investigating for its guiding significance on prevention to other countries and regions. In this study, we conducted the experiments from the perspectives of COVID-19 occurrence and intensity. We eliminated unimportant factors from 113 variables and applied four machine learning-based classification and regression models to predict COVID-19 occurrence and intensity, respectively. The influence of each important factor was analysed when applicable. Our optimal model on COVID-19 occurrence prediction presented an accuracy of 91.91% and the best R2 of intensity prediction reached 0.778. Linear regression-based model was identified as unable to fit and predict the intensity, and thus only the variable influence on COVID-19 occurrence can be explained. We found that (1) CO VID-19 was more likely to occur in prosperous cities closer to the epicentre and located on higher altitudes, (2) and the occurrence was higher under extreme weather and high minimum relative humidity. (3) Most air pollutants increased the risk of COVID-19 occurrence except NO2 and O3, and there existed a lag effect of 6-7 days. (4) NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) did not show apparent effect until two weeks after.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Machine Learning , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Factors
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261867, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been concerns that social distancing may negatively impact mental health, particularly with regards to loneliness, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. The current study explored how aspects of social distancing, communication, and online support from October 2020 to December 2020 related to loneliness, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. METHOD: Participants (n = 216) who self-identified as having mental health diagnoses were recruited and completed questionnaires online. RESULTS: Findings showed that COVID-19 related social contact, particularly electronic social contact, is associated with decreased loneliness, suicidal ideation, and depression. Online emotional support was significantly associated with decreased loneliness and depressive symptoms. Social distancing practices were not associated with increased loneliness, suicidal ideation, and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the importance of leveraging electronic methods of social connection, especially among individuals who are at risk for suicide or depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Factors , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571994

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health crisis that is now impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is known how COVID-19 risks influence people to consume antibiotics, particularly in contexts like Bangladesh where these pharmaceuticals can be purchased without a prescription. This paper identifies the social drivers of antibiotics use among home-based patients who have tested positive with SARS-CoV-2 or have COVID-19-like symptoms. Using qualitative telephone interviews, the research was conducted in two Bangladesh cities with 40 participants who reported that they had tested positive for coronavirus (n = 20) or had COVID-19-like symptoms (n = 20). Our analysis identified five themes in antibiotic use narratives: antibiotics as 'big' medicine; managing anxiety; dealing with social repercussions of COVID-19 infection; lack of access to COVID-19 testing and healthcare services; and informal sources of treatment advice. Antibiotics were seen to solve physical and social aspects of COVID-19 infection, with urgent ramifications for AMR in Bangladesh and more general implications for global efforts to mitigate AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Adult , Bangladesh , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Social Factors
7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(2): 409-414, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are racial differences in COVID-19 vaccination rates, but social factors, such as lack of health insurance or food insecurity, may explain some of the racial disparities. OBJECTIVE: To assess social factors, including insurance coverage, that may affect COVID-19 vaccination as of June-July 2021 and vaccine hesitancy among those not yet vaccinated, and how these may affect racial equity in vaccinations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data. PARTICIPANTS: Adults 18 to 64 participating in the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey for June 23 to July 5, 2021. MAIN MEASURES: Vaccination: receipt of at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine hesitancy: among those not yet vaccinated, intent to definitely or probably not get vaccinated. KEY RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, black adults were less likely to be vaccinated than other respondents, but, after social factors were included, including health insurance status, food sufficiency, income and education, and state-level political preferences, differences between black and white adults were no longer significant and Hispanics were more likely to be vaccinated (OR = 1.87, p < .001). Among those not yet vaccinated, black and Hispanic adults were vaccine hesitant than white adults (ORs = .37 and .45, respectively, both p < .001) and insurance status and food insufficiency were not significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. The percent of state voters for former President Trump in 2020 was significantly associated with lower vaccination rates and with increased vaccine hesitancy. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that much of the gap in COVID vaccination rates for minority adults are due to social barriers, rather than differences in racial attitudes. Unvaccinated minority adults expressed less vaccine hesitancy than white adults. Social barriers like food insecurity and insurance coverage could have deterred prompt COVID-19 vaccinations. Reducing these problems might help increase vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Insurance Coverage , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Factors , Vaccination
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2121, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed inequities in our society, demonstrated by disproportionate COVID-19 infection rate and mortality in communities of color and low-income communities. One key area of inequity that has yet to be explored is disparities based on preferred language. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 164,368 adults tested for COVID-19 in a large healthcare system across Washington, Oregon, and California from March - July 2020. Using electronic health records, we constructed multi-level models that estimated the odds of testing positive for COVID-19 by preferred language, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and social factors. We further investigated interaction between preferred language and both race/ethnicity and state. Analysis was performed from October-December 2020. RESULTS: Those whose preferred language was not English had higher odds of having a COVID-19 positive test (OR 3.07, p < 0.001); this association remained significant after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and social factors. We found significant interaction between language and race/ethnicity and language and state, but the odds of COVID-19 test positivity remained greater for those whose preferred language was not English compared to those whose preferred language was English within each race/ethnicity and state. CONCLUSIONS: People whose preferred language is not English are at greater risk of testing positive for COVID-19 regardless of age, race/ethnicity, geography, or social factors - demonstrating a significant inequity. Research demonstrates that our public health and healthcare systems are centered on English speakers, creating structural and systemic barriers to health. Addressing these barriers are long overdue and urgent for COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Language , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Factors , United States/epidemiology
9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2577-2584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionally affected communities of color. We aimed to determine what factors are associated with COVID-19 testing and test positivity in an underrepresented, understudied, and underreported (U3) population of mothers. METHODS: This study included 2996 middle-aged mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort (a sample of predominantly urban, low-income, Black and Hispanic mothers) who were enrolled shortly after they gave birth and followed onward at the Boston Medical Center. COVID-19 testing and test positivity were defined by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Two-probit Heckman selection models were performed to identify factors associated with test positivity while accounting for potential selection associated with COVID testing. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study mothers was 41.9 (±7.7) years. In the sample, 1741 (58.1%) and 667 (22.3%) mothers were self-identified as Black and Hispanic, respectively. A total of 396 mothers had COVID-19 testing and of those, 95 mothers tested positive from March 2020 to February 2021. Among a multitude of factors examined, factors associated with the probability of being tested were obesity (RR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.49); and presence of preexisting chronic medical conditions including hypertension, asthma, stroke, and other comorbidities (coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease) with a corresponding RR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.23-1.60); 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.50); 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23-1.68); and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.67), respectively. Factors associated with higher incident risk of a positive COVID-19 test were body mass index, birthplace outside of the USA, and being without a college-level education. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the intersectionality of obesity and social factors in modulating incident risk of COVID-19 in this sample of US Black and Hispanic middle-aged mothers. Methodologically, our findings underscore the importance of accounting for potential selection bias in COVID-19 testing in order to obtain unbiased estimates of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Social Factors , Adult , African Americans , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Mothers , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty , Risk Factors
10.
Epilepsy Behav ; 125: 108376, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social factors are believed to affect mental health in patients with epilepsy (PWE). However, there is still a lack of sufficient manifest proof, given the difficulty of exposing PWE to relatively consistent natural social environments with a low or high level of social interaction to study their significant role. METHODS: This single-center, longitudinal study was conducted via online questionnaires during the coronavirus disease 2019. PWE were recruited from downtown Wuhan and surrounding areas. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 were used to assess psychological status. RESULTS: We analyzed 588 questionnaires completed by 294 PWE who participated in the dual survey. Under lockdown and reopening, the prevalence of anxiety was 13.6%/22.5%, and the prevalence of depression was 19.4%/34.0%. Raising children and seizure-related characteristics, including uncontrolled seizures, seizure exacerbation, seizure frequency ≥ 2/m, and changes in drug regimen, were risk factors in the first and second surveys. A high education level (OR = 1.946, 95% CI = 1.191-3.182), low life satisfaction (OR = 1.940, 95% CI = 1.007-3.737), worry about unanticipated seizures (OR = 2.147, 95% CI = 1.049-4.309), and worry about purchasing medication outside (OR = 2.063, 95% CI = 1.060-4.016) were risk factors for higher scores after reopening. Worry about unanticipated seizures (OR = 3.012, 95% CI = 1.302-6.965) and in-person medical consultation (OR = 2.319, 95% CI = 1.262-4.261) were related to newly diagnosed patients with psychological disorder after reopening. CONCLUSIONS: We identified an association between social variables and epileptic psychiatric comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Behav Med ; 48(2): 120-132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506723

ABSTRACT

Given that New York State's (NYS) was the first epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (US), we were interested in potential racial/ethnic differences in pregnancy-related experiences among women pregnant during versus prior to the pandemic. We surveyed 1,525 women (18-44 years) proportionate to geographic and sociodemographic distribution between June 9, 20 and July 21, 20. We carried out bivariate analysis of various social and pregnancy-related factors by racial/ethnic identity (White, Black, Hispanic) and binary logistic and linear regression assessing the association between race/ethnicity, pregnancy prior to/during the pandemic, demographic characteristics, health and social wellbeing, and employment as an essential worker with pregnancy-related healthcare delays and changes. Overall, Black and Hispanic women were significantly more likely to experience a host of negative prenatal and postpartum experiences. In general, multivariate analyses revealed that individuals who were pregnant during the pandemic, lived in NYC, participated in social welfare programs, lacked health insurance, and/or were essential workers were more likely to report delays in prenatal and postpartum care and/or more changes/negative experiences. In light of previous evidence of racial disparities in birth experiences, the higher rates of negative pregnancy/birth-care and postpartum/newborn-care experiences among Black and Hispanic women in bivariate analysis warrant further inspection given that their aggregation for multivariate analysis may have obscured differences at the level of individual events. Findings support continued efforts for universal health insurance and improved social welfare programs. Guidelines are needed to protect essential workers' access to health services, particularly related to pregnancy given the time-sensitive nature of this care.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2021.1997893 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , New York , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Social Factors , United States
12.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(2): 310-317, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Arabs in Israel have been found to experience higher levels of mental distress compared to Jews due to COVID-19. However, the social mechanisms underlying mental health vulnerability in the context of mass crisis have been understudied. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the aim of the current study was to examine experiences of resource loss, social exclusion, ethnic discrimination, and social support and their association with depression and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak among Arabs in Israel. METHOD: The sample included 665 adult Arabs in Israel who completed an online self-report questionnaire regarding background variables, resource loss due to COVID-19, social exclusion, ethnic discrimination, social support, and depression and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Participants reported on average mild depression and anxiety severity scores, and 15.2% met criteria for major depressive disorder. Many (43.1%) reported experiencing more than 1 loss due to COVID-19 in health, finances or occupation, and interpersonal relationships. Path analyses show that cumulative losses due to COVID-19 and social exclusion were directly associated with depression and anxiety symptom levels. Discrimination moderated the association between losses and both depression and anxiety symptom levels. CONCLUSION: Mental health is embedded in dynamic sociopolitical contexts. Arabs as a national minority in Israel have a perceived sense of social exclusion and discrimination and social and material resource deprivation, which relates to their vulnerability, especially in the face of crisis. It is our obligation as researchers and practitioners to illuminate the centrality of these oppressive mechanisms in shaping mental health vulnerability. Clinical Impact Statement: The present study suggests that social exclusion and cumulative resource losses due to COVID-19 in areas of health, occupation, finances, and social connections predict depression and anxiety among Arabs in Israel. In addition, ethnic discrimination moderates the relationship between cumulative losses and mental health outcomes. These results highlight the importance of developing and implementing context-informed health and social care policies and practices, especially in this time of crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Arabs , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Jews , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Factors
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722621, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441158

ABSTRACT

Background: To control the transmission of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, the Government of India (GoI) had taken stringent precautionary measures during the lockdown period. This study aimed to explore determinants affecting adherence to protective measures against COVID-19 infection among rural and semi-urban settings of Maharashtra, India. Methods: A cross-sectional telephonic survey among 1,016 adults from randomly selected households was conducted between June 5 and July 16, 2020. The data were explored for knowledge, awareness, practices related to protective measures, and self-risk perception. Socio-demographic and attitudinal correlates of failure to use protective measures against COVID-19 were measured. Results: In the survey, 72% of the participants were men. The mean age was 46 years (SD: 13.8). The main source of information was television (91%); however, information from healthcare providers (65%) and mass media announcements (49%) was trustworthy. Washing hands immediately with soap after returning from outdoors was reported by 95% of the respondents, always using a mask while outdoors by 94%, never attended social gatherings by 91%, always using hand sanitizer while outside by 77%, and 68% of the respondents followed all protective measures. The knowledge score [mean score 20.3 (SD: 2.4) out of 24] was independently associated with the risk of not using protective measures, with each unit increase in knowledge score, the risk of not using protective measures reduced by 16%. No source of income was independently associated with not using protective measures [AOR 1.5 95% CI (1.01-2.3)]. Conclusions: The COVID-19 public health interventions and behavior change communication strategies should be specifically directed towards the low socio-economic populations through trusted sources. The association between knowledge and practices demonstrates the importance of accurate public health communication to optimally follow preventive measures, such as structural interventions to address poverty and employment policies to address the unemployment crisis are required. Surveillance activity is needed to understand the actual behavior change among the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Factors , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 67, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387235

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. Although increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social outcomes, as well as their most important risk factors have been described, hardly anything is known about potential protective factors. Resilience refers to the maintenance of mental health despite adversity. To gain mechanistic insights about the relationship between described psycho-social resilience factors and resilience specifically in the current crisis, we assessed resilience factors, exposure to Corona crisis-specific and general stressors, as well as internalizing symptoms in a cross-sectional online survey conducted in 24 languages during the most intense phase of the lockdown in Europe (22 March to 19 April) in a convenience sample of N = 15,970 adults. Resilience, as an outcome, was conceptualized as good mental health despite stressor exposure and measured as the inverse residual between actual and predicted symptom total score. Preregistered hypotheses (osf.io/r6btn) were tested with multiple regression models and mediation analyses. Results confirmed our primary hypothesis that positive appraisal style (PAS) is positively associated with resilience (p < 0.0001). The resilience factor PAS also partly mediated the positive association between perceived social support and resilience, and its association with resilience was in turn partly mediated by the ability to easily recover from stress (both p < 0.0001). In comparison with other resilience factors, good stress response recovery and positive appraisal specifically of the consequences of the Corona crisis were the strongest factors. Preregistered exploratory subgroup analyses (osf.io/thka9) showed that all tested resilience factors generalize across major socio-demographic categories. This research identifies modifiable protective factors that can be targeted by public mental health efforts in this and in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Resilience, Psychological , Social Factors , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Protective Factors , Regression Analysis , Social Support , Young Adult
15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2577-2584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionally affected communities of color. We aimed to determine what factors are associated with COVID-19 testing and test positivity in an underrepresented, understudied, and underreported (U3) population of mothers. METHODS: This study included 2996 middle-aged mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort (a sample of predominantly urban, low-income, Black and Hispanic mothers) who were enrolled shortly after they gave birth and followed onward at the Boston Medical Center. COVID-19 testing and test positivity were defined by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Two-probit Heckman selection models were performed to identify factors associated with test positivity while accounting for potential selection associated with COVID testing. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study mothers was 41.9 (±7.7) years. In the sample, 1741 (58.1%) and 667 (22.3%) mothers were self-identified as Black and Hispanic, respectively. A total of 396 mothers had COVID-19 testing and of those, 95 mothers tested positive from March 2020 to February 2021. Among a multitude of factors examined, factors associated with the probability of being tested were obesity (RR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.49); and presence of preexisting chronic medical conditions including hypertension, asthma, stroke, and other comorbidities (coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease) with a corresponding RR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.23-1.60); 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.50); 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23-1.68); and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.67), respectively. Factors associated with higher incident risk of a positive COVID-19 test were body mass index, birthplace outside of the USA, and being without a college-level education. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the intersectionality of obesity and social factors in modulating incident risk of COVID-19 in this sample of US Black and Hispanic middle-aged mothers. Methodologically, our findings underscore the importance of accounting for potential selection bias in COVID-19 testing in order to obtain unbiased estimates of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Social Factors , Adult , African Americans , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Mothers , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty , Risk Factors
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(2): 238-239, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334624
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(2): 237-238, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334623
20.
Lancet ; 397(10291): 2244-2245, 2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263397
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