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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(2): 380-382, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625285
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143781, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625088

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myopia progression has been found to be worsening during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to control the rapid myopia progression in this period. Objective: To analyze the association of COVID-19-related lockdown measures with myopia progression in schoolchildren and to compare the performance of defocus incorporated multiple segments (DIMS) lens with that of single vision lens (SVL) treatment in reducing myopia progression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study involved an exploratory, prespecified, comparison of 2 independent longitudinal studies performed at the same institute beginning in 2019. Data from Hong Kong schoolchildren (aged 7-13 years) were gathered and analyzed. Data analysis was performed from June to July 2021. Exposure: Schoolchildren in study 1 wore a DIMS lens for 18 months, and those in study 2 wore a SVL for 24 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction and axial length were measured. Studies 1 and 2 started before the start of lockdown measures and continued throughout the lockdown. In both studies, periods of fewer and more COVID-19-related lockdown measures were identified. Because COVID-19 lockdown caused deviations from the visit schedule, myopia progression was normalized to 12-month change, which were compared between DIMS and SVL groups, also during the periods with less and more lockdown time. Results: There were 115 participants (58 girls [50.4%]; mean [SD] age, 10.3 [1.5] years) in the DIMS group; their mean (SD) baseline refraction was -4.02 (1.46) D. There were 56 participants (29 girls [51.8%]; mean [SD] age, 10.8 [1.5] years) in the SVL group; their mean (SD) baseline refraction was -2.99 (1.06) D. After controlling for the covariates, DIMS treatment was significantly associated with 34% less axial elongation (0.19 mm [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.22 mm] vs 0.30 mm [95% CI, 0.25 to 0.35 mm]; P < .001) and 46% less myopic progression after 12 months (-0.31 D [95% CI, -0.39 to -0.23 D] vs -0.57 D [95% CI, -0.69 to -0.45 D]; P = .001) compared with SVL treatment. In both the DIMS and SVL groups, more lockdown time was associated with significantly more spherical equivalent refraction (-0.54 D [95% CI, -0.64 to 0.44 D] vs -0.34 D [95% CI, -0.44 to -0.25 D]; P = .01) and axial length (0.29 mm [95% CI, 0.25 to 0.32 mm] vs 0.20 mm [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.24 mm]; P = .001) compared with less lockdown time. No significant interaction between treatment type and lockdown time was observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis, myopia progressed more rapidly in schoolchildren during the period when there were more COVID-19-related lockdown measures. However, optical treatment with DIMS was significantly associated with slower myopia progression compared with SVL treatment during the lockdown period.


Subject(s)
Eyeglasses , Myopia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/physiopathology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Refraction, Ocular , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622363

ABSTRACT

AIM/GOAL/PURPOSE: Population surveys underrepresent people with severe mental ill health. This paper aims to use multiple regression analyses to explore perceived social support, loneliness and factor associations from self-report survey data collected during the Covid-19 pandemic in a sample of individuals with severe mental ill health. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: We sampled an already existing cohort of people with severe mental ill health. Researchers contacted participants by phone or by post to invite them to take part in a survey about how the pandemic restrictions had impacted health, Covid-19 experiences, perceived social support, employment and loneliness. Loneliness was measured by the three item UCLA loneliness scale. FINDINGS: In the pandemic sub-cohort, 367 adults with a severe mental ill health diagnosis completed a remote survey. 29-34% of participants reported being lonely. Loneliness was associated with being younger in age (adjusted OR = -.98, p = .02), living alone (adjusted OR = 2.04, p = .01), high levels of social and economic deprivation (adjusted OR = 2.49, p = .04), and lower perceived social support (B = -5.86, p < .001). Living alone was associated with lower perceived social support. Being lonely was associated with a self-reported deterioration in mental health during the pandemic (adjusted OR = 3.46, 95%CI 2.03-5.91). PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Intervention strategies to tackle loneliness in the severe mental ill health population are needed. Further research is needed to follow-up the severe mental ill health population after pandemic restrictions are lifted to understand perceived social support and loneliness trends. ORIGINALITY: Loneliness was a substantial problem for the severe mental ill health population before the Covid-19 pandemic but there is limited evidence to understand perceived social support and loneliness trends during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/virology , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Young Adult
6.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home isolation during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown strongly impacted everyday life, affecting, in particular, eating habits and everyday activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on behaviors and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) in children from Southern Poland. METHODS: The study included 206 participants (104 females and 102 males) with a complete analysis of 177 participants (96 females and 81 males) with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.6 years admitted to three pediatric endocrinology clinics (Rzeszów, Kraków, and Katowice) due to simple obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus, somatotropin pituitary deficiency on growth hormone replacement therapy, and other endocrine and metabolic disorders between June and September 2020. The study used a self-prepared questionnaire regarding eating habits, physical activity, screen time, and sleep before and during the lockdown. Anthropometric measurements were performed under clinical settings twice (before the pandemic in January-March 2020, and in June-September 2020). RESULTS: During the lockdown, BMI z-scores increased over the whole group, especially in obese children (0.073 ± 0.18, p = 0.002). The number of children who declared low and high physical activity of more than 60 min per day declined from 41.2% and 18.6% to 31.1% and 6.2% (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001), respectively; sleep times over 8 h increased (46.9% vs. 60.4% p = 0.007); screen times over 5 h daily increased (14.7% to 46.9%, p < 0.001). Eating habits did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily physical activity and sleep levels were affected by the pandemic leading to the increase of BMI, especially in obese patients with endocrine disorders. During the COVID-19 pandemic, forward-thinking strategies must be developed to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 27: e27011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1609147

ABSTRACT

The situation created by the novel coronavirus disease has affected education worldwide, resulting in the urgent need for programs that promote physical activity at home and responsible use of internet-connected devices. This work provides a didactic proposal to perform Expressive Movement & Creative Dance (EMCD) at home adaptable to distinct educational levels and useful as a valuable online or face-to-face education experience even when the coronavirus crisis ends. The proposal is based on the Laban Movement Analysis, the Theatre of the Oppressed, and Lipdub. It seeks to develop students' own artistic body language, emotional intelligence, healthy physical activity and social awareness. Furthermore, it intends to promote the creation of a new social movement (#VIDLOP) using art and popular media as empowering and democratic channels for building a better world. In conclusion, this may be a promising proposal to develop the EMCD and human awareness in challenging scenarios and distinct educational settings.


A situação causada pela nova doença do coronavírus afetou a educação em todo o mundo, sendo urgente a aplicação de programas que promovam a atividade física em casa e o uso responsável de dispositivos conectados à internet. O presente trabalho apresenta uma proposta didática de Expressão Corporal (EC) para a sua prática desde casa, adaptável a diferentes níveis educacionais, e útil também como uma valiosa experiência educacional on-line ou presencial mesmo quando a crise do coronavírus acabe. Esta proposta baseia-se na Análise Laban de Movimento, no Teatro do Oprimido e no Lipdub. Procura desenvolver a linguagem corporal artística própria, a inteligência emocional, comportamentos saudáveis de atividade física e a consciência social dos alunos; e promover a criação de um novo movimento social (#VIDLOP), usando a arte e a mídia popular como canais democráticos e de poder para construir um mundo melhor. Em conclusão, esta pode ser uma proposta promissora para o desenvolvimento da EC e da consciência humana em cenários desafiadores e em diferentes ambientes educacionais.


La situación provocada por la nueva enfermedad del coronavirus ha afectado a la educación en todo el mundo, por lo que es urgente la aplicación de programas que promuevan la actividad física en el hogar y el uso responsable de dispositivos conectados a internet. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta didáctica de Expresión Corporal (EC) para practicar desde casa, adaptable a diferentes niveles educativos, y útil también como una valiosa experiencia educativa online o presencial, incluso cuando la crisis del coronavirus acabe. Esta propuesta se basa en el Análisis del Movimiento de Laban, en el Teatro del Oprimido y en el Lipdub. Busca desarrollar el lenguaje corporal artístico propio, la inteligencia emocional, comportamientos saludables de actividad física y la conciencia social de los alumnos, además de promover la creación de un nuevo movimiento social (#VIDLOP), utilizando arte y medios de comunicación populares como canales democráticos y de poder para construir un mundo mejor. En conclusión, esta puede ser una propuesta prometedora para el desarrollo de la EC y la conciencia humana en escenarios desafiantes y en diferentes entornos educativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Health , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Motor Activity , Physical Education and Training , Internet , Kinesics
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053894, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation and loneliness (SIL) affected at least one-third of the older people. The pandemic has prompted governments around the world to implement some extreme measures such as banning public gatherings, imposing social distancing, mobility restrictions and quarantine to control the spread and impact of the novel coronavirus. Though these unprecedented measures may be crucial from a public health perspective, they also have the potential to further exacerbate the problems of SIL among residents in long-term care homes (LTCHs). However, some LTCHs have developed promising best practices (PBPs) to respond to the current situation and prepare for future pandemics. Key aspects of such practices revolve around maintaining and strengthening social connections between residents and their families which helps to reduce SIL. This scoping review looks at existing PBPs that have been implemented to reduce SIL among LTCH residents during the most recent pandemics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow Arksey and O'Malley's framework of scoping review, further developed by Levac et al. In addition, we will also apply the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' 'Methodology for Scoping Reviews'. Ten electronic databases and grey literature will be searched for articles published from January 2003 to March 2021 in either English or French. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts and then full texts for final inclusion. Data will be extracted using a standardised form from 'Evidence for Policy and Practice Information'. The results will be presented in a tabular form and will be summarised and interpreted using a narrative synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data are collected. Findings will be used to develop a solid knowledge corpus to address the challenges of SIL in LTCHs. Our findings will help to identify cutting edge practices, including technological interventions that could support health services in addressing SIL in the context of LTCHs and our ageing society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
9.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illnesses in the U.S. and are estimated to consume one-third of the country's mental health treatment cost. Although anxiolytic therapies are available, many patients still exhibit treatment resistance, relapse, or substantial side effects. Further, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home order, social isolation, fear of the pandemic, and unprecedented times, the incidence of anxiety has dramatically increased. Previously, we have demonstrated dihydromyricetin (DHM), the major bioactive flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, exhibits anxiolytic properties in a mouse model of social isolation-induced anxiety. Because GABAergic transmission modulates the immune system in addition to the inhibitory signal transmission, we investigated the effects of short-term social isolation on the neuroimmune system. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were housed under absolute social isolation for 4 weeks. The anxiety-like behaviors after DHM treatment were examined using elevated plus-maze and open field behavioral tests. Gephyrin protein expression, microglial profile changes, NF-κB pathway activation, cytokine level, and serum corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Socially isolated mice showed increased anxiety levels, reduced exploratory behaviors, and reduced gephyrin levels. Also, a dynamic alteration in hippocampal microglia were detected illustrated as a decline in microglia number and overactivation as determined by significant morphological changes including decreases in lacunarity, perimeter, and cell size and increase in cell density. Moreover, social isolation induced an increase in serum corticosterone level and activation in NF-κB pathway. Notably, DHM treatment counteracted these changes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that social isolation contributes to neuroinflammation, while DHM has the ability to improve neuroinflammation induced by anxiety.


Subject(s)
Flavonols/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Social Isolation/psychology , Animals , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , Flavonols/therapeutic use , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593858

ABSTRACT

The aim was to examine the association between oral health-related quality of life and loneliness and perceived as well as objective social isolation. Data were used from a nationally representative survey with n = 3075 (late Summer 2021). The established Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-G5) was used to quantify oral health-related quality of life. Moreover, established tools were used to quantify the outcome measures (De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale, Bude/Lantermann scale and Lubben Social Network Scale). It was adjusted for several covariates in regression analysis. Linear regressions showed that low oral health-related quality of life is associated with higher loneliness (B = 0.03, p < 0.001), higher perceived social isolation (B = 0.06, p < 0.001) and higher objective social isolation (B = 0.07, p < 0.05). Further regressions were performed (e.g., stratified by denture usage). Our study stressed the importance of low oral health-related quality of life for loneliness and social isolation (both perceived and objective). This knowledge is important to address individuals at risk. Future studies should clarify the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Quality of Life , Humans , Linear Models , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol ; 26: 464-478, 2021 Dec.
Article in English, Ukrainian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to assess the level of anxiety and characterize the quality of sleep in children living in radioactively con-taminated areas in comparison with children who were not affected by the Chornobyl-affected contingents that werequarantined in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The indicators of the level of anxiety were studied using the scale of self-assessment of thelevel of anxiety Ch.D. Spielberger, sleep quality was assessed using a standardized questionnaire for self-completionof PSQI and 137Cs content was measured in children. The main group consisted of 96 children who were quarantineddue to the COVID-19 pandemic and permanently lived in radioactively contaminated areas of Zhytomyr and Rivneregions with a soil contamination density of 137Cs from 18 kBq/m2 to 235 kBq/m2. The age of children ranged from10 to 17 years. Among them were 33 boys and 63 girls. The comparison group consisted of 52 children of similar age,including 26 boys and 26 girls. These children lived permanently in Kyiv and were not victims of the Chornobyl dis-aster. RESULTS: It was found that children who were quarantined for COVID-19 (both residents of radioactively contami-nated areas and children who do not belong to the contingents affected by the Chornobyl disaster) had an increasedlevel of reactive (RA) and personal anxiety (PA). The comparative analysis showed that children of the same sex ofthe main group and the comparison group did not differ in terms of PA and RA. At the same time, studies have shownthat girls, both in the main group and in the comparison group, were characterized by higher levels of PA and RAthan boys. It was determined that poor sleep quality was common in both children living in radioactively contami-nated areas (42.71 %) and children in the comparison group (42.44 %). Among the sleep disorders in children ofboth observation groups, «day dysfunction¼ was most often detected. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct correlation between the overall PSQI score and the level of reactive, personal anx-iety and the overall PSQI score. Using regression analysis, the presence of a linear association of the level of incorporated 137Cs (Bq) with the indicator of personal anxiety of children living in radioactively contaminated territory (b = -0.716, p < 0.001) was proved.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Radiation Exposure , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Chernobyl Nuclear Accident , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ukraine
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e28022, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loneliness and social isolation can have severe effects on human health and well-being. Partial solutions to combat these circumstances in demographically aging societies have been sought from the field of information and communication technology (ICT). OBJECTIVE: This systematic literature review investigates the research conducted on older adults' loneliness and social isolation, and physical ICTs, namely robots, wearables, and smart homes, in the era of ambient assisted living (AAL). The aim is to gain insight into how technology can help overcome loneliness and social isolation other than by fostering social communication with people and what the main open-ended challenges according to the reviewed studies are. METHODS: The data were collected from 7 bibliographic databases. A preliminary search resulted in 1271 entries that were screened based on predefined inclusion criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies were coded, and the results were summarized to answer our research questions. RESULTS: The final data set consisted of 23 empirical studies. We found out that ICT solutions such as smart homes can help detect and predict loneliness and social isolation, and technologies such as robotic pets and some other social robots can help alleviate loneliness to some extent. The main open-ended challenges across studies relate to the need for more robust study samples and study designs. Further, the reviewed studies report technology- and topic-specific open-ended challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Technology can help assess older adults' loneliness and social isolation, and alleviate loneliness without direct interaction with other people. The results are highly relevant in the COVID-19 era, where various social restrictions have been introduced all over the world, and the amount of research literature in this regard has increased recently.


Subject(s)
Ambient Intelligence , COVID-19 , Aged , Communication , Humans , Loneliness , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 702965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581135

ABSTRACT

Background: The past year has severely curtailed social interactions among older adults given their high rates of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. This study examined social, behavioral, and medical correlates of social isolation among community-dwelling older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and stratified findings to explore unique differences in two typically neglected populations, African American and Hispanic older adults. Methods: Working with community-based organizations and senior living centers, the research team administered a survey to older adults 55 years of age and older (n = 575). The survey assessed COVID-19 prevention behaviors, medical conditions, and lived experiences, including feelings of social isolation, in the target population. Responses to a previously validated social isolation question informed a dichotomous social isolation dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics, medical conditions, unmet caregiving needs, and COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Results from the regression model were stratified by race/ethnicity to examine correlates of social isolation in African American and Hispanic older adults, separately. Results: Overall, female sex and a higher level of education were also positively associated with social isolation (OR = 2.46, p = 0.04; OR = 5.49, p = 0.02) while having insurance exhibited an inverse relationship (OR = 0.25, p = 0.03). Unmet caregiving needs were strongly associated with social isolation (OR = 6.41, p < 0.001) as was having any chronic conditions (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02). Diabetes was the single strongest chronic condition predictor of social isolation. Among minority older adults, a different pattern emerged. For Hispanic older adults, language, unmet caregiving needs, and social distancing were strongly associated with social isolation; while unmet caregiving needs, having 1+ chronic conditions and adhering to social distancing guidelines were significant predictors in African American older adults. Conclusion: These findings suggest that social isolation affects older adults in a myriad of ways and support the need for culturally sensitive initiatives to mitigate the effect of social isolation in these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581131

ABSTRACT

Lack of social engagement and the resulting social isolation can have negative impacts on health and well-being, especially in senior care communities and for those living with dementia. Project VITAL leverages technology and community resources to create a network for connection, engagement, education, and support of individuals with dementia and their caregivers, and explores the impact of these interventions in reducing feelings of social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through two phases, 600 personalized Wi-Fi-enabled iN2L tablets were distributed to 300 senior care communities (55% assisted living communities, 37% skilled nursing communities, 6% memory care communities, and 2% adult family-care homes) to connect and engage residents and their families. Different phases also included Project ECHO, a video-based learning platform, Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support for family caregivers, evidence-based online professional dementia care staff training and certification, and Virtual Forums designed to explore ways to build sustainable, scalable models to ensure access to support and decrease social isolation in the future. Tablet usage was collected over an 11-month period and an interim survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of the tablets, in preventing social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 105 care community staff (whose community used the tablets) completed the survey and overall, these staff showed a high level of agreement to statements indicating that residents struggled with loneliness and mood, and that the tablet was useful in improving loneliness and mood in residents and allowing them to stay in touch with family and friends. Additional positive results were seen through a variety of other responses around the tablets and Project ECHO. Overall, the tablets were shown to be an effective way to engage residents and connect them with friends and family, as well as being a useful tool for staff members. A third phase is currently underway in the homes of people with dementia and their family caregivers, which includes tablets and direct access to Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support programs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Adult , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Florida , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
15.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown has had a significant impact on mental health. Patients with eating disorders (ED) have been particularly vulnerable. AIMS: (1) To explore changes in eating-related symptoms and general psychopathology during lockdown in patients with an ED from various European and Asian countries; and (2) to assess differences related to diagnostic ED subtypes, age, and geography. METHODS: The sample comprised 829 participants, diagnosed with an ED according to DSM-5 criteria from specialized ED units in Europe and Asia. Participants were assessed using the COVID-19 Isolation Scale (CIES). RESULTS: Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) experienced the highest impact on weight and ED symptoms in comparison with other ED subtypes during lockdown, whereas individuals with other specified feeding and eating disorders (OFSED) had greater deterioration in general psychological functioning than subjects with other ED subtypes. Finally, Asian and younger individuals appeared to be more resilient. CONCLUSIONS: The psychopathological changes in ED patients during the COVID-19 lockdown varied by cultural context and individual variation in age and ED diagnosis. Clinical services may need to target preventive measures and adapt therapeutic approaches for the most vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Asia , Child , Europe , Female , Humans , Internationality , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575332

ABSTRACT

AIM: In spring 2020, the first Covid-19-related lockdown included the closing of kindergartens and schools. Home schooling, the lack of social contacts with peers and the care of the children at home posed an enormous challenge for many families. METHODS: The present study investigated the leisure behavior of 285 one- to 10-year-old German children at two time points (t1 and t2) during the Covid-19-related lockdown in spring 2020. In the subsample of primary school children (n = 102), we also explored children's attitudes towards schoolwork at home. Analyses focused on the change of behavior from t1 to t2, on differences in these changes depending on socio-economic status (SES), and on associations of behavior with SES, the number of children at home, and the frequency of receiving learning materials from school. RESULTS: While the frequency of playing outside increased significantly from t1 to t2, the frequency of handicrafts, playing board games, indoor sports, and motivation to do schoolwork decreased. The observed changes between t1 and t2 did not differ depending on SES. However, a lower SES was associated with higher media use, less outdoor activity, and (though only marginally significant) a reduced time doing schoolwork and a reduced ability to concentrate on schoolwork at t1. In households with more children, children played outside more often, but were read to less frequently and (though only marginally significant) watched movies and series less frequently. Children receiving learning materials from school on a regular basis spent significantly more time doing schoolwork at home than children receiving materials only irregularly. CONCLUSIONS: A continuing loss of childcare in day-care facilities and schools entails the danger of declining education in the form of (inter)active indoor activities and schoolwork.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Learning , Leisure Activities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Care , Child Day Care Centers , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior/classification , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Schools , Social Class , Social Isolation , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Sports/statistics & numerical data
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 587146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574304

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a fast spreading virus leading to the development of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Severe and critical cases are characterized by damage to the respiratory system, endothelial inflammation, and multiple organ failure triggered by an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, culminating in the high number of deaths all over the world. Sedentarism induces worse, continuous, and progressive consequences to health. On the other hand, physical activity provides benefits to health and improves low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effects of physical activity in physical fitness, immune defense, and its contribution to mitigate the severe inflammatory response mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Physical exercise is an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this sense, studies have shown that acute physical exercise induces the production of myokines that are secreted in tissues and into the bloodstream, supporting its systemic modulatory effect. Therefore, maintaining physical activity influence balance the immune system and increases immune vigilance, and also might promote potent effects against the consequences of infectious diseases and chronic diseases associated with the development of severe forms of COVID-19. Protocols to maintain exercise practice are suggested and have been strongly established, such as home-based exercise (HBE) and outdoor-based exercise (OBE). In this regard, HBE might help to reduce levels of physical inactivity, bed rest, and sitting time, impacting on adherence to physical activity, promoting all the benefits related to exercise, and attracting patients in different stages of treatment for COVID-19. In parallel, OBE must improve health, but also prevent and mitigate COVID-19 severe outcomes in all populations. In conclusion, HBE or OBE models can be a potent strategy to mitigate the progress of infection, and a coadjutant therapy for COVID-19 at all ages and different chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Exercise , Healthy Lifestyle , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sedentary Behavior , Animals , Home Care Services , Humans , Physical Fitness , Social Isolation
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573960

ABSTRACT

In this editorial, we describe the experience of the JCI editors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our goal is to share how we operated during the pandemic, recount how the JCI contributed to the response, highlight some of the major papers we published on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, and impart our insights in the hope that these are helpful to journal editors that may need to deal with similar types of crises in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Publications , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics , Public Health , Quarantine , Social Isolation , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1584-1592, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of people towards COVID-19 and to evaluate compliance with practices such as social isolation, curfews, mask use and hand hygiene. METHODOLOGY: A month after the COVID-19 infection was observed in Turkey, a standard questionnaire link was sent to participants via the online questionnaire platform to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the public. The survey results of 503 people were evaluated. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic 81.2% of the participants stayed at home, 79.1% of the participants wore a mask, 74% of the participants expressed to be following social distancing rules, 54.1% confirmed the use of hand sanitizers and 43.9% confirmed the use of gloves (43.9%), which are considered to be personal protective measures. The knowledge of terms such as 'quarantine' and 'isolation' was 94% and 97.4% respectively and 37.2% of the participants were of the opinion that the COVID-19 virus was produced in a laboratory environment. Within the research group, a rate of 65.6% of the participants found their own knowledge of COVID-19 to be sufficient. The participants found the announcements of official institutions more reliable than the announcements on television programs, the internet and social media. CONCLUSIONS: The public information on COVID-19 was found to be sufficient. In order to prevent the spreading of the pandemic, participants were partially compliant to rules such as staying at home, using masks, maintaining hand hygiene and social isolation. Compared to men, women's use of protective equipment was higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
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