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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205389

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A violência contra à mulher é caracterizada especialmente pela desigualdade de gênero, diferença hierárquica, subordinação e pela agressividade do parceiro ou ex-parceiro. Entre os principais subtipos, cita-se; a violência física, psicológica, sexual, patrimonial e moral. Com o surgimento da pandemia de coronavírus em 2020 na tentativa de contenção da doença, medidas protetivas como o isolamento social aumentaram o convívio familiar. Dessa forma, as vítimas de violência passaram a ficar ainda mais tempo expostas aos seus agressores e consequentemente com maiores dificuldades para denunciar os abusos sofridos, pois a prestação dos serviços públicos, instituições de segurança e judiciais também foram restringidas. Objetivo: Caracterizar os casos de violência contra a mulher em tempos de pandemia de coronavírus em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná. Materiais e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, documental e transversal com abordagem quantitativa realizada em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná a partir da coleta de dados, por meio das fichas de notificação de violência contra a mulher entre 2019 e 2021. Resultados e discussão: O estudo demonstrou prevalência de notificações no ano de 2019 em mulheres com idade de 12 a 18 anos (27,2%), brancas (71,3%), com ensino médio (21,9%), sendo ainda estudantes (23,1%) ou desempregadas (17,2%), sem companheiro (52,4%), residentes da área urbana (74%), heterossexuais (50,6%), sem possuir algum tipo de deficiência (51,8%). Ao verificar a tipologia da agressão com maior incidência, observou-se a lesão autoprovocada (53,6%) por meio da intoxicação /envenenamento (41,4%). Quanto a violência interpessoal, notou-se que a maioria das agressões foram ocasionadas pelo próprio cônjuge da vítima (12,4%), utilizando da força física (29,3%), salienta-se que o álcool não estava presente na maior parte das agressões. Conclusão: Evidencia-se a prevalência de violência autoprovocada (53,6%), em adolescentes com ensino médio, brancas, sem companheiro, residentes da área urbana, agredidas em ambiente domiciliar, motivadas por conflitos geracionais, sendo as violências mais incidentes a física por meio de envenenamento/intoxicação. Diante do exposto é importante abordar o fato de que é necessário realizar capacitações com os profissionais de saúde referente a ficha de notificação e orientá-los da importância de preenchê-la de forma correta, para haja a tomada de providências de acordo com cada necessidade.


Introduction: Introduction: Violence against women is characterized especially by gender inequality, hierarchical difference, subordination and aggressiveness of the partner or ex partner. Among the main subtypes are physical, psychological, sexual, patrimonial and moral violence. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 in an attempt to contain the disease, protective measures such as social isolation increased family coexistence. As a result, the victims of violence have been exposed to their aggressors for even longer and consequently find it more difficult to report the abuse they have suffered, since the provision of public services, security and judicial institutions have also been restricted. Objective: To characterize the cases of violence against women during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the southwest of Paraná. Materals and methods: This is a descriptive, documentary, and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach carried out in a municipality in the Southwest of Paraná from data collection performed through the notification forms of violence against women notified between 2019 and 2021. Results and discussion: The study showed a prevalence of notifications in the year 2019 in women aged 12 to 18 years (27.2%), white (71.3%), with high school education (21.9%), being still students (23.1%) or unemployed (17.2%), without a partner (52.4%), residents of the urban area (74%), more specifically the Padre Ulrico neighborhood (12.4%), heterosexual (50.6%), without having any type of disability (51.8%). When checking the type of aggression with the highest incidence, we observed self-harm (53.6%) through intoxication/ poisoning (41.4%). As for interpersonal violence, it was noted that most aggressions were caused by the victim's own spouse (12.4%), using physical force (29.3%), and alcohol was not present in most aggressions. Conclusion: The prevalence of self- inflicted violence (53.6%) is evident in adolescents with high school education, white, without a partner, urban residents, assaulted in the home environment, motivated by generational conflicts, with the most incident violence being physical violence through poisoning/intoxication. Given the above, it is important to address the fact that it is necessary to conduct training with health professionals regarding the notification form and guide them on the importance of filling it out correctly, so that there is taking action according to each need.


Introducción: La violencia contra las mujeres se caracteriza especialmente por la desigualdad de género, la diferencia jerárquica, la subordinación y la agresividad de la pareja o ex pareja. Entre los principales subtipos, se menciona; la violencia física, psicológica, sexual, patrimonial y moral. Con la aparición de la pandemia de coronavirus en 2020 en un intento de contener la enfermedad, las medidas de protección como el aislamiento social han aumentado la convivencia familiar. Así, las víctimas de la violencia han quedado aún más expuestas a sus agresores y, en consecuencia, tienen mayores dificultades para denunciar los abusos sufridos, ya que también se ha restringido la prestación de servicios públicos, de seguridad y de instituciones judiciales. Objetivo: Caracterizar los casos de violencia contra la mujer en tiempos de pandemia de coronavirus en un municipio del sudoeste de Paraná. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, documental y transversal con enfoque cuantitativo realizado en un municipio del suroeste de Paraná a partir de la recolección de datos a través de las formas de notificación de la violencia contra las mujeres entre 2019 y 2021. Resultados y discusión: El estudio mostró una prevalencia de notificaciones en 2019 en mujeres de 12 a 18 años (27,2%), de raza blanca (71,3%), con estudios secundarios (21,9%), siendo aún estudiantes (23,1%) o desempleadas (17,2%), sin pareja (52,4%), residentes en el área urbana (74%), heterosexuales (50,6%), sin tener algún tipo de discapacidad (51,8%). Al verificar el tipo de agresión con mayor incidencia, se observó la lesión autoinfligida (53,6%) a través de la intoxicación / envenenamiento (41,4%). En cuanto a la violencia interpersonal, se observó que la mayoría de las agresiones fueron causadas por el propio cónyuge de la víctima (12,4%), utilizando la fuerza física (29,3%), se destaca que el alcohol no estuvo presente en la mayoría de las agresiones. Conclusión: Se evidencia la prevalencia de la violencia autoprovocada (53,6%), en adolescentes con educación médica, brancas, sin compañía, residentes del área urbana, agredidos en ambiente domiciliario, motivados por conflictos geracionales, siendo las violencias más incidentes a la física por medio de envenenamiento/intoxicación. Dado lo anterior es importante abordar el hecho de que es necesario realizar una capacitación con los profesionales de la salud respecto a la ficha de notificación y orientarlos sobre la importancia de llenarla correctamente, para que exista la toma de acciones de acuerdo a cada necesidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Health Profile , Violence Against Women , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Poisoning , Social Isolation , Women , Wounds and Injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Health Personnel , Health Personnel/education , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Notification/statistics & numerical data , Aggression/psychology , Professional Training , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27105, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To assess the general Japanese population's thoughts on coronavirus disease of 2019 related discrimination by Tweets.Tweets were retrieved from search queries using the keywords "health care providers and discrimination (no hashtags)" and "corona and rural area (no hashtags)" via the Twitter application programming interface. Subsequently, a text-mining analysis was conducted on tokenized text data. R version 4.0.2 was used for the analysis.In total, 51,906 tweets for "corona and health care providers", 59,560 tweets for "corona and rural" were obtained between the search period of July 29, 2020 and September 30, 2020. The most common 20 words from the tokenized text data were translated to English. Word clouds with the original Japanese words are presented.Tweets for corona and health care providers did not suggest significant evidence of discrimination toward health care providers on Twitter. Results for corona and rural area, however, showed the unexpected word "murahachibu" (an outmoded word meaning ostracism), suggesting persistent strong social pressure to prevent bringing the disease to the community. This kind of pressure may not be supported by scientific facts. These results demonstrate the need for continued educational efforts to disseminate factual information to the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Mining , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26854, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191051

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Prompted by the need to measure the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 on main areas of quality of life related to mental health (MH), the COV-19-impact on quality of life (COV19-QoL) scale has been developed recently. We measured how patients seeking face-to-face MH care perceived the coronavirus disease 2019 impact on QoL and how socio-demographic factors, stress, and personality contributed to QoL in this diagnostically diverse population.Patients aged 18 to 65 years (n = 251) who came for the first time to the outpatient units during the 6-week index-period (May 21-July 1, 2020) were included. The cross-sectional assessment involved sociodemographic variables, working diagnosis, personality traits (7-dimension model, including HEXACO and DELTA), stress (list of threatening experiences and proximity to virus), and COV19-QoL.The perceived impact of the pandemic on QoL was above the theoretical mean of a 5-point scale (COV19-Qol = 3.1 ±â€Š1.2). No association between total COV19-QoL score, sociodemographic parameters, and working diagnoses was found in the present sample. After testing whether positional (threatening experiences), or dispositional (personality) factors were predominant in the perceived impact of COV-19 on QoL, significant predictors of the outcome were personality traits Disintegration (B = 0.52; P < .01) and Emotionality (B = 0.18; P < .05).It seems that pervasiveness and uncertainty of the pandemic threat triggers-especially in those high on Disintegration trait-a chain of mental events with the decrease of QoL as a final result. Present findings could be used to establish a profile of MH help seeking population in relation to this biological disaster, and to further explore QoL and personality in different contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(8): 708-716, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184825

ABSTRACT

The Blitz narrative of resilience stands in contrast to the mental health risks identified as consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although evidence from then-classified studies of World War 2 showed that most people managed the stress of bombing, those vulnerable and exposed to substantial trauma had lasting or severe mental illness. Studies of different towns and occupational groups identified the proportion of people killed and wounded, the percentage of housing destroyed, and the loss of paid employment as risk factors for psychological breakdown. Mothers and children suffered not only with evacuation, but also from the trauma of bombing and damage to schools. A general association between civilian physical and psychological casualties suggests that population groups with high rates of infection and mortality might be susceptible to mental illness as a result of the pandemic. Lockdown and distancing measures contrast with the wartime sense of belonging and shared identity, reinforced by community networks and social activities.


Subject(s)
Bombs , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , World War II , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Child , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Military Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United Kingdom
7.
Prof Case Manag ; 28(1): 20-32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stigmatizing anyone during a pandemic poses a threat to everyone and can be an obstacle to disease treatment. The stigma around COVID-19 stems from the fact that it is a life-threatening disease and a lot is unknown about it. AIM: This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing and clarifying the concept of stigma in the context of COVID-19; determining its psychological and socio-psychological outcomes; enhancing understanding and recognition of features, antecedents, and consequences of the concept; and proposing an adequate definition for use in clinical practice or research. METHODS: Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis was used. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Stigma in the context of COVID-19 has antecedents, which include informational and psychological issues, media performance, and some governments' policies and actions to control COVID-19 pandemic. The attributes of COVID-19 stigma are subjective and variable, perceived, and/or experienced with interrelated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural or institutional dimensions that can be summarized as social stigma and self-stigma. The consequences of COVID-19 stigma are social isolation and psychological burden, physical and mental violence and harassment, hiding disease, and reduced care-seeking behavior. These results will extend the body of knowledge on theory and practice and also assists future researchers in many folds. IMPLICATIONS FOR CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: These findings will be a major tool for the case manager/health care team, policy makers, and other human resource planning professionals to develop plans for preventing, combating, and stopping the COVID-19-related stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , Pandemics , Social Isolation
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277562, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although research shows that the Covid-19 pandemic has led to declines in mental health, the existing research has not identified the pathways through which this decline happens. AIMS: The current study identifies the distinct pathways through which COVID-induced stressors (i.e., social distancing, disease risk, and financial stressors) trigger mental distress and examines the causal impact of these stressors on mental distress. METHODS: We combined evidence of objective pandemic-related stressors collected at the county level (e.g., lack of social contact, infection rates, and unemployment rates) with self-reported survey data from over 11.5 million adult respondents in the United States collected daily for eight months. We used mediation analysis to examine the extent to which the objective stressors influenced mental health by influencing individual respondents' behavior and fears. RESULTS: County-level, day-to-day social distancing predicted significantly greater mental distress, both directly and indirectly through its effects on individual social contacts, worries about getting ill, and concerns about finances. Economic hardships were indirectly linked to increased mental distress by elevating people's concerns about their household's finances. Disease threats were both directly linked to mental distress and indirectly through its effects on individual worries about getting ill. Although one might expect that social distancing from people outside the home would have a greater influence on people who live alone, sub-analyses based on household composition do not support this expectation. CONCLUSION: This research provides evidence consistent with the thesis that the COVID-19 pandemic harmed the mental well-being of adults in the United States and identifies specific stressors associated with the pandemic that are responsible for increasing mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Physical Distancing
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115974

ABSTRACT

Social isolation is likely to be one of the most serious health outcomes for the elderly due to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for seniors living alone at home. In fact, two approaches have been used to assess social isolation. The first is a self-reported survey designed for research purposes. The second approach is the use of monitoring technology. The objective of this paper is to provide some illustrative publications, works and examples of the current status and future prospects in the field of monitoring systems that focused on two main activities of daily living: meal-taking activity (shopping, cooking, eating and washing dishes) and mobility (inside the home and the act of going out). These two activities combined seem relevant to a potential risk of social isolation in the elderly. Although current research focuses on identifying only ADLs, we propose to use them as a first step to extract daily habits and risk level of social isolation. Moreover, since activity recognition is a recent field, we raise specific problems as well as needed contributions and we propose directions and research opportunities to accelerate advances in this field.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Technology
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19088, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106479

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing social restrictions disrupted young people's social interactions and resulted in several periods during which school closures necessitated online learning. We hypothesised that digitally excluded young people would demonstrate greater deterioration in their mental health than their digitally connected peers during this time. We analysed representative mental health data from a sample of UK 10-15-year-olds (N = 1387) who completed a mental health inventory in 2017-2019 and thrice during the pandemic (July 2020, November 2020 and March 2021). We employed longitudinal modelling to describe trajectories of adolescent mental health for participants with and without access to a computer or a good internet connection for schoolwork. Adolescent mental health symptoms rose early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest mean Total Difficulties score around December 2020. The worsening and subsequent recovery of mental health during the pandemic was greatly pronounced among those without access to a computer, although we did not find evidence for a similar effect among those without a good internet connection. We conclude that lack of access to a computer is a tractable risk factor that likely compounds other adversities facing children and young people during periods of social isolation or educational disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Child , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
13.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 178, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although social isolation has been associated with a higher mortality risk, little is known about the potential different impacts of face-to-face and non-face-to-face isolation on mortality. We examined the prospective associations of four types of social isolation, including face-to-face isolation with co-inhabitants and non-co-inhabitants, non-face-to-face isolation, and club/organization isolation, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality separately. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 30,430 adults in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), who were recruited during 2003-2008 and followed up till Dec 2019. RESULTS: During an average of 13.2 years of follow-up, 4933 deaths occurred during 396,466 person-years. Participants who lived alone had higher risks of all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.49) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1.61; 1.20-2.03) mortality than those who had ≥ 3 co-habitant contact after adjustment for thirteen potential confounders. Compared with those who had ≥ 1 time/month non-co-inhabitant contact, those without such contact had higher risks of all-cause (1.60; 1.20-2.00) and CVD (1.91; 1.20-2.62) mortality. The corresponding AHR (95% CI) in participants without telephone/mail contact were 1.27 (1.14-1.42) for all-cause, 1.30 (1.08-1.56) for CVD, and 1.37 (1.12-1.67) for other-cause mortality. However, no association of club/organization contact with the above mortality and no association of all four types of isolation with cancer mortality were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, face-to-face and non-face-to-face isolation were both positively associated with all-cause, CVD-, and other-cause (but not cancer) mortality. Our finding suggests a need to promote non-face-to-face contact among middle-aged and older adults.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Social Isolation
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 280-286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that endanger the health and enforced social distancing for the whole world. Social distancing may generate stress, anxiety, and depression. Understanding the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 during social distancing may help decision-makers to take suitable decisions that help in increasing awareness. Evaluate the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic during the social distancing period and explore the relationship between social media use and psychological stress during COVID-19 outbreak among Najran city population. Research design is descriptive correlational research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A snowball sampling technique, was used to recruit participants live in Najran city during the COVID-19 pandemic (1508 participant). RESULTS: A statistically significant differences (P<0.05) are observed between Saudi and non-Saudi participants in all social aspects assessed except for time spent on social media. In addition, a high mean of depression, stress, and anxiety subscale scores are observed in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants with statistically significant differences (p=0.000). As well as high DASS-21 total scores in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants. Also, there are positive statistically significant correlations (≤0.05) between participants' time spent in social media and their depression, stress, anxiety, and total DASS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that COVID-19 pandemic generates stress, anxiety and depression among Najran population especially, non-Saudi. This poor psychological condition is exaggerated with prolonged social media use. COVID-19 also has negative impact on social wellbeing and use of social media cannot replace direct contact with friends. The current study results may be utilized to formulate interventions that enhance psychosocial health and resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098751

ABSTRACT

Prolonged periods of social isolation are known to have significant negative health consequences and reduce quality of life, an effect that is particularly pronounced in older populations. Despite the known deleterious effects of social isolation, a key component of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been the issuance of stay at home and/or shelter in place orders. Relatively little is known about the potential effects these periods of social isolation could have on older adults, and less still is known about potential risk factors or protective factors that modulate these effects. Here, we describe results from a longitudinal study in which we measured quality of life both prior to and immediately following a one-month period of social isolation associated with the issuance and revocation of a shelter in place order (April 6, 2020 through May 4, 2020) in the state of South Carolina. Healthy adult participants (N = 62) between the ages of 60 and 80 who had already completed quality of life questionnaires prior to isolation again completed the questionnaires following a one-month order to shelter in place. Quality of life significantly decreased during the social isolation period, with older participants showing the greatest declines. Participants with higher levels of physical activity and better physical/mental health going into the isolation period tended to show greater decreases in quality of life over time. These results highlight the negative consequences of even short bouts of social isolation for the elderly and suggest that reductions in social contact related to COVID-19 may have significant effects on mental health and emotional well-being, at least among older individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Depression/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
16.
Prev Med ; 164: 107329, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096171

ABSTRACT

Many studies have found adverse effects of the coronavirus disease pandemic on health. Irrespective of being infected by the coronavirus, lockdowns and other measures to restrict mobility have worsened an individual's subjective health assessment. Unlike previous studies, this study examined how pre-pandemic social isolation (in the form of no interaction with others and having no social support) affected the impact of the pandemic on self-rated health in Japan. To this end, we estimated fixed-effects models using 4172 observations of 2086 individuals obtained from a three-wave Internet nationwide survey conducted in January/February 2019 and February 2020 (before the pandemic), in March 2021 (when the pandemic-related state of emergency was effective in four prefectures and just after it was lifted in six prefectures), and in October/November (a full month after the state of emergency was lifted in all prefectures). The state of emergency raised the probability of reporting poor health by 17.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]:1.9-33.8) percentage points among the participants who had not interacted with others before the pandemic, compared with only 0.7 (95% CI: -3.1-4.5) percentage points among other participants. Similar results were obtained in the absence of social support prior to the pandemic. In conclusion, pre-pandemic social isolation was detrimental to health, suggesting that policy measures are needed to avoid social isolation to increase the resilience of public health to external shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Social Isolation
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090183

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic of the last two years has affected the lives of many individuals, especially the most vulnerable and at-risk population groups, e.g., older adults. While social distancing and isolation are shown to be effective at decreasing the transmission of the virus, these actions have also increased loneliness and social isolation. To combat social distancing from family and friends, older adults have turned to technology for help. In the health sector, these individuals also had a variety of options that strengthened eHealth care services. This study analyzed the technologies used during the COVID-19 pandemic by a group of older people, as well as explored their expectations of use after the pandemic period. Qualitative and ethnographic interviews were conducted with 10 Portuguese older adults, and data were collected over a period of seven months between 2020 and 2021. The research demonstrated that the use of current and new technologies in the post-pandemic future is likely to be related to overcoming: (i) insecurity regarding privacy issues; (ii) difficulties in using technologies due to the level of use of digital technology; and (iii) the human distancing and impersonal consequences of using these technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation , Loneliness , Technology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090069

ABSTRACT

For almost two years, populations around the globe faced precariousness and uncertainty as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Older adults were highly affected by the virus, and the policies meant to protect them have often resulted in ageist stereotypes and discrimination. For example, the public discourse around older adults had a paternalistic tone framing all older adults as "vulnerable". This study aimed to measure the extent to which perceived age discrimination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the sense of loneliness and social isolation, fear and perception of COVID-19 risks, had a negative effect on older adults' mental illness. To do so, a self-report questionnaire was administered to 1301 participants (average age: 77.25 years old, SD = 5.46; 56.10% females, 43.90% males). Descriptive and correlational analyses were performed, along with structural equation modelling. Results showed that perceived age discrimination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic positively predicts loneliness and also indirectly predicts mental illness. In addition, loneliness is the strongest predictor of mental illness together with fear of COVID-19 and social isolation. Such results highlight the importance of implementing public policies and discourses that are non-discriminating, and that favour the inclusion of older people.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Perception
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