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3.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629914

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Women , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Medicine , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Physicians, Women/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , United States
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3385-3392, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740444

ABSTRACT

In the current scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic, Brazilian states and municipalities have adopted social distancing measures as a strategy to reduce the number of cases and control the disease. These measures affect populations and territories differently. This study aims to analyze the trend of social distancing in this pandemic and its relationship with the context of living conditions in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with spatial distribution was conducted. The municipality's Social Distancing Index and the Living Conditions Index were calculated. Global and Local Moran Indices were employed to assess the degree of spatial dependence and autocorrelation. Fluctuations were observed in the social distancing levels during the analyzed period, with higher distancing percentages in neighborhoods with more favorable living conditions. The analysis and interpretation of COVID-19 containment measures, such as social distancing, should consider the profile of local vulnerability of each territory for the correct dimensioning of pandemic mitigation strategies from the perspective of developing social actions enabling greater adherence of the most impoverished populations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Conditions , Social Isolation , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spatial Analysis , Vulnerable Populations
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3393-3400, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740443

ABSTRACT

During the covid-19 pandemic, physical distancing is being promoted to reduce the disease transmission and pressure on health systems. Yet, what determines physical distancing? Through a panel data analysis, this article identifies some of its determinants. Using a specifically built index that measures the strictness of physical distancing rules in the 27 Brazilian states, this paper isolates the effect of mandatory physical distancing rules from other potential determinants of physical distancing. The article concludes that physical distancing is influenced by at least three variables: the strictness of mandatory physical distancing rules, the number of confirmed cases of covid-19, and the duration of rules. Evidence also indicates that the effect of physical distancing measures is relatively stronger than that of the number of cases -physical distancing is determined proportionally more by mandatory policies than people's awareness about the severity of the epidemic. These results have at least two policy implications. First, governments should adopt mandatory measures in order to increase physical distancing - rather than expect people to adopt them on their own. Second, the timing of adopting them is important, since people are unlikely to comply with them for long periods of time.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Government Regulation , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Time Factors
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3511-3516, 2020 Sep.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740434

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated several controversies in the health area, particularly regarding social isolation measures, widely perceived as being one of the most effective strategies to reduce the spread of the virus. The Physical Education (PE) area became involved in these discussions, through contradictory positions of professionals, scientific societies and class entities regarding the reopening of fitness centers during the pandemic. We understand that some of these discussions revealed important weaknesses in relation to the approach to basic health knowledge, such as those related to epidemiology and public health measures. We seek in this essay, without the intention of exhausting the subject or performing an academic prescription, to support our position regarding the urgency of the approach of PE training within the field of Public Health, as well as presenting some proposals for this approach to effectively occur. We advocate training that favors a broader view of health, that enables professionals in the field to understand the potential relationship between PE and health, but at the same time recognize that physical activity is not a panacea and that human health has many others determinants and conditions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Physical Education and Training/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Exercise/physiology , Fitness Centers , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Social Isolation
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3401-3411, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740429

ABSTRACT

Pandemics such as that of COVID-19 affect a relatively large number of people and impose new rules and social habits on the world population. Information about the pandemic is constant in the media. Moreover, social distancing has been adopted in Brazil to prevent the spread of COVID-19, which may have economic and psychosocial consequences. This study aimed to verify the factors associated with indicators of mental disorders symptoms in residents of Rio Grande do Sul during the initial period of the social distancing policy. The study was approved by CONEP. There were 799 participants, aged between 18 and 75 years (M = 36.56; SD = 12.88); 82.7% were women, who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire of social distancing and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The results indicated that having decreased income in the period, being part of the risk group and being more exposed to information about deaths and infected, are factors that can significantly harm mental health in this pandemic period. Investigating social determinants that contribute to greater vulnerability to the mental illness of the population is vital in the field of collective health for the planning of public actions and policies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3493-3502, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740427

ABSTRACT

Prisional health is, in its essence, public health. The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to the world and has shown that preventing the disease escalation in prisons integrates the novel corona virus clash in society in general. Up to this moment, the most effective known measure to curb the disease spread is social isolation. Nevertheless, in penal institutions, often overcrowded, social isolation becomes difficult to carry out and, when it happens, it takes the enclosed population to overisolation, with consequences to their mental health. Besides, prisoners suffer with clogged up environment, lack of materials for personal hygiene, poor basic sanitary conditions and difficulties in accessing health services. This paper deals with a narrative review on the pandemic effects in prisons and how government and civil society have organized themselves in order to reduce the disease consequences at those places. The text has been divided into three sections: the first with literature review on the current health theme; the second discusses how different countries have been dealing with the prison situation in the pandemic context, and, the last part focuses on how the Brazilian Penal System has reacted to the new disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Social Isolation
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(9): 1898-1905, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To model and compare effect of digital contact tracing versus shelter-in-place on severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread. METHODS: Using a classical epidemiologic framework and parameters estimated from literature published between February 1, 2020, and May 25, 2020, we modeled two non-pharmacologic interventions - shelter-in-place and digital contact tracing - to curb spread of SARS-CoV-2. For contact tracing, we assumed an advanced automated contact tracing (AACT) application that sends alerts to individuals advising self-isolation based on individual exposure profile. Model parameters included percentage population ordered to shelter-in-place, adoption rate of AACT, and percentage individuals who appropriately follow recommendations. Under influence of these variables, the number of individuals infected, exposed, and isolated were estimated. RESULTS: Without any intervention, a high rate of infection (>10 million) with early peak is predicted. Shelter-in-place results in rapid decline in infection rate at the expense of impacting a large population segment. The AACT model achieves reduction in infected and exposed individuals similar to shelter-in-place without impacting a large number of individuals. For example, a 50% AACT adoption rate mimics a shelter-in-place order for 40% of the population and results in a greater than 90% decrease in peak number of infections. However, as compared to shelter-in-place, with AACT significantly fewer individuals would be isolated. CONCLUSION: Wide adoption of digital contact tracing can mitigate infection spread similar to universal shelter-in-place, but with considerably fewer individuals isolated.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Software , Automation , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Social Isolation
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4264, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733526

ABSTRACT

The pressing need to restart socioeconomic activities locked-down to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy must be coupled with effective methodologies to selectively relax containment measures. Here we employ a spatially explicit model, properly attentive to the role of inapparent infections, capable of: estimating the expected unfolding of the outbreak under continuous lockdown (baseline trajectory); assessing deviations from the baseline, should lockdown relaxations result in increased disease transmission; calculating the isolation effort required to prevent a resurgence of the outbreak. A 40% increase in effective transmission would yield a rebound of infections. A control effort capable of isolating daily  ~5.5% of the exposed and highly infectious individuals proves necessary to maintain the epidemic curve onto the decreasing baseline trajectory. We finally provide an ex-post assessment based on the epidemiological data that became available after the initial analysis and estimate the actual disease transmission that occurred after weakening the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Forecasting , Geography , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Social Isolation
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039305, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733153

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) randomised controlled trial (RCT) is evaluating a home-based, face-to-face, individually tailored, activity and exercise programme for people living with dementia. Social distancing requirements following the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid changes to intervention delivery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods process evaluation will investigate how the changes were implemented and the impact that these have on participants' experience. An implementation study will investigate how the intervention was delivered during the pandemic. A study on the mechanisms of impact and context will investigate how these changes were experienced by the PrAISED participants, their carers and the therapists delivering the intervention. The study will commence in May 2020. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PrAISED RCT and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059. The PrAISED process evaluation will enable us to understand how distancing and isolation affected participants, their activity and exercise routines and whether the therapy programme could be continued with remote support. This will be valuable both in explaining trial results and also contribute to understanding and designing new ways of delivering home-based services and rehabilitation interventions for people with dementia and their carers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15320670; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Dementia/therapy , Exercise , Health Promotion , Independent Living , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Process Assessment, Health Care , Activities of Daily Living , Betacoronavirus , Caregivers , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exercise Therapy , Female , Home Care Services , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , Social Isolation
13.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e77, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND.: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), people are under the dual pressure of interpersonal isolation and concerns about infection. An evaluation of people's psychological status and risk factors is needed to conduct target interventions. METHODS.: This was a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study using quota and snowball sampling methods during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants' characteristics and experiences were obtained by an online questionnaire and telephone review. Psychological distress and sleep problems were measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Insomnia Severity Index. RESULTS.: A total of 23,500 participants were recruited, and 19,372 valid questionnaires were received from 11 centers. Overall, 11.0-13.3% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms, and 1.9-2.7% had severe symptoms. The prevalence of psychological and sleep problems has increased. Working as frontline medical staff (Odds Ratio OR = 3.406), living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.237), close contacts with COVID-19 (OR = 1.808), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.310) were risk factors for anxiety symptoms; no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 2.167) and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.198) were risk factors for depression symptoms; and living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.376), no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 1.927), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.262) were risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Only 1.9% of participants received counseling during the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS.: Psychological and sleep problems increased during interpersonal isolation due to COVID-19. Current psychological interventions are far from sufficient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238161, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733000

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: First, to describe adolescents' health information sources and knowledge, health literacy (HL), health protective measures, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the initial phase of the Covid-19 pandemic in Norway. Second, to investigate the association between HL and the knowledge and behavior relevant for preventing spread of the virus. Third, to explore variables associated with HRQoL in a pandemic environment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study includes survey data from 2,205 Norwegian adolescents 16-19 years of age. The participants reported on their health information sources, HL, handwashing knowledge and behavior, number of social interactions, and HRQoL. Associations between study variables and specified outcomes were explored using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Television (TV) and family were indicated to be the main sources for pandemic-related health information. Handwashing, physical distancing, and limiting the number of social contacts were the most frequently reported measures. HL and handwashing knowledge and HL and handwashing behavior were significantly associated. For each unit increase on the HL scale, the participants were 5% more likely to socialize less with friends in comparison to normal. The mean HRQoL was very poor compared to European norms. Being quarantined or isolated and having confirmed or suspected Covid-19 were significantly negatively associated with HRQoL, but seeing less friends than normal was not associated. HL was significantly positively associated with HRQoL, albeit of minor clinical importance. CONCLUSION: Adolescents follow the health authorities' guidelines and appear highly literate. However, high fidelity requires great sacrifice because the required measures seem to collide with certain aspects that are important for the adolescents' HRQoL.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Norway , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Television , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238411, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic occurred in Wuhan, China and infection spread rapidly around the world. To limit the rapid spread locally and nationwide, the Chinese government locked down Wuhan city on January 23 and began implementing nationwide intensive community screening on February 16. METHOD: To assess the effectiveness of city lockdown and intensive community screening, we built a modified SIR model by introducing an α value into the classic SIR model. The α value represents the proportion of infected individuals who are not effectively isolated from susceptible individuals at a given time point. RESULTS: The accuracy of the modified SIR model was validated using data from Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces. The lockdown of Wuhan city substantially reduced the α value for the rest of China excluding Hubei province, while only slightly reducing the α value for the city itself. Intensive community screening rapidly reduced the α value for Wuhan. CONCLUSION: City lockdown was efficient in controlling the spread of the epidemic from Wuhan to the rest of the country. Nationwide intensive community screening was extremely effective in suppressing the spread locally within Wuhan city. These experiences should urgently be shared with other countries to help halt the progressing worldwide pandemic.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation
20.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(3): 169-170, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722321

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a 'perfect storm' for the mental health of young people, because of exposure to known risk factors for psychopathology and lack of support from the infrastructures that are normally in place to ensure safety and provide support. However, it is yet unclear if this 'perfect storm' will flood the Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services. The early, normative emotional responses observed may not lead to enduring psychopathology in most young people. Nevertheless, a minority of young people may show complex presentations, particularly in relation to bereavement. As epidemiology and clinical practice will reveal the actual needs of young people, the hope is that we will find the focus and determination to build new solutions to promote young people's mental health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Child Health , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , Child , Humans , Mental Health Services , Risk Factors , Social Isolation , Uncertainty
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