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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE01406, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234685

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Identificar, a partir das evidências presentes na literatura, os impactos da COVID-19 na saúde mental de mulheres grávidas. Métodos Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases de dados/biblioteca eletrônica MEDLINE, CINAHL, PUBCOVID19 e MEDRXIV. A busca aconteceu de forma pareada no mês de dezembro de 2020, com artigos disponíveis na íntegra abordando a saúde mental das grávidas na pandemia. Resultados Os estudos que compuseram a amostra foram publicados entre os meses de abril e dezembro de 2020 e nos 10 estudos incluídos, a depressão e a ansiedade são apontados como fatores impactantes na saúde das gestantes, tendo como elementos contribuintes o medo da COVID-19, estresse e preocupações associadas à pandemia. Conclusão Houve impacto na saúde mental das gestantes na pandemia com repercussões de ordem psicossocial, socioeconômica e de assistência à saúde. Nesse contexto, a abordagem do componente psicológico na consulta de enfermagem pode fazer a diferença na atenção à gestação.


Resumen Objetivo Identificar, a partir de evidencias presentes en la literatura, los impactos del COVID-19 en la salud mental de mujeres embarazadas. Métodos Se trata de una revisión integradora de la literatura, realizada en las bases de datos/biblioteca electrónica MEDLINE, CINAHL, PUBCOVID19 y MEDRXIV. La búsqueda se realizó de forma pareada en el mes de diciembre de 2020, con artículos con texto completo disponible que abordaban la salud mental de embarazadas en la pandemia. Resultados Los estudios que formaron la muestra fueron publicados entre los meses de abril y diciembre de 2020. En los diez estudios incluidos, la depresión y la ansiedad son señaladas como factores impactantes en la salud de las mujeres embarazadas, donde los elementos contribuyentes son el miedo al COVID-19, el estrés y las preocupaciones relacionadas con la pandemia. Conclusión Hubo impacto en la salud mental de las mujeres embarazadas en la pandemia, con repercusiones de orden psicosocial, socioeconómica y de atención a la salud. En este contexto, el enfoque del componente psicológico en la consulta de enfermería puede marcar una diferencia en la atención al embarazo.


Abstract Objective To identify the impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women's mental health from evidence in the literature. Methods This is an integrative literature review performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PUBCOVID19 and MEDRXIV databases/electronic libraries. The search took place in pairs in December 2020, with articles available in full addressing pregnant women's mental health in the pandemic. Results The studies that made up the sample were published between April and December 2020 and in the ten studies included, depression and anxiety were identified as factors exerting impact on pregnant women's health, and the fear of COVID-19, stress and worries associated with the pandemic as contributing elements. Conclusion There was an impact on pregnant women's mental health in the pandemic with psychosocial, socioeconomic and health care repercussions. In this context, the approach to the psychological component in the nursing consultation can make a difference in pregnancy care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Isolation/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Women's Health , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/psychology , Anxiety , Delivery of Health Care
2.
Age Ageing ; 52(6)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is little research conducted to systematically synthesize the evidence on psychological interventions for social isolation and loneliness among older adults during medical pandemics. This systematic review aims to address this information gap and provides guidance for planning and implementing interventions to prevent and reduce loneliness and social isolation for older adults, especially during medical pandemics. METHODS: Four electronic databases (EMBASE, PsychoInfo, Medline and Web of Science) and grey literature from 1 January 2000 to 13 September 2022 were searched for eligible studies on loneliness and social isolation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment on key study characteristics were conducted independently by two researchers. Both qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were used. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 3,116 titles. Of the 215 full texts reviewed, 12 intervention articles targeting loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic met the inclusion criteria. No studies were found concerning intervention with respect to social isolation. Overall, interventions targeting social skills and the elimination of negativities effectively alleviated the feelings of loneliness in the older population. However, they had only short-term effects. CONCLUSION: This review systematically summarised the key characteristics and the effectiveness of existing interventions addressing loneliness in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future interventions should focus on social skills and eliminating negativities and be tailored to the needs and characteristics of older people. Repeated larger-scale randomized controlled trials and long-term effectiveness evaluations on this topic are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1158716, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231773

ABSTRACT

Objective: Social isolation and loneliness (SI/L) are considered critical public health issues. The primary objective of this scoping review is to document the experience of SI/L among older adults in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic, given research gaps in this area. We identified the reasons for SI/L, the effects of SI/L, SI/L coping strategies, and research and policy gaps in SI/L experiences among older adults in Africa during COVID-19. Methods: Six databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, APA PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ageline) were used to identify studies reporting the experiences of SI/L among older adults in Africa during the COVID-19 lockdown. We adopted the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Results: Social isolation and loneliness due to COVID-19 in Africa affected older adults' mental, communal, spiritual, financial, and physical health. The use of technology was vital, as was the role of social networks within the family, community, religious groups, and government. Methodological challenges include the risk of selective survival bias, sampling biases, and limited inductive value due to context. Also, lack of large-scale mixed methods longitudinal studies to capture the experiences of older adults during COVID-19. There were essential policy gaps for African mental health support services, media programs, and community care service integration targeting older adults in the era of the COVID-19 lockdown. Discussion: Like in other countries, COVID-19 lockdown policies and the lockdown restrictions primarily caused the experience of SI/L among older adults in Africa. In African countries, they resulted in a severance of older adults from the cultural structure of care for older adults and their familial support systems. Weak government intervention, personal situations, challenges regarding technology, and detachment from daily activities, disproportionately affected older adults in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Social Isolation/psychology , Africa
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285797, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325003

ABSTRACT

The need for physical distancing due to COVID-19 mitigation efforts forced prolonged social isolation, which may affect sleep and lead to mental health problems. Previous research has shown that young adults are particularly vulnerable to psychological stress caused by social isolation, the negative psychological impact of the pandemic, and greater frequency and severity of sleep problems. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to examine whether insomnia could constitute a mediation mechanism that explains the relationship between social isolation experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic and mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) reported up to 1.5 years later. The study was conducted among young (M±SD; 24.08±3.75) men (N = 1025) in Poland. Data were collected by means of self-report questionnaires, including The Social Isolation Index, The Athens Insomnia Scale, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The results show that insomnia mediates the relationships between social isolation and both anxiety and depression. The current findings emphasize the role of insomnia in the relationships between social isolation experienced during COVID-19 and negative emotional states. From a clinical perspective, the results suggest that implementing therapeutic components that address social isolation in insomnia treatment programs may prevent the development of depression and anxiety symptoms among young men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Male , Young Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
5.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e58, 2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has forced governments to implement strict social mitigation strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality from acute infections. These strategies, however, carry a significant risk for mental health, which can lead to increased short-term and long-term mortality and is currently not included in modeling the impact of the pandemic. METHODS: We used years of life lost (YLL) as the main outcome measure, applied to Switzerland as an example. We focused on suicide, depression, alcohol use disorder, childhood trauma due to domestic violence, changes in marital status, and social isolation, as these are known to increase YLL in the context of imposed restriction in social contact and freedom of movement. We stipulated a minimum duration of mitigation of 3 months based on current public health plans. RESULTS: The study projects that the average person would suffer 0.205 YLL due to psychosocial consequence of COVID-19 mitigation measures. However, this loss would be entirely borne by 2.1% of the population, who will suffer an average of 9.79 YLL. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented here are likely to underestimate the true impact of the mitigation strategies on YLL. However, they highlight the need for public health models to expand their scope in order to provide better estimates of the risks and benefits of mitigation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e61, 2020 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313894

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic has forced many people into self-isolation and to practice social distancing. When people are physically isolated and distant from each other, technology may play a fundamental role by enabling social connection and reducing feelings of loneliness caused by this prolonged social isolation. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many mental health services worldwide have had to shift their routine face-to-face outpatient appointments to remote telepsychiatry encounters. The increased pressure on mental health services highlights the importance of community-led health-promotion interventions, which can contribute to preventing mental illness or their relapses, and to reduce the burden on health services. Patients with psychosis are particularly socially isolated, have sedentary lifestyles, and commonly face stigma and discrimination from the general population. At the same time, patients with psychosis value technology, are interested in, use and own smart-phones to digitally connect, and are satisfied with their use. Thus, among psychosocial interventions, a helpful resource may be "Phone Pal," a complex intervention which facilitates remote communication between volunteers and socially isolated patients with psychosis through different smart-phone tools. While "Phone Pal" has been originally developed for people with psychosis, it may also be useful to the wider population, helping to overcome the social isolation caused by physical distancing, particularly in these times of widespread isolation. "Phone Pal" may be a potential public health resource for society, providing important support to those that may need it the most, and possibly benefit most from it.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health Services , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Smartphone , Social Isolation/psychology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Communication , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Social Stigma , Telemedicine/instrumentation
7.
J Affect Disord ; 334: 43-49, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize the prevalence of social disconnection and thoughts of suicide among older adults in the United States, and examine the association between them in a large naturalistic study. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6 waves of a fifty-state non-probability survey among US adults conducted between February and December 2021. The internet-based survey collected the PHQ-9, as well as multiple measures of social connectedness. We applied multiple logistic regression to analyze the association between presence of thoughts of suicide and social disconnection. Exploratory analysis, using generalized random forests, examined heterogeneity of effects across sociodemographic groups. RESULTS: Of 16,164 survey respondents age 65 and older, mean age was 70.9 (SD 5.0); the cohort was 61.4 % female and 29.6 % male; 2.0 % Asian, 6.7 % Black, 2.2 % Hispanic, and 86.8 % White. A total of 1144 (7.1 %) reported thoughts of suicide at least several days in the prior 2 week period. In models adjusted for sociodemographic features, households with 3 or more additional members (adjusted OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.28-2.33) and lack of social supports, particularly emotional supports (adjusted OR 2.60, 95 % CI 2.09-3.23), were independently associated with greater likelihood of reporting such thoughts, as was greater reported loneliness (adjusted OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.64-1.87). The effects of emotional support varied significantly across sociodemographic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Thoughts of suicide are common among older adults in the US, and associated with lack of social support, but not with living alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NA.


Subject(s)
Social Isolation , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Loneliness/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/psychology , United States/epidemiology
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113934, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302824

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global context in which social isolation has become normative in order to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. As a result of social distancing policies, the risk for loneliness and associated decline in quality of life has increased. The current study examined factors associated with loneliness and quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic cross-sectionally (n = 797) and longitudinally (n = 395). Older age and larger social network size were associated with less loneliness, whereas having multiple physical or mental health diagnoses was associated with greater loneliness. Greater virtual social contact was also associated with increased loneliness. Greater loneliness was associated with all domains of quality of life both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Understanding factors associated with loneliness is critical to developing effective strategies at reducing loneliness and improving quality of life during the pandemic. Contrary to popular perceptions, older age was associated with less loneliness and more virtual social contact was associated with more loneliness. Thus, it may be prudent to deemphasize virtual social contact in public campaigns and to emphasize safe methods of interacting in person.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Physical Distancing , Quality of Life/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Psychogeriatrics ; 23(4): 561-570, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing and 'stay-at-home' orders are essential to contain the coronavirus outbreak; however, it has affected older adults very negatively psychosocially. The present study explored the impact of a videoconferencing-implemented program on older adults' psychosocial health during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We carried out this experimental research with pretest-posttest and control groups between November 02 to December 26, 2020 on individuals aged 60 years and over who were enrolled at Fethiye Refreshment University (60+ FRU). While the intervention group consisted of 40 people, we recruited 52 participants in the control group. Unlike the control group, the intervention group participated in a structured videoconferencing program held there days a week for 8 weeks. We collected the data using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Loneliness Scale for Elderly (LSE). The data were then analysed on the SPSS 22.0 program. RESULTS: The participants had a mean age of 66.13 ± 5.13 years; 65.2% were females, 58.7% were married, 55.4% held a university degree and 93.5% had a regular income. Following the intervention, we found the experimental group to have significantly a lower posttest FCV-19S score (p < 0.05) and a higher posttest MSPS score than the control group (p < 0.05). Besides, the experimental group had significantly lower posttest scores on the DASS-21 and the anxiety and stress subscales than the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the posttest score of the experiential group on the emotional loneliness subscale (LSE) was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.05); nevertheless, we could not conclude significant differences between the groups' pretest and posttest LSE scores and their scores on the other LSE subscales (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overall, the videoconferencing program was found to be efficient in providing older adults with psychosocial support amid social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Videoconferencing
11.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 118, 2023 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has meant for spanish citizens a constant adaptation to health measures in order to try to stop transmission of the virus. During this adaptation process, different psychosocial aspects have caused consequences for people?s mental health to a greater or lesser extent. Makes sense of an emotional torrent who has gone through fear, anxiety, loneliness and anger. The interaction between perception and reality has given rise to situations where loneliness and social isolation have been imposed and lived with a load of emotional discomfort. In others, social isolation and measures to stop the pandemic have been accepted as a protection system and has been experienced since serenity and the feeling of self-protection fostering individual resilience. Studying the predictors of resilience is going to be key since it is the ideal antidote to stop the appearance of mental disorders associated with the pandemic (such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, social phobia, cleaning obsessions, and generalized anxiety disorder). The objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between resilience and experiential COVID-19 factors. METHODS: Sample was comprised of Spanish adults (n = 1000; age 18-79 [mean =40.43],793 female, 201 male, and 2 non binary sex). These people participating in an online study focused on the impact of COVID-19 experiences. The research has been cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational design. The instrument created for this research was a specific online questionnaire, including the "Scale of resilience" (RS, Wagnild & Young, 1993, Spanish version, Sánchez-Teruel, et al., 2015). That questionnaire has been administered during the months of April 2022 to July 2022. RESULTS: The results obtained show how people who have been able to face the pandemic in a responsive and adaptive way have high resilience. Specifically, those participants that accepting the use of masks, vaccinations and confinement obtained high resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Using public funding and allocating research to the development of programs to promote resilience, adaptative beliefs and prosocial behaviors becomes basic to live in a world in constant change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Depression/psychology
12.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 43(4): 171-181, 2023 Apr.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301242

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social isolation and loneliness are associated with poorer mental health among older adults. However, less is known about how these experiences are independently associated with positive mental health (PMH) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2020 and 2021 cycles of the Survey on COVID-19 and Mental Health to provide estimates of social isolation (i.e. living alone), loneliness and PMH outcomes (i.e. high self-rated mental health, high community belonging, mean life satisfaction) in the overall older adult population (i.e. 65+ years) and across sociodemographic groups. We also conducted logistic and linear regressions to separately and simultaneously examine how social isolation and loneliness are associated with PMH. RESULTS: Nearly 3 in 10 older adults reported living alone, and over a third reported feelings of loneliness due to the pandemic. When examined separately, living alone and loneliness were each associated with lower PMH. When assessed simultaneously, loneliness remained a significant independent factor associated with all three PMH outcomes (overall and across all sociodemographic groups), but living alone was only a significant factor for high community belonging in the overall population, for males and for those aged 65 to 74 years. CONCLUSION: Overall, social isolation and loneliness were associated with poorer wellbeing among older adults in Canada during the pandemic. Loneliness remained a significant factor related to all PMH outcomes after adjusting for social isolation, but not vice versa. The findings highlight the need to appropriately identify and support lonely older adults during (and beyond) the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Male , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Canada/epidemiology
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e46537, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social loneliness is a prevalent issue in industrialized countries that can lead to adverse health outcomes, including a 26% increased risk of premature mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease. The United Kingdom has implemented a strategy to address loneliness, including social prescribing-a health care model where physicians prescribe nonpharmacological interventions to tackle social loneliness. However, there is a need for evidence-based plans for global social prescribing dissemination. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify global trends in social prescribing from 2018. To this end, we intend to collect and analyze words related to social prescribing worldwide and evaluate various trends of related words by classifying the core areas of social prescribing. METHODS: Google's searchable data were collected to analyze web-based data related to social prescribing. With the help of web crawling, 3796 news items were collected for the 5-year period from 2018 to 2022. Key topics were selected to identify keywords for each major topic related to social prescribing. The topics were grouped into 4 categories, namely Healthy, Program, Governance, and Target, and keywords for each topic were selected thereafter. Text mining was used to determine the importance of words collected from new data. RESULTS: Word clouds were generated for words related to social prescribing, which collected 3796 words from Google News databases, including 128 in 2018, 432 in 2019, 566 in 2020, 748 in 2021, and 1922 in 2022, increasing nearly 15-fold between 2018 and 2022 (5 years). Words such as health, prescribing, and GPs (general practitioners) were the highest in terms of frequency in the list for all the years. Between 2020 and 2021, COVID, gardening, and UK were found to be highly related words. In 2022, NHS (National Health Service) and UK ranked high. This dissertation examines social prescribing-related term frequency and classification (2018-2022) in Healthy, Program, Governance, and Target categories. Key findings include increased "Healthy" terms from 2020, "gardening" prominence in "Program," "community" growth across categories, and "Target" term spikes in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This study's discussion highlights four key aspects: (1) the "Healthy" category trends emphasize mental health, cancer, and sleep; (2) the "Program" category prioritizes gardening, community, home-schooling, and digital initiatives; (3) "Governance" underscores the significance of community resources in social prescribing implementation; and (4) "Target" focuses on 4 main groups: individuals with long-term conditions, low-level mental health issues, social isolation, or complex social needs impacting well-being. Social prescribing is gaining global acceptance and is becoming a global national policy, as the world is witnessing a sharp rise in the aging population, noncontagious diseases, and mental health problems. A successful and sustainable model of social prescribing can be achieved by introducing social prescribing schemes based on the understanding of roles and the impact of multisectoral partnerships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , State Medicine , Loneliness/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Internet
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113676, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266362

ABSTRACT

To determine whether the past half-year of COVID-19-related lockdowns, stay-at-home orders, and social isolation were associated with changes in high-risk alcohol use, a total of 5,931 individuals completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at one of six time points from April through September 2020. Over the 6-month period, hazardous alcohol use and likely dependence increased month-by-month for those under lockdowns compared to those not under restrictions. This increase in harmful alcohol use and related behaviors is likely to have prolonged adverse psychosocial, interpersonal, occupational, and health impacts as the world attempts to recover from the pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcoholism/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Responsibility
16.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281833, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hikikomori is an extreme state of social withdrawal, originally identified in Japan but more recently recognised internationally. Many countries imposed restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic which may have had a detrimental impact on those at risk of hikikomori, specifically young adults and those with high levels of autistic traits. AIMS: To explore whether levels of autistic traits mediate the relationship between psychological wellbeing and hikikomori risk. We also looked at whether autistic traits mediated between lockdown experiences (e.g. not leaving the house) and hikikomori risk. METHODS: 646 young people (aged 16-24) from a wide range of countries completed an online questionnaire assessing psychological wellbeing, autistic traits and experiences of lockdown for this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Autistic traits mediated the relationship between both psychological wellbeing and hikikomori risk, as well as frequency of leaving the house during lockdown and hikikomori risk. Greater hikikomori risk was associated with poor psychological wellbeing, higher autistic traits and leaving the house less frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest similarities with Japanese hikikomori research and are consistent with suggestions that psychological wellbeing and COVID-19 restrictions are associated with increased hikikomori risk in young adults, and both associations are mediated by higher levels of autistic traits.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Humans , Young Adult , Adolescent , Social Isolation/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
17.
Hum Nat ; 34(1): 88-102, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270302

ABSTRACT

Humans are social animals that rely on different ways to interact with each other. The COVID-19 pandemic strongly changed our communication strategies. Because of the importance of direct contact for our species, we predict that immediately after the forced social isolation, people were more prone to engage in direct rather than in virtual interactions, thus showing a lower mimicry response in the use of smartphones. In a non-longitudinal study, we collected behavioral data under naturalistic contexts and directly compared the data of the mimicry response gathered immediately following the Italian lockdown (May-September 2020) with those gathered one year later (May-October 2021). Contrary to our expectations, the mimicry response in the use of smartphones was higher immediately after the lockdown than a year later. Probably the large use of these devices during the lockdown translated into a greater sensitivity to be affected by others' smartphone manipulation. Indeed, social isolation modified, at least in the short term, the ways we interact with others by making us more prone to engage in "virtual" social interactions. The bright side of the coin unveiled by our findings is that the effect seems to diminish over time. The large behavioral dataset analyzed here (1,608 events; 248 people) also revealed that the mimicry response in the use of smartphones was higher between familiar subjects than between strangers. In this view, mimicry in manipulating smartphones can be considered an example of joint action that fosters behavioral synchrony between individuals that, in the long-term, can translate into the formation of social bonding.


Subject(s)
Imitative Behavior , Quarantine , Smartphone , Social Isolation , Social Isolation/psychology , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Linear Models , Quarantine/psychology , Italy/epidemiology , Communication , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
18.
Psico USF ; 27(3): 567-580, July-Sept. 2022.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2230105

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought a series of restructurings necessary for research in Developmental Psychology. The aim of the manuscript is to discuss adaptations we made in our research in this context during the COVID-19 pandemic and to present strategies to adequate research protocols originally designed to occur in person. Although some contexts do not allow the continuity of studies, research at this time can bring essential contributions in this extreme period. This article explores the strategies for adapting recruitment procedures, suggesting dissemination platforms, and using social networks for this purpose. Guidelines are suggested for conducting non-face-to-face interviews with caregivers, ways of assessing the interaction of the mother-child pairs, and problematizing ethical issues. The procedures for returning the results, an ethical researcher commitment, may be improved by resources such as automatic reports. Besides, strategies for better dissemination of the results for the participants are suggested. (AU)


A pandemia COVID-19 trouxe uma série de reestruturações necessárias à pesquisa em Psicologia do Desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir as adaptações que realizamos em pesquisas neste contexto durante a pandemia de COVID-19 e apresentar estratégias para adequação de protocolos de pesquisa originalmente planejados para ocorrer de forma presencial. Embora alguns contextos não permitam a continuidade dos estudos, pesquisas nesse momento podem trazer importantes contribuições sobre este período ímpar. No presente artigo são exploradas estratégias de adaptação dos procedimentos de recrutamento, sugeridas plataformas de divulgação e como melhor usar as redes sociais para esse fim. Também são descritos procedimentos para realização de entrevistas não presenciais com responsáveis, formas de avaliação da interação das duplas mãe-criança e problematizadas questões éticas. Os procedimentos de devolução dos resultados, um compromisso ético dos pesquisadores, podem ser facilitados por recursos como relatórios automáticos. Além disso, sugerimos estratégias para melhor divulgação dos resultados ao público participante. (AU)


La pandemia del COVID-19 trajo una serie de reestructuraciones necesarias para la investigación en Psicología del Desarrollo. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir las adaptaciones realizadas en las investigaciones en este contexto durante la pandemia de COVID-19 y presentar algunas estrategias para la adaptación de los protocolos de investigación originalmente planeados para ser presenciales. Si bien algunos contextos no permitan la continuidad de los estudios, la investigación en este momento puede aportar importantes avances sobre estos tiempos de crisis. Este artículo explora las estrategias para adaptar los procedimientos de contratación, sugiriendo algunas plataformas de difusión y la mejor manera de utilizar las redes sociales para este fin. También se describen los procedimientos para la realización de entrevistas no presenciales con padres o tutores legales, las formas de evaluar la interacción madre-hijo y las cuestiones éticas. Los procedimientos para la devolución de los resultados, un compromiso ético de los investigadores, pueden verse facilitados por funciones como informes automáticos. Además, se recomienda estrategias para una mejor difusión de los resultados al público participante. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Psychology, Developmental , COVID-19/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Video Recording , Pilot Projects , Data Collection/methods , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Confidentiality , Internet , Ethics, Research , Social Media , Mobile Applications , Behavior Observation Techniques , Mother-Child Relations
19.
Medwave ; 23(1): e2592, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217432

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected the entire population, especially vulnerable people with risk factors, such as people over 65 years. Globally and nationally, health protection measures were established to reduce transmission and the impact of the disease on the healthcare system, such as using face masks, hand washing, and social distancing, among others. This led to restrictions on activities outside the home, which affected the cognitive sphere of the population, especially people over 65 years of age. Objective: To demonstrate that social isolation causes changes in the cognitive status of people over 65 years of age. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from 2019 to 2020, with the participation of 37 older adults in a parish club of support activities who voluntarily agreed to participate by signing the informed consent form. The Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination was administered to all of them at two points in the study: before the pandemic and after six months of strict social isolation established as a control measure for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We looked for cognitive status differences during this period and studied qualitative-quantitative sociodemographic variables. Results: The club members were older people, predominantly women. Mean age of the participants was 75.4 years; 89.2% had little schooling (less than ten years of formal education). Identified prevalent diseases were arterial hypertension and type-2 diabetes mellitus. In the first evaluation, six out of thirty-seven participants had slight cognitive deficits (16.2%), all females; there were no cases of cognitive impairment; the rest had normal cognitive status (31 out of 37, or 83.8%). After the second evaluation (at the end of strict isolation due to the pandemic), we observed that 11 (29.7%) participants had slight cognitive deficits (ten female and one male), which represents an increase of 13.5%. In addition, four participants (10.8%) showed mild cognitive impairment, all females. Such changes were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). We conclude that social isolation due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was related to changes in the cognitive status of the elderly.


Introducción: La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, ha afectado a toda la población, especialmente a personas vulnerables y con factores de riesgo, como las personas mayores de 65 años. A nivel mundial y nacional se establecieron medidas de protección sanitaria como medio para reducir la transmisión y el impacto de la enfermedad en el sistema de salud como uso de mascarilla, lavado de manos, distanciamiento social, entre otros. Esto generó restricciones en las actividades fuera del hogar, lo que afectó el aspecto cognitivo de la población, especialmente a las personas mayores de 65 años. Objetivo: Demostrar que el aislamiento social genera cambios en el estado cognitivo de las personas mayores de 65 años. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal en el periodo de 2019 a 2020, con la participación de 37 personas mayores pertenecientes a un club parroquial de actividades de apoyo, quienes aceptaron participar voluntariamente mediante firma del consentimiento informado. A todos se les aplicó el en dos momentos del estudio: previo a la pandemia y al cabo de seis meses del aislamiento social estricto establecido como medida de control de la pandemia por SARS- CoV-2. En dicho período se buscaron diferencias en el estado cognitivo y también se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas cuali-cuantitativas. Resultados: Los integrantes del club son personas mayores, predominantemente mujeres. El promedio de edad de los participantes fue de 75,4 años; el 89,2% tenía escolaridad baja (menos de 10 años de educación). Las enfermedades prevalentes identificadas fueron: hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus tipo-2. En la primera evaluación se observó que 6 de 37 participantes presentaron ligero déficit cognitivo (16,2%), todas de sexo femenino; no hubo casos con deterioro cognitivo; los demás tuvieron estado cognitivo normal (31 de 37, es decir 83,8%). Tras la segunda evaluación (al finalizar el aislamiento estricto por la pandemia), se observó que 11 (29,7%) personas registraron ligero déficit cognitivo (10 mujeres y 1 hombre), lo que implica un incremento de 13,5%. Además, se identificaron cuatro casos (10,8%) de los participantes que presentaron deterioro cognitivo leve, todas fueron de sexo femenino. Tales cambios fueron estadísticamente significativos (valor p < 0,05). Se concluye que el aislamiento por la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 está relacionado con cambios en el estado cognitivo de las personas mayores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Social Isolation/psychology , Cognition
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26854, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191051

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Prompted by the need to measure the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 on main areas of quality of life related to mental health (MH), the COV-19-impact on quality of life (COV19-QoL) scale has been developed recently. We measured how patients seeking face-to-face MH care perceived the coronavirus disease 2019 impact on QoL and how socio-demographic factors, stress, and personality contributed to QoL in this diagnostically diverse population.Patients aged 18 to 65 years (n = 251) who came for the first time to the outpatient units during the 6-week index-period (May 21-July 1, 2020) were included. The cross-sectional assessment involved sociodemographic variables, working diagnosis, personality traits (7-dimension model, including HEXACO and DELTA), stress (list of threatening experiences and proximity to virus), and COV19-QoL.The perceived impact of the pandemic on QoL was above the theoretical mean of a 5-point scale (COV19-Qol = 3.1 ±â€Š1.2). No association between total COV19-QoL score, sociodemographic parameters, and working diagnoses was found in the present sample. After testing whether positional (threatening experiences), or dispositional (personality) factors were predominant in the perceived impact of COV-19 on QoL, significant predictors of the outcome were personality traits Disintegration (B = 0.52; P < .01) and Emotionality (B = 0.18; P < .05).It seems that pervasiveness and uncertainty of the pandemic threat triggers-especially in those high on Disintegration trait-a chain of mental events with the decrease of QoL as a final result. Present findings could be used to establish a profile of MH help seeking population in relation to this biological disaster, and to further explore QoL and personality in different contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
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