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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26854, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191051

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Prompted by the need to measure the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 on main areas of quality of life related to mental health (MH), the COV-19-impact on quality of life (COV19-QoL) scale has been developed recently. We measured how patients seeking face-to-face MH care perceived the coronavirus disease 2019 impact on QoL and how socio-demographic factors, stress, and personality contributed to QoL in this diagnostically diverse population.Patients aged 18 to 65 years (n = 251) who came for the first time to the outpatient units during the 6-week index-period (May 21-July 1, 2020) were included. The cross-sectional assessment involved sociodemographic variables, working diagnosis, personality traits (7-dimension model, including HEXACO and DELTA), stress (list of threatening experiences and proximity to virus), and COV19-QoL.The perceived impact of the pandemic on QoL was above the theoretical mean of a 5-point scale (COV19-Qol = 3.1 ±â€Š1.2). No association between total COV19-QoL score, sociodemographic parameters, and working diagnoses was found in the present sample. After testing whether positional (threatening experiences), or dispositional (personality) factors were predominant in the perceived impact of COV-19 on QoL, significant predictors of the outcome were personality traits Disintegration (B = 0.52; P < .01) and Emotionality (B = 0.18; P < .05).It seems that pervasiveness and uncertainty of the pandemic threat triggers-especially in those high on Disintegration trait-a chain of mental events with the decrease of QoL as a final result. Present findings could be used to establish a profile of MH help seeking population in relation to this biological disaster, and to further explore QoL and personality in different contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(8): 708-716, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184825

ABSTRACT

The Blitz narrative of resilience stands in contrast to the mental health risks identified as consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although evidence from then-classified studies of World War 2 showed that most people managed the stress of bombing, those vulnerable and exposed to substantial trauma had lasting or severe mental illness. Studies of different towns and occupational groups identified the proportion of people killed and wounded, the percentage of housing destroyed, and the loss of paid employment as risk factors for psychological breakdown. Mothers and children suffered not only with evacuation, but also from the trauma of bombing and damage to schools. A general association between civilian physical and psychological casualties suggests that population groups with high rates of infection and mortality might be susceptible to mental illness as a result of the pandemic. Lockdown and distancing measures contrast with the wartime sense of belonging and shared identity, reinforced by community networks and social activities.


Subject(s)
Bombs , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , World War II , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Child , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Military Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United Kingdom
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19088, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106479

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing social restrictions disrupted young people's social interactions and resulted in several periods during which school closures necessitated online learning. We hypothesised that digitally excluded young people would demonstrate greater deterioration in their mental health than their digitally connected peers during this time. We analysed representative mental health data from a sample of UK 10-15-year-olds (N = 1387) who completed a mental health inventory in 2017-2019 and thrice during the pandemic (July 2020, November 2020 and March 2021). We employed longitudinal modelling to describe trajectories of adolescent mental health for participants with and without access to a computer or a good internet connection for schoolwork. Adolescent mental health symptoms rose early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest mean Total Difficulties score around December 2020. The worsening and subsequent recovery of mental health during the pandemic was greatly pronounced among those without access to a computer, although we did not find evidence for a similar effect among those without a good internet connection. We conclude that lack of access to a computer is a tractable risk factor that likely compounds other adversities facing children and young people during periods of social isolation or educational disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Child , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 280-286, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic that endanger the health and enforced social distancing for the whole world. Social distancing may generate stress, anxiety, and depression. Understanding the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 during social distancing may help decision-makers to take suitable decisions that help in increasing awareness. Evaluate the psychosocial consequences of COVID-19 pandemic during the social distancing period and explore the relationship between social media use and psychological stress during COVID-19 outbreak among Najran city population. Research design is descriptive correlational research design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A snowball sampling technique, was used to recruit participants live in Najran city during the COVID-19 pandemic (1508 participant). RESULTS: A statistically significant differences (P<0.05) are observed between Saudi and non-Saudi participants in all social aspects assessed except for time spent on social media. In addition, a high mean of depression, stress, and anxiety subscale scores are observed in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants with statistically significant differences (p=0.000). As well as high DASS-21 total scores in non-Saudi compared to the Saudi participants. Also, there are positive statistically significant correlations (≤0.05) between participants' time spent in social media and their depression, stress, anxiety, and total DASS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that COVID-19 pandemic generates stress, anxiety and depression among Najran population especially, non-Saudi. This poor psychological condition is exaggerated with prolonged social media use. COVID-19 also has negative impact on social wellbeing and use of social media cannot replace direct contact with friends. The current study results may be utilized to formulate interventions that enhance psychosocial health and resilience during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098751

ABSTRACT

Prolonged periods of social isolation are known to have significant negative health consequences and reduce quality of life, an effect that is particularly pronounced in older populations. Despite the known deleterious effects of social isolation, a key component of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been the issuance of stay at home and/or shelter in place orders. Relatively little is known about the potential effects these periods of social isolation could have on older adults, and less still is known about potential risk factors or protective factors that modulate these effects. Here, we describe results from a longitudinal study in which we measured quality of life both prior to and immediately following a one-month period of social isolation associated with the issuance and revocation of a shelter in place order (April 6, 2020 through May 4, 2020) in the state of South Carolina. Healthy adult participants (N = 62) between the ages of 60 and 80 who had already completed quality of life questionnaires prior to isolation again completed the questionnaires following a one-month order to shelter in place. Quality of life significantly decreased during the social isolation period, with older participants showing the greatest declines. Participants with higher levels of physical activity and better physical/mental health going into the isolation period tended to show greater decreases in quality of life over time. These results highlight the negative consequences of even short bouts of social isolation for the elderly and suggest that reductions in social contact related to COVID-19 may have significant effects on mental health and emotional well-being, at least among older individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Depression/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114881, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061783

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus has been present for two years and has had a widespread and sustained impact worldwide. There is growing evidence in the literature that COVID-19 may have negative effects on mental illness in patients and in healthy populations. The unprecedented changes brought about by COVID-19, such as social isolation, school closures, and family stress, negatively affect people's mental health, especially that of children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the impact of COVID-19 disorders on children's and adolescents' mental health, the mechanisms and risk factors, screening tools, and intervention and prevention. We hope that the mental dysfunction caused by the pandemic will be mitigated through appropriate and timely prevention and intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Mental Health , Pandemics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Social Isolation/psychology
8.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(8): 1122-1131, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on mental health. The social distancing and stay-at-home orders have likely also impacted loneliness, social isolation, and social support. Older adults, particularly those with comorbidities such as cancer, have a greater potential to be impacted. Here we assessed loneliness, social isolation, and social support in older adults undergoing active cancer treatment during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mixed methods study in which quantitative data and qualitative response items were collected in parallel was conducted in 100 older adults with cancer. Participants completed a survey by telephone with a series of validated questionnaires to assess the domains of loneliness, social isolation, and social support as well as several open-ended questions. Baseline demographics and geriatric assessments were summarized using descriptive statistics. Bivariate associations between social isolation and loneliness and social support and loneliness were described using Spearman correlation coefficients. Conventional content analysis was performed on the open-ended questions. RESULTS: In a population of older adults with cancer, 3% were noted to be severely lonely, although 27% percent screened positive as having at least one indicator of loneliness by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Three Item Loneliness Scale. There was a significant positive correlation between loneliness and social isolation (r = +0.52, p < 0.05) as well as significant negative correlation between loneliness and social support (r = -0.49, p < 0.05). There was also a significant negative correlation between loneliness and emotional support (r = -0.43, p < 0.05). There was no significant association between loneliness and markers of geriatric impairments, including comorbidities, G8 score or cognition. DISCUSSION: Reassuringly, in this cohort we found relatively low rates of loneliness and social isolation and high rates of social support. Consistent with prior studies, loneliness, social isolation, and social support were found to be interrelated domains; however, they were not significantly associated with markers of geriatric impairments. Future studies are needed to study if cancer diagnosis and treatment may mediate changes in loneliness, social isolation, and social support in the context of the pandemic as well as beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Neoplasms/therapy
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 14-17, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As attention is currently focused on the urgent need to address the impacts of the social isolation measures imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent mental health, this study aims to determine whether the reported malaise and depression among this population is directly related to the pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the review of the literature based on content in the leading medical databases, and reviewed empirical data regarding the number of psychiatric consultations, and markers of anxiety and depression in adolescents. RESULTS: Social isolation has clearly had a negative impact on adolescent mental health. However, while adolescent psychiatric consultations, and markers of anxiety and depression have increased, this increase has been present for many years. It is therefore difficult to establish a causal link between the two. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adolescent mental health is an important problem that needs to be addressed as a priority, while care needs to continue even after social isolation measures have been lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
10.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(5): 305-310, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social isolation and loneliness are known contributors to all-cause mortality as well as a range of physical and mental health conditions. Therefore, this article reviews current literature pertaining to the effects of social isolation and loneliness on physical and mental health during the current COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Social isolation and loneliness contribute to a myriad of physical and mental health conditions. Specifically social isolation and loneliness contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. However, most research indicated that poor lifestyle factors explained most of the association. Social isolation and loneliness are also associated with cognitive problems including dementia, immune system problems, and mental health conditions. Further social isolation and loneliness also spur behavioral issues that significantly affect physical and mental health. SUMMARY: Evidence suggests that social isolation and loneliness have significant consequences on the physical and mental health of the individual and that the move toward ending all protections against COVID-19 has significant implications for the vulnerable. Further the similarities between the effects of social isolation and loneliness are compared to some of the conditions evident in long-COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15076, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008326

ABSTRACT

Loneliness and social isolation have become increasing concerns during COVID-19 lockdown through neuroendocrine stress-reactions, physical and mental health problems. We investigated living situation, relationship status and quality as potential moderators for trait and state loneliness and salivary cortisol levels (hormonal stress-responses) in healthy adults during the first lockdown in Germany. N = 1242 participants (mean age = 36.32, 78% female) filled out an online questionnaire on demographics, trait loneliness and relationship quality. Next, N = 247 (mean age = 32.6, 70% female) completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA), collecting twelve saliva samples on 2 days and simultaneously reporting their momentary loneliness levels. Divorced/widowed showed highest trait loneliness, followed by singles and partnerships. The latter displayed lower momentary loneliness and cortisol levels compared to singles. Relationship satisfaction significantly reduced loneliness levels in participants with a partner and those who were living apart from their partner reported loneliness levels similar to singles living alone. Living alone was associated with higher loneliness levels. Hierarchical linear models revealed a significant cross-level interaction between relationship status and momentary loneliness in predicting cortisol. The results imply that widowhood, being single, living alone and low relationship quality represent risk factors for loneliness and having a partner buffers neuroendocrine stress responses during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Social Isolation/psychology
12.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269678, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the unique factors of loneliness and social isolation within the ex-military population from discharge, through transition, to the present day. DESIGN: A qualitative, Phenomenological approach was adopted. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with 11 participants who had all served in the British Armed Forces and represented all three military services (Royal Navy; Army; Royal Air Force). Reflexive Thematic Analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Three themes were generated-a sense of loss; difficulty in connecting in civilian life; and seeking out familiarity. The findings of this study were examined through the lenses of the Social Needs Approach and the Cognitive Discrepancy Model. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals developed close bonds in the military through meaningful and prolonged contact, reducing feelings of loneliness and social isolation during their time in service. The sense of belonging was key to social connection, but transition out of the military severed existing relationships, and a lack of belonging hindered the development of relationships within the civilian community. This study has implications for service provision relating to ex-military personnel and future service leavers.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Social Isolation , Veterans , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Veterans/psychology
13.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 51(3): 279-284, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932876

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people's lives and caused changes in habits. The World Health Organization recommends social isolation as a way of minimizing the risk of contagion of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of social isolation due to COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and mental health of older adults and to investigate how anthropometric, functional, and clinical aspects are associated with this process. METHODS: Fifty healthy older adults were followed-up during 5 months. The subjects had their physical and mental health assessed during social isolation (pre-vaccine situation) and after the opening of stores and activities in the municipality (post-vaccine situation). Physical evaluation was performed using the 30-s sit and stand test. Participants' mental health was assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Loneliness Index. In this methodological design, muscle strength, depressive symptoms, and loneliness index were subject to pre-post analyses. In addition, these variables were included as outcomes in linear regression models. Participants' anthropometric, functional, and clinical factors were included as predictors of the statistical model. RESULTS: Participants' scores at baseline were consistent with mild depressive symptoms and low loneliness. The muscle strength of the subjects was appropriate to their ages. After 5 months of social isolation, all variables declined, but with statistical significance only for depressive symptoms (p = 0.017, effect size of 0.11). Anthropometric, functional, and clinical factors explained 42.8% of depressive symptoms, 22.3% of loneliness, and 30.2% of muscle strength in the elderly. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Older adults presented baseline scores consistent with mild depressive symptoms and low loneliness. The muscular strength of the subjects was appropriate for their ages. After 5 months of social isolation, all variables declined. Anthropometric, functional, and clinical factors explained a substantial part of the depressive symptoms, loneliness, and muscular strength in the elderly. Health care professionals should be aware of performing a wide assessment in subjects' lives to ensure better health status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Isolation/psychology
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 577, 2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women's hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period. RESULTS: We included 2,503 women admitted to the hospital; 1,287 (51.4 %) were admitted before the Covid-19 lockdown and 1,216 (48.6 %) during the Covid-19 lockdown. There were no significant differences in stillbirth rates (p = 0.584) or pregnancy complications (including preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes) (p = 0.115) between pregnant women in the pre- and intra-pandemic periods. However, decreases in preterm births (p = 0.001), and low birth weight (p = 0.005) were observed in the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. No significant difference in the mode of delivery, and no maternal deaths were observed during the two time periods. CONCLUSIONS: In our study we observed a decrease in preterm births and low birth weight, no change in stillbirths, and a rise in the admission rates of mothers to the ICU during the initial Covid-19 lockdown period compared to pre-Covid-19 lockdown period. Further research will be needed to devise plan for immediate post-pandemic care and future health care crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884121

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic that has spread rapidly to six continents, with over 2.5 million deaths from December 2019 to March 2021. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases is still growing worldwide, and quarantines have been recommended to prevent the disease's spread. However, quarantines affect people's quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of social isolation-quarantine-on QOL during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used in the present study. We obtained data from an online survey conducted in Saudi Arabia. We included a convenience sample of 775 participants in the study. Most of the participants were female (67%), with a mean age of 46 years ranging from 18 to 75 years. Many participants were government employees (n = 308, 39.7%) and had a bachelor's degree or greater (n = 513, 66.2%). Most of the participants (n = 629, 81%) were free from any chronic disease. Nearly 88% of participants were partially isolated socially owing to COVID-19. Concerning QOL, the means of both the Physical Health Composite Scale and the Mental Health Composite Scale SF-12 scores were 44.7 and 34.6, respectively. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that partially socially isolated participants appeared to have significantly better physical health statuses (M = 44.96, SD = 5.90) than completely socially isolated participants (M = 42.87 ± 7.26). There was no significant social isolation effect on mental health status (t (773) = 2.5, p = 0.115). Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic considerably influenced various aspects of QOL including physical and mental health. Community-based interventions such as online counseling services and wellness programs are required to reduce the pandemic's negative impact and enhance overall health status and QOL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology
16.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(3): 593-596, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875334

ABSTRACT

Loneliness is the subjective feeling people experience when they feel less socially connected to others than they desire. Beyond the impact to mental health and well-being, loneliness is linked to detrimental health outcomes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and isolation requirements likely exacerbated the prevalence of loneliness, which was reported by 1 in 5 American adults before the pandemic. Whether it be through in-person or virtual visits, primary care clinicians have tools and expertise to screen patients for loneliness, provide them supportive consultations, and refer persons with loneliness to helpful resources. As the societal changes from the pandemic continue to evolve, we recommend that primary care providers include loneliness screens as part of their standard workflow and consult with patients about effective interventions to reduce loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Least-Squares Analysis , Logistic Models , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health Services/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Young Adult
18.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health restrictions due to the COVID-19 (SARS CoV-2) pandemic have disproportionately affected informal caregivers of people living with long term health conditions. We aimed to explore levels of care burden, loneliness, and social isolation among caregivers of people with enduring physical and brain health conditions in English-speaking regions worldwide, by investigating outcomes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous online survey data from 2287 English-speaking caregivers of people with long term health conditions from four English-speaking regions (UK, Ireland, USA, New Zealand) included measures of care burden, loneliness, and social isolation, reported before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyses were descriptive, followed by an ordinal regression model for predictors of burden. RESULTS: Compared to pre-pandemic levels, all caregivers experienced a significant increase in burden, loneliness, and isolation. Caregivers of people with both brain health and physical conditions were the most burdened and had the highest levels of loneliness and isolation compared to caregivers of people with either a brain health or physical condition only. The increase in care burden among caregivers of people with brain health challenges was associated with caregiver's gender, moderate and severe emotional loneliness, magnitude and frequency of isolation during the pandemic, and care circumstances (cohabitation with the care recipient, restrictions on the ability to provide care). CONCLUSIONS: Health and social care interventions should target caregivers' care circumstances and psychological outcomes, particularly in women, accounting for the significant additional burden of care, loneliness, and isolation resulting from pandemic-related restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregiver Burden , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology
19.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 165: 197-227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800240

ABSTRACT

People living with Parkinson Disease (PwP) have been at risk for the negative effects of loneliness even before the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite some similarities with previous outbreaks, the Covid-19 pandemic is significantly more wide-spread, long-lasting, and deadly, which likely means demonstrably more negative mental health issues. Although PwP are not any more likely to contract Covid-19 than those without, the indirect negative sequelae of isolation, loneliness, mental health issues, and worsening motor and non-motor features remains to be fully realized. Loneliness is not an isolated problem; the preliminary evidence indicates that loneliness associated with the Covid-19 restrictions has dramatically increased in nearly all countries around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Disease Progression , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology
20.
Psychiatr Pol ; 56(1): 101-114, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English, Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to assess the effects of social and familial isolation due to COVID-19 on the mental well-being of patients staying in a residential medical care facility and evaluation of the effectiveness of therapeutic measures. METHODS: The study was conducted among the patients of a residential medical care facility (58 patients). A short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to assess the severity of depressive disorders. The number of medical and psychological interventions during the individual months of isolation was also compared. RESULTS: In February 2020, when there was no isolation, 87.9% of the study group did not suffer from depression compared to 72.4% during the period of full isolation. After introducing controlled methods for contacting loved ones, the number of individuals with no depressive symptoms increased again. A mean of 1.76 medical and 0.23 psychological interventions per one patient were conducted during the period of full isolation. CONCLUSIONS: The number of medical and psychological interventions was higher during the period of full isolation compared to months without compulsory isolation due to COVID-19. After the introduction of full isolation, the scores in the GDS were significantly higher, which means that the residents were at a higher risk of depressive disorders than in the months without isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology
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