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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 841345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776048

ABSTRACT

Background: Although positive safety leadership has attracted increasingly academic and practical attention due to its critical effects on followers' safety compliance behavior, far fewer steps have been taken to study the safety impact of laissez-faire leadership. Objective: This study examines the relationships between safety-specific leader reward and punishment omission (laissez-faire leadership) and followers' safety compliance, and the mediations of safety-specific distributive justice and role ambiguity. Methods: On a two-wave online survey of 307 workers from high-risk enterprises in China, these relationships were tested by structural equations modeling and bootstrapping procedures. Results: Findings show that safety-specific leader reward omission was negatively associated with followers' safety compliance through the mediating effects of safety-specific distributive justice and role ambiguity. Safety-specific leader punishment omission was also negatively associated with followers' safety compliance through the mediating effect of safety-specific role ambiguity, while safety-specific distributive justice was an insignificant mediator. Originality: The study addresses and closes more gaps by explaining how two contextualized laissez-faire leadership measures relate to followers' safety behaviors, following the contextualization and matching principles between predictors, mediators and criteria, and by revealing two mechanisms behind the detrimental effects of laissez-faire leadership on safety outcomes.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Punishment , Reward , Safety , China , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Social Justice
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760011

ABSTRACT

Justice-involved youth are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, and structural barriers may limit their access to vaccination. We implemented a COVID-19 vaccination initiative for justice-involved youth residing at the county juvenile detention center and enrolled in local community-based monitoring programs. Our overarching goal was to increase COVID-19 vaccine access and uptake for justice-involved youth in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Our efforts incorporated: a virtual forum with youth, guardians, and community partners; one-on-one outreach to guardians; motivational interviewing with youth; and coordination with organizational leaders. We collaborated with a multidisciplinary medical team to offer individualized education and counseling to parents and youth expressing vaccine hesitancy. We developed a logistical framework to ensure complete COVID-19 vaccination series for all youth, including centralized tracking and implementation of multiple community-based vaccine clinics. Through our initiative, 31 justice-involved youth have received at least 1 dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 50 doses have been administered as a result of this initiative. This work has reaffirmed hypothesized barriers to vaccine access among justice-involved youth, including limited parental involvement, inadequate transportation, vaccine misinformation, and distrust rooted in histories of medical mistreatment of communities of color. Best practices for promoting equitable vaccination efforts among vulnerable subgroups include partnering closely with diverse community members; offering individualized, strengths-based counseling on vaccine safety, efficacy, and importance; and demonstrating provider trustworthiness by recognizing histories of oppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Social Justice , Vaccination
4.
Bioethics ; 36(3): 252-259, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731097

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we take up the call to further examine structural injustice in health, and racial inequalities in particular. We examine the many facets of racism: structural, interpersonal and institutional as they appeared in the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, and emphasize the relevance of their systemic character. We suggest that such inequalities were entirely foreseeable, for their causal mechanisms are deeply ingrained in our social structures. It is by recognizing the conventional, un-extraordinary nature of racism within social systems that we can begin to address socially mediated health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Social Justice
5.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(12): 1099-1100, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724215
6.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 11, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The expectation of pandemic-induced severe resource shortages has prompted authorities to draft and update frameworks to guide clinical decision-making and patient triage. While these documents differ in scope, they share a utilitarian focus on the maximization of benefit. This utilitarian view necessarily marginalizes certain groups, in particular individuals with increased medical needs. MAIN BODY: Here, we posit that engagement with the disability critique demands that we broaden our understandings of justice and fairness in clinical decision-making and patient triage. We propose the capabilities theory, which recognizes that justice requires a range of positive capabilities/freedoms conducive to the achievement of meaningful life goals, as a means to do so. Informed by a disability rights critique of the clinical response to the pandemic, we offer direction for the construction of future clinical triage protocols which will avoid ableist biases by incorporating a broader apprehension of what it means to be human. CONCLUSION: The clinical pandemic response, codified across triage protocols, should embrace a form of justice which incorporates a vision of pluralistic human capabilities and a valuing of positive freedoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triage , Ethical Analysis , Freedom , Humans , Social Justice
7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 149: 10-17, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693210

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCW) are at high risk for suicide, yet little is known about the onset of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) in this important segment of the population in conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study of Spanish HCW active during the COVID-9 pandemic. A total of n = 4809 HCW participated at baseline (May-September 2020; i.e., just after the first wave of the pandemic) and at a four-month follow-up assessment (October-December 2020) using web-based surveys. Logistic regression assessed the individual- and population-level associations of separate proximal (pandemic) risk factors with four-month STB incidence (i.e., 30-day STB among HCW negative for 30-day STB at baseline), each time adjusting for distal (pre-pandemic) factors. STB incidence was estimated at 4.2% (SE = 0.5; n = 1 suicide attempt). Adjusted for distal factors, proximal risk factors most strongly associated with STB incidence were various sources of interpersonal stress (scaled 0-4; odds ratio [OR] range = 1.23-1.57) followed by personal health-related stress and stress related to the health of loved ones (scaled 0-4; OR range 1.30-1.32), and the perceived lack of healthcare center preparedness (scaled 0-4; OR = 1.34). Population-attributable risk proportions for these proximal risk factors were in the range 45.3-57.6%. Other significant risk factors were financial stressors (OR range 1.26-1.81), isolation/quarantine due to COVID-19 (OR = 1.53) and having changed to a specific COVID-19 related work location (OR = 1.72). Among other interventions, our findings call for healthcare systems to implement adequate conflict communication and resolution strategies and to improve family-work balance embedded in organizational justice strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Social Justice , Spain/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
9.
Ind Health ; 60(1): 75-78, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677635

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anaesthesiology residents in a COVID-19 hub hospital in Latium and ascertain their level of perceived justice and work-related stress. Residents and specialist anaesthesiologists were recruited during April-May 2020. Informational and procedural justice were measured with the Organizational Justice questionnaire; work-related stress was measured with the Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaire. Interns perceived a significantly lower level of informational justice than specialists. Organizational justice protected from occupational stress (OR=0.860, CI95% 0.786-0.940). Our findings suggest that it would be useful to improve knowledge of safety measures in trainees, increasing their confidence in work organization and reducing stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anesthetists , Humans , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 45(1): 3-21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662136

ABSTRACT

The crucible of the COVIDicene distills critical issues for nursing knowledge as we navigate our dystopian present while unpacking our oppressive past and reimagining a radical future. Using Barbara Carper's patterns of knowing as a jumping-off point, the authors instigate provocations around traditional disciplinary theorizing for how to value, ground, develop, and position knowledge as nurses. The pandemic has presented nurses with opportunities to shift toward creating a more inclusive and just epistemology. Moving forward, we propose an unfettering of the patterns of knowing, centering emancipatory knowing, ultimately resulting in liberating the patterns from siloization, cocreating justice for praxis.


Subject(s)
Knowledge , Nursing Theory , Humans , Social Justice
13.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 45(1): 53-68, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662135

ABSTRACT

The converging crises of COVID-19 and racist state violence in 2020 shifted public discourse about marginalization, public health, and racism in unprecedented ways. Nursing responded to the pandemic with heroic commitment and new politicization. But public engagement with systemic racism is forcing a reckoning in nursing. The profession has its own history of racism and of alliance with systems of state control with which to contend. In this article, we argue nursing must adopt an ethics of abolitionism to realize its goals for health and justice. Abolitionism theorizes that policing and prison systems, originating from systems of enslavement and colonial rule, continue to function as originally intended, causing racial oppression and violence. The harms of these systems will not be resolved through their reform but through creation of entirely new approaches to community support. Nursing as a collective can contribute to abolitionist projects through advocacy, practice, and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Feminism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice
14.
Work ; 71(2): 395-405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The imposition of telework by the COVID-19 pandemic represented a challenge for companies and workers with regard to the management and organization of the workplace at home. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ergonomic risks, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms as well as the relationships between these variables in employees of a Brazilian labor judiciary unit. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 55 employees who had their workstations evaluated by means of the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA-Br) and answered a questionnaire of sociodemographic and occupational characterization, the dimensions of workstation and posture of the Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ-Br-revised), the short version of the Job Stress Scale and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). RESULTS: The workstations evaluations by ROSA-Br and MUEQ-Br-revised showed a strong correlation between themselves and to body posture, but they were not related to the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Body posture and demands were correlated to each other and with to occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Shoulders, neck and wrists / hands were the most affected body regions. CONCLUSIONS: Companies that adopt teleworking for their employees must be aware of working conditions at home, including the workload, and offer adequate support in order to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking
15.
Int J Health Geogr ; 21(1): 1, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633795

ABSTRACT

This article provides a state-of-the-art summary of location privacy issues and geoprivacy-preserving methods in public health interventions and health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Synthetic data generation (from real data using machine learning) is discussed in detail as a promising privacy-preserving approach. To fully achieve their goals, privacy-preserving methods should form part of a wider comprehensive socio-technical framework for the appropriate disclosure, use and dissemination of data containing personal identifiable information. Select highlights are also presented from a related December 2021 AAG (American Association of Geographers) webinar that explored ethical and other issues surrounding the use of geospatial data to address public health issues during challenging crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Privacy , Confidentiality , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 146: 67-76, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632576

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had a significant global impact, with all countries facing the challenge of mitigating its spread. An unprecedented shortage of medical resources has raised concerns regarding allocation and prioritization of supplies, which may exacerbate social discrepancies for already vulnerable populations. As public opinion can impact healthcare policies, we aimed to characterize perceptions of psychiatric, forensic psychiatry, correctional, and elderly populations regarding COVID-19-related issues. This web-based study recruited participants (n = 583) from the general population in North America. The survey included perceptions of the pandemic, hypothetical scenarios on resource prioritization, and Likert scale questions. The majority of participants were cisgender female (72.7%), aged 31-74 years (80.0%), married (48.0%), retired (52.7%), resided in Canada (73.9%), had a college/university degree (50.9%) and had never worked in healthcare (66.21%). Most respondents reported not having a criminal history (95.88%), or a psychiatric disorder (78.73%). Perceptions of vulnerable populations were significantly different for resource allocation and prioritization (e.g., ventilator and vaccine resources, all p < 0.001). Healthcare workers and the elderly were commonly ranked the highest priority for resources, while forensic psychiatry and correctional populations were given the lowest priority. A high rate of disagreement was found for the more stigmatizing questions in the survey (all p < 0.0001). Our results suggest that perception from members of the general public in North America is aligned with current practices for resource allocation. However, individuals that already face social and health disparities may face additional opposition in decision-making for COVID-19 resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Humans , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice
17.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 252, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite gendered dimensions of COVID-19 becoming increasingly apparent, the impact of COVID-19 and other respiratory epidemics on women and girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) have yet to be synthesized. This review uses a reproductive justice framework to systematically review empirical evidence of the indirect impacts of respiratory epidemics on SRH. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for original, peer-reviewed articles related to respiratory epidemics and women and girls' SRH through May 31, 2021. Studies focusing on various SRH outcomes were included, however those exclusively examining pregnancy, perinatal-related outcomes, and gender-based violence were excluded due to previously published systematic reviews on these topics. The review consisted of title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data abstraction. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies met all eligibility criteria. These studies emphasized that COVID-19 resulted in service disruptions that effected access to abortion, contraceptives, HIV/STI testing, and changes in sexual behaviors, menstruation, and pregnancy intentions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to enact policies that ensure equitable, timely access to quality SRH services for women and girls, despite quarantine and distancing policies. Research gaps include understanding how COVID-19 disruptions in SRH service provision, access and/or utilization have impacted underserved populations and those with intersectional identities, who faced SRH inequities notwithstanding an epidemic. More robust research is also needed to understand the indirect impact of COVID-19 and epidemic control measures on a wider range of SRH outcomes (e.g., menstrual disorders, fertility services, gynecologic oncology) in the long-term.


The impact of respiratory epidemics, like COVID-19 on women and girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is not yet known. This review applies a reproductive justice framework, to systematically review the impact of respiratory epidemics on SRH, in order to examine the impact of COVID-19 on equitable, sustained access to quality SRH services for all populations. This framework highlights the right to reproductive autonomy, including the right to have an abortion, conceive, bear and raise children; and is inclusive of the intersectionality of race, class and gender. This review includes original, peer-reviewed research related to COVID-19 and women and girls' SRH through May 31, 2021, and consisted of title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data abstraction. Overall, twenty-four studies met eligibility criteria. Results emphasize that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in service disruptions that effected access to abortion, contraceptives, HIV/STI testing, and changes in changes in sexual behaviors, menstruation, and pregnancy intentions. These findings highlight the urgent need to enact policies that ensure equitable, timely access to quality SRH services for women and girls, despite pandemic response policies. This review also highlights opportunities to better understand how COVID-19 related disruptions in SRH service provision, access and/or utilization have impacted underserved populations and those with intersectional identities, who faced SRH inequities prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. More research is needed to understand the indirect impact of COVID-19 and epidemic control measures on a wider range of SRH outcomes (e.g., menstrual disorders, fertility services, gynecologic oncology) in the long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Social Justice
18.
Transl Behav Med ; 12(2): 284-290, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626747

ABSTRACT

Understanding how individual beliefs and societal values influence support for measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission is vital to developing and implementing effective prevention policies. Using both Just World Theory and Cultural Dimensions Theory, the present study considered how individual-level justice beliefs and country-level social values predict support for vaccination and quarantine policy mandates to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Data from an international survey of adults from 46 countries (N = 6424) were used to evaluate how individual-level beliefs about justice for self and others, as well as national values-that is, power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and indulgence-influence support for vaccination and quarantine behavioral mandates. Multilevel modeling revealed that support for vaccination and quarantine mandates were positively associated with individual-level beliefs about justice for self, and negatively associated with country-level uncertainty avoidance. Significant cross-level interactions revealed that beliefs about justice for self were associated more strongly with support for mandatory vaccination in countries high in individualism, whereas beliefs about justice for others were more strongly associated with support for vaccination and quarantine mandates in countries high in long-term orientation. Beliefs about justice and cultural values can independently and also interactively influence support for evidence-based practices to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as vaccination and quarantine. Understanding these multilevel influences may inform efforts to develop and implement effective prevention policies in varied national contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Vaccination
19.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(4): 611-621, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616890

ABSTRACT

In the face of limited resources during the COVID-19 pandemic response, public health experts and ethicists have sought to apply guiding principles in determining how those resources, including vaccines, should be allocated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethicists , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice
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