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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117115, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308937

ABSTRACT

Importance: Social distancing is critical to the control of COVID-19, which has disproportionately affected the Black community. Physician-delivered messages may increase adherence to these behaviors. Objectives: To determine whether messages delivered by physicians improve COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors and to assess the differential effectiveness of messages tailored to the Black community. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial of self-identified White and Black adults with less than a college education was conducted from August 7 to September 6, 2020. Of 44 743 volunteers screened, 30 174 were eligible, 5534 did not consent or failed attention checks, and 4163 left the survey before randomization. The final sample had 20 460 individuals (participation rate, 68%). Participants were randomly assigned to receive video messages on COVID-19 or other health topics. Interventions: Participants saw video messages delivered either by a Black or a White study physician. In the control groups, participants saw 3 placebo videos with generic health topics. In the treatment group, they saw 3 videos on COVID-19, recorded by several physicians of varied age, gender, and race. Video 1 discussed common symptoms. Video 2 highlighted case numbers; in one group, the unequal burden of the disease by race was discussed. Video 3 described US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention social distancing guidelines. Participants in both the control and intervention groups were also randomly assigned to see 1 of 2 American Medical Association statements, one on structural racism and the other on drug price transparency. Main Outcomes and Measures: Knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to COVID-19, demand for information, willingness to pay for masks, and self-reported behavior. Results: Overall, 18 223 participants (9168 Black; 9055 White) completed the survey (9980 [55.9%] women, mean [SD] age, 40.2 [17.8] years). Overall, 6303 Black participants (34.6%) and 7842 White participants (43.0%) were assigned to the intervention group, and 1576 Black participants (8.6%) and 1968 White participants (10.8%) were assigned to the control group. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had smaller gaps in COVID-19 knowledge (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.87-0.91]) and greater demand for COVID-19 information (IRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.01-1.11]), willingness to pay for a mask (difference, $0.50 [95% CI, $0.15-$0.85]). Self-reported safety behavior improved, although the difference was not statistically significant (IRR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.01]; P = .08). Effects did not differ by race (F = 0.0112; P > .99) or in different intervention groups (F = 0.324; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a physician messaging campaign was effective in increasing COVID-19 knowledge, information-seeking, and self-reported protective behaviors among diverse groups. Studies implemented at scale are needed to confirm clinical importance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04502056.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Physicians , Racism , Adult , Communication , Cultural Competency , Educational Status , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Marketing , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302303

ABSTRACT

Dance is proven to offer a myriad of physical, psychological, and social benefits. However, because dance has been frequently perceived as a feminine practice, there is a prevailing prejudice towards boys who dance, making it hard for them to engage in this physical activity. Social marketing has been presented as a promising framework to deal with different social problems, including prejudice, although its effectiveness is still difficult to establish. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), a quasi-experimental study involving a sample of 436 children and adolescents, composed of 51.38% boys and 48.62% girls was implemented to measure the effectiveness of a Social Marketing Intervention (SMI) in reducing prejudice towards dance and boys who dance, in particular, and in increasing their intentions to practice this physical activity. The study furthermore aimed to compare the influence of the SMI on participants of two different stages of child development to ascertain when it is most effective to intervene. The questionnaire was used to collect information and included items derived from relevant literature. To assess differences between children and adolescents before and after the SMI, the analysis relied on independent t-tests and paired t-tests. Results suggest positive effects of the SMI on some dimensions of the TPB.


Subject(s)
Dancing , Adolescent , Child , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Prejudice , Psychological Theory , Social Marketing
5.
Health Secur ; 19(1): 31-43, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174869

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate how message construction, style, content, and the textual content of embedded images impacted message retransmission over the course of the first 8 months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We analyzed a census of public communications (n = 372,466) from 704 public health agencies, state and local emergency management agencies, and elected officials posted on Twitter between January 1 and August 31, 2020, measuring message retransmission via the number of retweets (ie, a message passed on by others), an important indicator of engagement and reach. To assess content, we extended a lexicon developed from the early months of the pandemic to identify key concepts within messages, employing it to analyze both the textual content of messages themselves as well as text included within embedded images (n = 233,877), which was extracted via optical character recognition. Finally, we modelled the message retransmission process using a negative binomial regression, which allowed us to quantify the extent to which particular message features amplify or suppress retransmission, net of controls related to timing and properties of the sending account. In addition to identifying other predictors of retransmission, we show that the impact of images is strongly driven by content, with textual information in messages and embedded images operating in similar ways. We offer potential recommendations for crafting and deploying social media messages that can "cut through the noise" of an infodemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health Informatics/methods , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Marketing
6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(1): 209-211, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734445

ABSTRACT

In a pilot study, we wanted to influence the food selection of employees in a pediatric clinic bistro aiming to increase the sale of "healthy" grain buns (number and proportion of all sold buns). During basic assessment, the mean weekly sale of grain buns was 98 (52.3%) and in the second week of highlighting them on a green napkin under a transparent hood (intervention 1) reached 124 (54.6%). However, just when starting intervention 2 (position in front of the display), the bistro was closed due to the Coronavirus pandemic. Thus, necessary public health measures stopped our interventional public health experiment.


Subject(s)
Consciousness , Diet , Environment , Food Preferences , Health Promotion/methods , Social Marketing , Whole Grains , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19 , Commerce , Communicable Disease Control , Communication , Feasibility Studies , Food Preferences/psychology , Food Service, Hospital , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Research Design
8.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(2): 182-189, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744488

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, government social marketing messages support strategies of suppression (often stay-at-home orders or lockdowns) and/or mitigation (through testing, isolation, and tracing). Success at lowering the virus reproduction rate (R0) depends on social marketing messaging that rapidly changes behaviors. This study explores a potential side effect of a successful antivirus public health messaging campaign, when employees are back at work but the virus threat has not disappeared, that leads to on-the-job stress. The authors surveyed office employees in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, where a nearly 2-month COVID-19 quarantine ended in late March 2020 and work locations reopened with strong public health messaging to encourage cooperation with continued virus spread suppression strategies-an approach likely to be followed in numerous countries. This study examines the relationship of pandemic public messaging sensitivity with tension and negative emotions on the job. Canonical correlation analysis is used with a sample of 1154 respondents, 4 predictor variables (reference group, self-regulation, media, and risk), and 2 criterion variables (negative emotions and job tension). Results show employees are differentially affected by the pandemic background noise. Those more sensitive to social-level virus risks and more open to reference group influence report increased levels of negative emotions and work tension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Communication , Return to Work/psychology , Social Marketing , Social Media , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Young Adult
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