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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18974, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133586

ABSTRACT

Societal challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic have the quality of a social dilemma, in that they compel people to choose between acting in their own interests or the interests of a larger collective. Empirical evidence shows that the choices people make in a social dilemma are influenced by how this decision is framed. In four studies, we examined how context of an epidemic influences resource allocation decisions in a nested social dilemma task, where participants share resources between themselves, their subgroup, and a larger collective. Participants consistently allocated more resources to the collective in the context of the Ebola epidemic than in the context of a neighborhood improvement project, and these choices were strongly associated with prescriptive social norms. Together, the findings provide an experimental demonstration that the context of a quickly spreading disease encourages people to act more prosocially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Norms , Resource Allocation
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276936, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adherence to behavioral measures such as physical distancing are key to mitigating the effects of viral pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence depends in part on people's perception of what others do (descriptive norms) or approve of (injunctive norms). This study examines the effects that exposure to images depicting people following or breaking physical distancing rules have on perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms and subsequent adherence behavior. METHODS: An online between-subjects experiment (n = 315) was conducted, in which participants were exposed to a set of five photographs of different public spaces in which people either did or did not adhere to physical distancing rules (pre-registration: https://www.osf.io/uek2p). Participants' adherence behavior was measured using a triangulation of measures (incentivized online behavioral task, vignettes, intention measure). Perceptions of relevant social norms were also measured. RESULTS: Mann-Whitney tests showed no effects of condition on perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms or on adherence behavior. Linear regressions showed that both component paths of the indirect effect (condition on norm perceptions, and norm perceptions on adherence behavior) were non-significant, hence mediation analyses were not conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to images of people following (compared to breaking) physical distancing rules did not affect adherence to such rules or perceived norms. We surmise that a single exposure to such images, especially in the context of COVID-19, is insufficient to affect behavior. We therefore recommend performing a comparable experiment in which participants are exposed repeatedly to images showing people (non)adhering to a specific behavior in a particular context for a longer period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Norms , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention
3.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087775

ABSTRACT

Failure of individuals to voluntarily observe regulations and recommendations around mitigating COVID-19 (e.g. social distancing; frequent handwashing) is often cited as a reason why some countries struggled to curtail the spread of the virus. Understanding the factors that are associated with people's willingness to comply with COVID-19 regulations and recommendations is an important step in helping policy makers and health officials reduce the impact of this (and future) pandemics. In the current study we examined this question in one of the countries hardest hit by the pandemic: Spain. A large, representative survey (N = 2100) revealed that several factors were positively associated with willingness to comply to COVID-19 regulations and recommendations. In decreasing order of predictive value, these were: (i) perceptions of whether friends and family were complying (i.e. norms), (ii) trust in science as a basis for lawmaking, (iii) perceived effectiveness of regulations and (iv) perception of risk of infection. These results point to the importance of influencing social norms as the primary way to improve adherence to the health regulations of COVID-19; more important than intrapsychic considerations such as efficacy and risk.


Responding effectively to a pandemic such as COVID-19 requires citizens to voluntarily comply with certain recommendations and regulations; for example, social distancing and frequent handwashing. The current study examined a large, representative sample of over 2000 residents of Spain to find out what factors are associated with compliance (or non-compliance) with COVID-19 regulations and recommendations. The factor most closely associated with compliance was perceptions of whether friends and family were complying (i.e. the 'social norm'). The second most important factor was trust in science as a basis for lawmaking. Two psychological factors that are normally considered important in driving health behaviours­perceived effectiveness of regulations and perception of risk of infection­had a much weaker relationship with compliance behaviours. The data suggest that social norms are a more important driver of compliance behaviour than individualistic, cost-benefit analyses such as whether the recommended strategies are perceived to be effective in reducing virus spread, and whether people feel they are personally at risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. In sum, the results point to the importance of influencing social norms as a key way to improve adherence to health regulations associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spain , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Self Report , Social Norms , Perception
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082309

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, improving the public's understanding of the increased efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines through scientific risk communication campaigns, promoting the public's acceptance and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines, and forming collective actions at the social level will deeply impact on the effect of COVID-19 prevention in various countries, which is also a key factor that governments need to address urgently. Previous research on risk communication has mostly focused on microscopic perspectives of how to stimulate individual self-protection behaviors by awakening threat and efficacy perceptions; however, a lack of observation of social collective actions means there is a risk of failure regarding COVID-19 epidemic reduction and prevention. In this regard, this study was based on the issue of vaccination in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic through a highly regulated and controlled research experiment in China (n = 165), which was designed to examine the impact of two risk communication frameworks, appealing to individual fears and appealing to social norms, on the public's acceptance and recommendations of COVID-19 vaccines, thus outlining the path of action from individual protection to collective epidemic prevention. Both the "fear appeals" framework and the "social norms" framework were found to have a positive effect on the Chinese public's vaccination acceptance. Specifically, social norms information may increase vaccination acceptance by enhancing the public's perceptions of social responsibility, while fear appeals information may reduce their perceptions of threat and social pressure to get the vaccine. Female and highly educated groups were more likely to refuse to recommend vaccination after reading the risk communication information. These results can be a useful supplement to the theory and practice of risk communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Norms , Vaccination , Communication , Fear
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1219, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uganda has low levels of death registration, estimated at two per cent by the National Identification and Registration Authority (NIRA). There are 56 tribes and over 5 religious denominations with so many social norms and religious practices that could have contributed to low death registration in Uganda. Previous studies on the factors affecting death registration have not assessed the contribution of social norms and religious practices toward low death registration in developing countries. METHODS: A qualitative study design was adopted to examine the contribution of social norms and religious practices toward low death registration in the 3 Health and Demographic Surveillance systems (HDSS) sites of Uganda. The methods of data collection included: focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and a document review of the death registration booklet. 6 FGDs, 2 from each HDSS site were conducted comprising 1 female FGD of 10 participants and 1 male FGD of 10 participants. In addition, 26 key informant interviews were conducted with the district leaders, local council leaders, health care workers, cultural leaders, elderly, HDSS scouts and religious leaders in the 3 HDSS sites. RESULTS: In the 4 sub-counties and 1 town council where the study was conducted, only 32 deaths were registered with NIRA, the Civil Registration authority in Uganda for the entire year from 1st January to 31st December 2020. The study shows that social norms and religious practices have contributed to the low death registration in the 3 HDSS sites in Uganda. Social norms and religious practices either hinder or discourage death registration initiatives by the government of Uganda. It was found out that burials that take place on the same day of death discourage death registration. Cultural taboo to announcing the death of infants, neonates, twins and suicides in the community hinder death registration. The burying of a woman at her parent's house after bride price payment default by the family of a husband discourages death registration. The religious institutions have their own set of rules, practices, and norms, which in most cases discourage death registration. For example, religious leaders refuse to lead funeral prayers for non-active members in religious activities. Results also showed that mixed religions in families bring about conflicts that undermine death registration. Lastly, results showed that traditionalists do not seek medical treatment in hospitals and this hinders death registration at the health facilities. CONCLUSION: The study shows that death registration is very low in the 3 HDSS sites in Uganda and that social norms and religious practices contribute greatly to the low death registration. To overcome the negative effects of social norms and religious practices, a social behaviour campaign is proposed. In addition, community dialogue should be conducted to identify all negative social norms and religious practices, how they are perpetuated, their effects, and how they can be renegotiated or eliminated to bring about high death registration in the 3 HDSS sites of Uganda. Lastly, there is a need for partnerships with cultural and religious leaders to sensitize community members on the effect of social norms and religious practices on low death registration in the 3 HDSS sites in Uganda.


Subject(s)
Social Norms , Suicide , Aged , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Medical Assistance , Uganda
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1403, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957057

ABSTRACT

Social norms can coordinate individuals and groups during collective threats. Pandemic-related social norms (e.g., wearing masks, social distancing) emerged to curb the spread of COVID-19. However, little is known about the psychological consequences of the emerging norms. We conducted three experiments cross-culturally, during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic in China (Study 1), the recovery period in China (Study 2), and the severe period in the United States and Canada (Study 3). Across the three studies, we first distinguished the opposite effects of social norms and risk perception on individuals' psychological characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic and further revealed that individuals who perceived stronger pandemic norms reported a lower level of COVID-19 risk perception, which in turn would be associated with fewer negative emotions, lower pressure, more positive emotions, higher levels of trusts, and more confidence in fighting against COVID-19. Our findings show that perceived tighter social norms are linked to beneficial psychological outcomes. This research helps governments, institutions, and individuals understand the mechanism and benefits of social norms during the pandemic, thereby facilitating policy formulation and better responses to social crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Perception , Social Norms , United States/epidemiology
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2118770119, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937496

ABSTRACT

The theory that health behaviors spread through social groups implies that efforts to control COVID-19 through vaccination will succeed if people believe that others in their groups are getting vaccinated. But "others" can refer to many groups, including one's family, neighbors, fellow city or state dwellers, or copartisans. One challenge to examining these understudied distinctions is that many factors may confound observed relationships between perceived social norms (what people believe others do) and intended behaviors (what people themselves will do), as there are plausible common causes for both. We address these issues using survey data collected in the United States during late fall 2020 (n = 824) and spring 2021 (n = 996) and a matched design that approximates pair-randomized experiments. We find a strong relationship between perceived vaccination social norms and vaccination intentions when controlling for real risk factors (e.g., age), as well as dimensions known to predict COVID-19 preventive behaviors (e.g., trust in scientists). The strength of the relationship declines as the queried social group grows larger and more heterogeneous. The relationship for copartisans is second in magnitude to that of family and friends among Republicans but undetectable for Democrats. Sensitivity analysis shows that these relationships could be explained away only by an unmeasured variable with large effects (odds ratios between 2 and 15) on social norms perceptions and vaccination intentions. In addition, a prediction from the "false consensus" view that intentions cause perceived social norms is not supported. We discuss the implications for public health policy and understanding social norms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intention , Social Norms , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , United States , Vaccination/psychology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine uptake rates have been historically low in correctional settings. To better understand vaccine hesitancy in these high-risk settings, we explored reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal among people in federal prisons. METHODS: Three maximum security all-male federal prisons in British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario (Canada) were chosen, representing prisons with the highest proportions of COVID-19 vaccine refusal. Using a qualitative descriptive design and purposive sampling, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with incarcerated people who had previously refused at least one COVID-19 vaccine until data saturation was achieved. An inductive-deductive thematic analysis of audio-recorded interview transcripts was conducted using the Conceptual Model of Vaccine Hesitancy. RESULTS: Between May 19-July 8, 2021, 14 participants were interviewed (median age: 30 years; n = 7 Indigenous, n = 4 visible minority, n = 3 White). Individual-, interpersonal-, and system-level factors were identified. Three were particularly relevant to the correctional setting: 1) Risk perception: participants perceived that they were at lower risk of COVID-19 due to restricted visits and interactions; 2) Health care services in prison: participants reported feeling "punished" and stigmatized due to strict COVID-19 restrictions, and failed to identify personal benefits of vaccination due to the lack of incentives; 3) Universal distrust: participants expressed distrust in prison employees, including health care providers. INTERPRETATION: Reasons for vaccine refusal among people in prison are multifaceted. Educational interventions could seek to address COVID-19 risk misconceptions in prison settings. However, impact may be limited if trust is not fostered and if incentives are not considered in vaccine promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisoners/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Alberta , Attitude , British Columbia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Norms , Social Responsibility , Young Adult
11.
JAMA ; 327(18): 1823-1824, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864212
12.
Vaccine ; 40(27): 3752-3760, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With continued challenges to the timeline for polio transmission interruption in Pakistan, including COVID-19, there is a risk of oral polio vaccine campaign fatigue among caregivers of young children. Renewed efforts to minimize oral polio vaccine acceptance erosion may be needed. This study examines the possible role of social norms in protecting against acceptance erosion and the role of vaccinators in promoting these social norms. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a poll conducted by local interview teams between February 23 and April 5, 2016, among 4,070 parents and other caregivers of children under age 5 living in areas at high-risk for polio transmission in Pakistan. The sample was drawn via a stratified multistage cluster design utilizing random route methods at the household level. We calculated the prevalence of subjective and descriptive social norms around vaccine acceptance; vaccine acceptance and commitment to vaccinate in future; and experiences and views of polio vaccinators across the population. We examined the relationship between these social norms and vaccination behaviors as well as the relationship between experiences with and views of vaccinators and social norms using uncontrolled comparisons (t-tests of proportion) and logistic repressions to control for demographics. RESULTS: Both descriptive and subjective positive social norms were associated with vaccine acceptance and future commitment. Positive experiences with and views of vaccinators (trust, perceived technical knowledge, compassion, and overall pleasantness of the interaction) were associated with both descriptive and subjective positive social norms. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the idea that positive social norms could be protective against erosion of oral polio vaccine acceptance and that positive experiences with, and views of, vaccinators could help promote these positive social norms. Creative community engagement efforts may be able to leverage positive experiences with vaccinators to help foster social norms and protect against the risk of acceptance erosion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Social Norms , Vaccination
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105452, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799852

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has had a significant influence on social interactions, introducing novel social norms such as mask-wearing and social distancing to protect people's health. Because these norms and associated practices are completely novel, it is unknown how children assess what kinds of interventions are appropriate under what circumstances and what principles they draw on in their decisions. We investigated children's reasoning about interventions against individuals who failed to adhere to COVID-19 norms. In this pre-registered study (N = 128), 4- to 7-year-olds heard stories about a norm violator, that is, a person who refuses to wear a mask in class (COVID condition) or wear indoor shoes in class when his or her shoes are muddy (Muddy Shoes condition). Children evaluated four different interventions-giving a mask/indoor shoes (Giving), preventing the person from entering (Exclusion), throwing a paper ball at the person (Throwing), and not intervening (Doing Nothing)-in terms of their rightness, niceness, and effectiveness. We found that across measures children evaluated Giving most positively, whereas they viewed Throwing most negatively. Doing Nothing and Exclusion received mixed evaluations across measures, revealing nuanced judgments of these interventions in children. In most measures, there was no difference between the COVID and Muddy Shoes conditions, suggesting that children's evaluations are not specific to the novel COVID-19 context. Together, our results show that children dynamically evaluate each intervention, taking multiple factors into account. The current study has implications for the development of interventions against norm violations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Judgment , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Problem Solving , Social Norms
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e048929, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To design and test the psychometric properties of four context-specific norm-related scales around handwashing with soap after toilet use: (1) perceived handwashing descriptive norms (HWDN); (2) perceived handwashing injunctive norms (HWIN); (3) perceived handwashing behaviour publicness (HWP); and (4) perceived handwashing outcome expectations (HWOE). DESIGN: Scale items were developed based on previous work and pilot tested in an iterative process. Content experts and members of the study team assessed the face validity of the items. The psychometric properties of the scales were assessed in a cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was conducted in communal housing compounds in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 201 adult residents (≥16 years old) from 60 housing compounds completed the final questionnaire. OUTCOME MEASURE: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the goodness of fit of the global model. We assessed the internal consistency of each scale using Cronbach's alpha (α) and the Spearman-Brown coefficient (ρ). RESULTS: The results of the psychometric tests supported the construct validity of three of the four scales, with no factor identified for the HWOE (α=0.15). The HWDN and HWP scales were internally consistent with correlations of ρ=0.74 and ρ=0.63, respectively. The HWIN scale appeared reliable (α=0.83). CONCLUSION: We were able to design three reliable context-specific handwashing norm-related scales, specific to economically disadvantaged community settings in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, but failed to construct a reliable scale to measure outcome expectations around handwashing. The social desirability of handwashing and the narrow content area of social norms constructs relating to handwashing present significant challenges when designing items to measure such constructs. Future studies attempting to measure handwashing norm-related constructs will need to take this into account when developing such scales, and take care to adapt their scales to their study context.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Social Norms , Adolescent , Adult , Cote d'Ivoire , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 842177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792876

ABSTRACT

Background: According to a recent paper by Gelfand et al., COVID-19 infection and case mortality rates are closely connected to the strength of social norms: "Tighter" cultures that abide by strict social norms are more successful in combating the pandemic than "looser" cultures that are more permissive. However, countries with similar levels of cultural tightness exhibit big differences in mortality rates. We are investigating potential explanations for this fact. Using data from Germany and Japan-two "tight" countries with very different infection and mortality rates-we examined how differences in socio-demographic and other determinants explain differences in individual preventive attitudes and behaviors. Methods: We compared preventive attitudes and behaviors in 2020 based on real-time representative survey data and used logit regression models to study how individual attitudes and behaviors are shaped by four sets of covariates: individual socio-demographics, health, personality, and regional-level controls. Employing Blinder-Oaxaca regression techniques, we quantified the extent to which differences in averages of the covariates between Japan and Germany explain the differences in the observed preventive attitudes and behaviors. Results: In Germany and Japan, similar proportions of the population supported mandatory vaccination, avoided travel, and avoided people with symptoms of a cold. In Germany, however, a significantly higher proportion washed their hands frequently and avoided crowds, physical contact, public transport, peak-hour shopping, and contact with the elderly. In Japan, a significantly higher proportion were willing to be vaccinated. We also show that attitudes and behaviors varied significantly more with covariates in Germany than in Japan. Differences in averages of the covariates contribute little to explaining the observed differences in preventive attitudes and behaviors between the two countries. Conclusion: Consistent with tightness-looseness theory, the populations of Japan and Germany responded similarly to the pandemic. The observed differences in infection and fatality rates therefore cannot be explained by differences in behavior. The major difference in attitudes is the willingness to be vaccinated, which was much higher in Japan. Furthermore, the Japanese population behaved more uniformly across social groups than the German population. This difference in the degree of homogeneity has important implications for the effectiveness of policy measures during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Norms
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 747823, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775923

ABSTRACT

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice with no benefits and considerable harm to girls and women who undergo it. In 2016, the United Nations Joint Program to Eliminate FGM, funded the development and subsequent validation of a monitoring and evaluation framework to understand the relationship between social norms and practicing FGM. Evidence on the framework was gathered through a pilot study in Ethiopia. This paper uses cross-sectional quantitative data from the pilot to operationalize the framework and determine what factors are associated with practicing FGM. A total of 554 and 481 participants answered the question "Have you undergone FGM?" and "Do you know a family member who has undergone FGM?" respectively. Overall, 65% of participants said they had undergone FGM and 32% said they knew someone in their family who had undergone FGM. Predictors of not undergoing FGM included most progressive attitudes vs. less progressive attitudes about FGM and relationship to identity [OR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.3)]; region [Afar vs. Addis Ababa: OR: 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02-0.5); Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Regions vs. Addis Ababa: OR: 0.1 (95% CI: 0.05-0.3)], being 36 years old and above vs. 10-19 years (OR: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.7)) and being single, never married vs. married or engaged (OR: 2.8 (95% CI: 1.1-7.0)]. Predictors of knowing a family member who has not undergone FGM included: Higher knowledge vs. lower knowledge [OR: 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1-0.5)]; if the family expected you to abandon FGM, you had a greater odds of knowing a family member who had not undergone FGM [43.6 (95% CI: 2.7-687.8)]; coming from Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region was associated with a lower odds of knowing a family member who had not undergone FGM [0.3 (95% CI: 0.1-0.6)]. Being a female influential vs. female caregiver was associated with a higher odds of knowing a family member who had not undergone FGM [2.9 (95% CI: 1.01-5.2)]. This paper has allowed us to validate a theory and research based social norms framework, specifically examining how social and behavior change communication can be used as a mechanism for shifting norms around a given harmful practice. Now that this model has been developed and validated, it is likely to provide a foundation to study the direct and indirect impacts of social norms programming on changing harmful practices, such as FGM.


Subject(s)
Circumcision, Female , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Pilot Projects , Social Norms
17.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 61(4): 1332-1350, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774753

ABSTRACT

The present research focuses on the role of collective, social influence and intraindividual processes in shaping preventive behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. In two correlational studies conducted in Spain, we explored the impact of participation in the ritual of collective applause (carried out daily for over 70 days during the lockdown) and perceived social norms in fostering behavioural adherence to public health measures, as well as the mediating role of perceived emotional synchrony and a sense of moral obligation. The first study (general population, N = 528) was conducted in June 2020, just after the end of the lockdown, and the second study (students, N = 292) was carried out eight months later. The results of the structural equations modelling (SEM) consistently confirmed that active participation in collective applause was linked to more intense emotional synchrony and indirectly predicted self-reported preventive behaviour. Perceived social norms predicted self-reported behavioural compliance directly and also indirectly, via feelings of moral obligation. The discussion addresses some meaningful variations in the results and also focuses on the implications of the findings for both theory and psychosocial intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ceremonial Behavior , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Humans , Moral Obligations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Norms
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 294: 114698, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is often gender bias in access and provision of care. Women fall through the cracks of the healthcare system due to gender-biased norms and poorer socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study uses COVID-19 sex-disaggregated data from 133 countries. Using bootstrapping and imputation methods and heteroscedastic linear regression model, it investigates the effect of biological factors and gender norms on reported differences in male and female COVID-19 case and death rates. RESULTS: Gender norms are significant factors explaining such differences. Countries, where women experience more discrimination in families and have less access to resources, education and finance, report larger differences between male and female rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: Women's lower access to healthcare due to social norms, financial and non-financial barriers may affect women's testing for COVID-19 and access to adequate care, and result in underreported female cases and deaths from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism , Social Norms , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3824, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735265

ABSTRACT

The present paper examines longitudinally how subjective perceptions about COVID-19, one's community, and the government predict adherence to public health measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Using an international survey (N = 3040), we test how infection risk perception, trust in the governmental response and communications about COVID-19, conspiracy beliefs, social norms on distancing, tightness of culture, and community punishment predict various containment-related attitudes and behavior. Autoregressive analyses indicate that, at the personal level, personal hygiene behavior was predicted by personal infection risk perception. At social level, social distancing behaviors such as abstaining from face-to-face contact were predicted by perceived social norms. Support for behavioral mandates was predicted by confidence in the government and cultural tightness, whereas support for anti-lockdown protests was predicted by (lower) perceived clarity of communication about the virus. Results are discussed in light of policy implications and creating effective interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Health Behavior , Public Health , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Norms , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e54, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721344

ABSTRACT

The motivations that govern the adoption of digital contact tracing (DCT) tools are complex and not well understood. Hence, we assessed the factors influencing the acceptance and adoption of Singapore's national DCT tool - TraceTogether - during the COVID-19 pandemic. We surveyed 3943 visitors of Tan Tock Seng Hospital from July 2020 to February 2021 and stratified the analyses into three cohorts. Each cohort was stratified based on the time when significant policy interventions were introduced to increase the adoption of TraceTogether. Binary logistic regression was preceded by principal components analysis to reduce the Likert items. Respondents who 'perceived TraceTogether as useful and necessary' had higher likelihood of accepting it but those with 'Concerns about personal data collected by TraceTogether' had lower likelihood of accepting and adopting the tool. The injunctive and descriptive social norms were also positively associated with both the acceptance and adoption of the tool. Liberal individualism was mixed in the population and negatively associated with the acceptance and adoption of TraceTogether. Policy measures to increase the uptake of a national DCT bridged the digital divide and accelerated its adoption. However, good public communications are crucial to address the barriers of acceptance to improve voluntary uptake widespread adoption.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Digital Technology/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Social Norms , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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