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1.
J Community Psychol ; 50(1): 47-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797869

ABSTRACT

In light of the global crisis created by the outbreak of the coronavirus and the disease it causes, coronavirus disease 2019, the goal of the study was to detect factors that might enhance people's ability to experience positive psychological change during traumatic events. As such, this study examined the relationship between social participation and posttraumatic growth (PTG) during the coronavirus outbreak and tested the mediating role of hope, social support, and cognitive reappraisal in explaining this relationship. The sample consisted of 275 participants (21.8% male, and 78.2% female, with an average age of 33.42, SD = 13.63), subjected to social-distancing regulations during this period. Results demonstrated a serial mediation model in which social participation predicted PTG directly and indirectly through hope (pathways and agency), social support, and cognitive reappraisal. The importance of social participation in nourishing personal resources and practical implications including the need for prevention programs are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation , Social Support
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775932

ABSTRACT

Social isolation and loneliness in older adults are associated with poor health outcomes and have been linked to an increased risk of cognitive impairment and incident dementia. Social engagement has been identified as a key factor in promoting positive health behaviors and quality of life and preventing social isolation and loneliness. Studies involving cognitively healthy older adults have shown the protective effects of both in-person and technology-based social engagement. However, the benefits of social engagement for people who are already at-risk of developing dementia, namely those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), have yet to be elucidated. We present a narrative review of the literature, summarizing the research on social engagement in MCI. First, we identified social networks (quality, size, frequency, and closeness) and social activities (frequency, format, purpose, type, and content) as two overarching dimensions of an integrative framework for social engagement derived from literature examining typical cognitive aging. We then used this framework as a lens to examine studies of social engagement in MCI to explore (i) the relationship between in-person and technology-based social engagement and cognitive, emotional, and physical health, and (ii) interventions that target social engagement including technology-based approaches. Overall, we found that persons with MCI (PwMCI) may have different levels of social engagement than those experiencing typical cognitive aging. Moreover, in-person social engagement can have a positive impact on cognitive, emotional, and physical health for PwMCI. With respect to activity and network dimensions in our framework, we found that cognitive health has been more widely examined in PwMCI relative to physical and emotional health. Very few intervention studies have targeted social engagement, but both in-person and technology-based interventions appear to have promising health and well-being outcomes. Our multidimensional framework of social engagement provides guidance for research on characterizing the protective benefits of social engagement for PwMCI and informs the development of novel interventions including technology-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Quality of Life , Social Participation , Technology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765726

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected the psychological health of older adults directly and indirectly through recommendations of social distancing and isolation. Using the internet or digital tools to participate in society, one might mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on psychological health. This study explores the social participation of older adults through internet use as a social platform during COVID-19 and its relationship with various psychological health aspects. In this study, we used the survey as a research method, and we collected data through telephonic interviews; and online and paper-based questionnaires. The results showed an association of digital social participation with age and feeling lack of company. Furthermore, in addition, to the increase in internet use in older adults in Sweden during COVID-19, we conclude that digital social participation is essential to maintain psychological health in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Participation , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sweden/epidemiology
4.
Health Place ; 74: 102772, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701406

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, it is important to know whether social capital can mitigate the risk of mental disorders, given the restrictions on social interactions. However, evidence using longitudinal data is scarce. This study examined the association between pre-pandemic social capital and depressive symptoms during COVID-19 among older adults. We used longitudinal data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), including 8291 participants aged 65 or older who were physically and cognitively independent and not depressed at baseline. We conducted baseline and follow-up mail surveys in ten municipalities in Japan from November 2019 to January 2020 (pre-pandemic period) and from November 2020 to February 2021 (pandemic period), respectively. We measured depressive symptoms using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Social capital was measured with three validated subscales, namely, civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. We performed a multilevel logistic regression analysis to examine the association. A total of 1089 (13.1%) participants newly developed depressive symptoms during the pandemic. The logistic regression showed that pre-pandemic individual-level social cohesion (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.86) and reciprocity (0.89, 0.82 to 0.96) and community-level reciprocity (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98) were negatively associated with the odds of depressive symptoms. Even after adjusting for declines in social capital during the pandemic, the observed associations of pre-pandemic social capital remained. Fostering social cohesion and reciprocity may increase resilience to mental disorders during a pandemic of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Social Participation
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted the social health of nursing home residents with dementia due to social isolation. Consequently, the frequency of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD) might increase. Technological solutions might help safeguard the social health of nursing home residents with dementia. This study investigates the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical outcomes and the availability of social activities and technology to promote social participation in nursing home residents with dementia. The study analyzed cross-sectional data from a follow-up questionnaire nested in a larger national survey of care facilities in Germany. A mixed-methods approach integrated statistical analyses of closed-ended responses and thematic analysis of free-text responses. A total of 417 valid individual responses were received, showing an overall increase in observed BPSD-with anxiety and depression most frequently occurring. Many nursing homes canceled all social activities for residents with dementia, though a few had established procedures to facilitate social participation using technology. Requirements to promote social participation in this population using technology were identified at the micro-, meso-, and macro levels. Technology requirements permeated all three levels. During and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, technology-driven solutions to promote social health among nursing home residents with dementia should be integrated into caregiving procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/psychology , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation , Technology
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e32, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683881

ABSTRACT

Gatherings where people are eating and drinking can increase the risk of getting and spreading SARS-CoV-2 among people who are not fully vaccinated; prevention strategies like wearing masks and physical distancing continue to be important for some groups. We conducted an online survey to characterise fall/winter 2020-2021 holiday gatherings, decisions to attend and prevention strategies employed during and before gatherings. We determined associations between practicing prevention strategies, demographics and COVID-19 experience. Among 502 respondents, one-third attended in person holiday gatherings; 73% wore masks and 84% practiced physical distancing, but less did so always (29% and 23%, respectively). Younger adults were 44% more likely to attend gatherings than adults ≥35 years. Younger adults (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.97), persons who did not experience COVID-19 themselves or have relatives/close friends experience severe COVID-19 (aPR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.07), and non-Hispanic White persons (aPR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.18) were more likely to not always wear masks in public during the 2 weeks before gatherings. Public health messaging emphasizing consistent application of COVID-19 prevention strategies is important to slow the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Participation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Family , Female , Holidays/psychology , Humans , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Social Participation/psychology , United States , Young Adult
7.
Age Ageing ; 51(2)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: considering the importance of social participation for quality of life and active ageing in older adults, it is an important target of social and health professionals' interventions. A previous review of definitions of social participation in older adults included articles up to 2009; new publications and changes in the social context (e.g. social media and the COVID-19 pandemic) justify continuing this work. OBJECTIVE: this paper provides an updated inventory and synthesis of definitions of social participation in older adults. Based on a critical review by content experts and knowledge users, a consensual definition is proposed. METHODS: using a scoping study framework, four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, AgeLine, PsycInfo) were searched with relevant keywords. Fifty-four new definitions were identified. Using content analysis, definitions were deconstructed as a function of who, how, what, where, with whom, when, and why dimensions. RESULTS: social participation definitions mostly focused on people's involvement in activities providing interactions with others in society or the community. According to this new synthesis and input from content experts and knowledge users, social participation can be defined as a person's involvement in activities providing interactions with others in community life and in important shared spaces, evolving according to available time and resources, and based on the societal context and what individuals want and is meaningful to them. CONCLUSION: a single definition may facilitate the study of active ageing and the contribution of older adults to society, socioeconomic and personal development, benefits for older adults and society, self-actualisation and goal attainment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation
8.
Geriatr Nurs ; 44: 8-14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictors and level of social participation and depressive symptoms within the context of isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and investigate if the residence and type of housing had a moderating role in the relationship between social participation and depressive symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional, comparative, and correlational study was conducted on a sample of 299 participants. Research instruments used in this study included: socio-demographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Maastricht Social Participation Profile, and Mini-Mental State Exam. RESULTS: Social participation was found to contribute negatively to symptoms of depression (ß = -0.245, p < .01), with a higher level of depression being found in older adults living in nursing homes (ß = -0.152, p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed a strong relationship between social participation and depressive symptoms in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Serbia , Social Participation
9.
Clin Gerontol ; 45(2): 390-402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Given physical/social distancing due to COVID-19, we examined associations between self-reported loneliness and changes in contact with family/friends and mode of social participation among older adults. METHODS: Data came from the 2020 National Health and Aging Trend Study (NHATS) and its supplemental mail COVID-19 survey (N = 2,910 respondents who reported changes in loneliness during the COVID-19 outbreak). We fit a generalized linear model (GLM) with Poisson and log link using increased versus the same/decreased loneliness as the dependent variable and changes in frequencies of four modalities of contact with family/friends and social participation mode during COVID-19 as the independent variables. RESULTS: Approximately 19% of respondents reported feeling lonely on more days during COVID-19. GLM results showed that decreased in-person contact (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.17-1.73) and increased video call contact (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.01-1.66) with family/friends and on-line participation in clubs, classes, and other organized activities (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.04-1.77) were associated with higher odds of increased loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual interaction is not an effective substitute for in-person interaction for older adults and is associated with increased loneliness. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: : Innovative means of making virtual contacts more similar to in-person contacts are needed to decrease older adults' loneliness during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Friends , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560749

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of society, especially the advent of intelligent technology of life services, the ability of the elderly to adapt to modern digital life is getting weaker and weaker, the dilemma of the "digital divide" for the elderly has aroused heated public debate. In the era of aging and information superposition, in-depth study of the multi-dimensional impact of the digital divide on the elderly has become an effective content of China's active aging strategy. Based on the micro-data of the Chinese General Social Survey in 2017, this paper uses the entropy right method to construct the digital divide index system for the elderly over 60 years of age from the perspective of essential equipment, Internet utilization degree, and Basic Internet usage skills. At the same time, this paper constructs China's comprehensive index of active aging from three aspects: health, social participation, and guarantee of the elderly, to study the impact of the digital divide on China's active aging. The following conclusions have been drawn: the digital divide among the elderly significantly inhibits China's active aging. The digital divide reduces the level of physical and mental health and social participation of older persons and inhibits the level of guarantee of older persons, thus impeding their active aging. In addition, it also reduces the overall life satisfaction of the elderly. The use of the Internet, skills, and other digital technology abilities of the elderly have effectively promoted active aging. The more Internet access devices older people have, the higher their level of social participation. The higher the Internet frequency of the elderly, the healthier the body and mind. Furthermore, the greater the level of physical and mental health and social participation of older groups who use online payments. The digital divide among the elderly inhibits the process of China's active aging, and the unique course and stage characteristics of the development of the aging of the Chinese population require us to pay full attention to the relationship between the digital divide and active aging and how to construct a "digital-friendly" aging system is an essential issue for China's social development to consider.


Subject(s)
Digital Divide , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , China , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Participation , Technology
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(11): 5589-5598, 2021 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547039

ABSTRACT

The 16th National Health Conference illustrated the interest of health councils to intervene in public policies in order to guarantee the right to health technologies. The INTEGRA project (Integration of policies for Health Surveillance, Pharmaceutical Care, Science, Technology, and Innovation in Health) is a partnership among the National Health Council, the National School of Pharmacists, and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), with support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), with the goal of strengthening participation and social engagement in the theme, as well as the integration of health policies and practices within different sectors of society (social movements, health councils, and health professionals), with the various stages related to the access to medicines (research, incorporation, national production, and services) being the main theme in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It seeks to offer training for leadership groups in the health regions and activities with a broad national and political scope, and it hopes to establish an intersectorial and integrated network of leaders capable of acting collaboratively to defend the development of science, public policies, national sovereignty, and social control of health.


A 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde demonstrou o interesse do controle social em intervir sobre as políticas públicas a fim de garantir o direito às tecnologias de saúde. O projeto Integra - Integração das Políticas de Vigilância em Saúde, Assistência Farmacêutica, Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde -, nasce da parceria entre o Conselho Nacional de Saúde, a Escola Nacional dos Farmacêuticos e a Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), com apoio da Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde (OPAS) com objetivo de fortalecimento da participação e engajamento social na temática e a integração das políticas e práticas de saúde em diferentes setores da sociedade (movimentos sociais, controle social e profissionais de saúde), tendo as diversas etapas relacionadas ao acesso aos medicamentos (pesquisa, incorporação, produção nacional e serviços) como mote principal, no cenário da pandemia de COVID-19. Oferta-se, neste projeto, capacitação para grupos de lideranças nas regiões de saúde e atividades de grande abrangência nacional e política. Espera-se alcançar o estabelecimento de uma rede intersetorial, integrada de lideranças capazes de atuar colaborativamente para a defesa do desenvolvimento da ciência, das políticas públicas, da soberania nacional e do controle social da saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Participation , Biomedical Technology , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1546-1552, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493981

ABSTRACT

Racially and ethnically diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged communities have historically been disproportionately affected by disasters and public health emergencies in the United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health established the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity to provide guidance to agencies and organizations on developing effective strategies to advance emergency preparedness and eliminate disparities among racially and ethnically diverse communities during these crises. Adopting the National Consensus Panel recommendations, the Johns Hopkins Medicine Office of Diversity, Inclusion, and Health Equity; Language Services; and academic-community partnerships used existing health equity resources and expertise to develop an operational framework to support the organization's COVID-19 response and to provide a framework of health equity initiatives for other academic medical centers. This operational framework addressed policies to support health equity patient care and clinical operations, accessible COVID-19 communication, and staff and community support and engagement, which also supported the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care. Johns Hopkins Medicine identified expanded recommendations for addressing institutional policy making and capacity building, including unconscious bias training for resource allocation teams and staff training in accurate race, ethnicity, and language data collection, that should be considered in future updates to the National Consensus Panel's recommendations.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , COVID-19/ethnology , Disasters/prevention & control , Health Equity/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Consensus , Cultural Diversity , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/standards , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Policy Making , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Participation , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
15.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(1): 48-52, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This report describes persistent symptoms associated with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) and the impact of these symptoms on physical function, cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and participation. DESIGN: This study used a cross-sectional observational study design. Patients attending Mount Sinai's post-acute COVID-19 syndrome clinic completed surveys containing patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients completed the survey, at a median (range) time of 351 days (82-457 days) after COVID-19 infection. All patients were prevaccination. The most common persistent symptoms reported were fatigue (n = 128, 82%), brain fog (n = 105, 67%), and headache (n = 94, 60%). The most common triggers of symptom exacerbation were physical exertion (n = 134, 86%), stress (n = 107, 69%), and dehydration (n = 77, 49%). Increased levels of fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale) and dyspnea (Medical Research Council) were reported, alongside reductions in levels of regularly completed physical activity. Ninety-eight patients (63%) scored for at least mild cognitive impairment (Neuro-Qol), and the domain of the EuroQol: 5 dimension, 5 level most impacted was Self-care, Anxiety/Depression and Usual Activities. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent symptoms associated with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome seem to impact physical and cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and participation in society. More research is needed to further clarify the relationship between COVID-19 infection and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome symptoms, the underlying mechanisms, and treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/virology , Physical Functional Performance , Quality of Life , Social Participation , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003779, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults, including those with long-term conditions (LTCs), are vulnerable to social isolation. They are likely to have become more socially isolated during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, often due to advice to "shield" to protect them from infection. This places them at particular risk of depression and loneliness. There is a need for brief scalable psychosocial interventions to mitigate the psychological impacts of social isolation. Behavioural activation (BA) is a credible candidate intervention, but a trial is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook an external pilot parallel randomised trial (ISRCTN94091479) designed to test recruitment, retention and engagement with, and the acceptability and preliminary effects of the intervention. Participants aged ≥65 years with 2 or more LTCs were recruited in primary care and randomised by computer and with concealed allocation between June and October 2020. BA was offered to intervention participants (n = 47), and control participants received usual primary care (n = 49). Assessment of outcome was made blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was depression severity (measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)). We also measured health-related quality of life (measured by the Short Form (SF)-12v2 mental component scale (MCS) and physical component scale (PCS)), anxiety (measured by the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7)), perceived social and emotional loneliness (measured by the De Jong Gierveld Scale: 11-item loneliness scale). Outcome was measured at 1 and 3 months. The mean age of participants was aged 74 years (standard deviation (SD) 5.5) and they were mostly White (n = 92, 95.8%), and approximately two-thirds of the sample were female (n = 59, 61.5%). Remote recruitment was possible, and 45/47 (95.7%) randomised to the intervention completed 1 or more sessions (median 6 sessions) out of 8. A total of 90 (93.8%) completed the 1-month follow-up, and 86 (89.6%) completed the 3-month follow-up, with similar rates for control (1 month: 45/49 and 3 months 44/49) and intervention (1 month: 45/47and 3 months: 42/47) follow-up. Between-group comparisons were made using a confidence interval (CI) approach, and by adjusting for the covariate of interest at baseline. At 1 month (the primary clinical outcome point), the median number of completed sessions for people receiving the BA intervention was 3, and almost all participants were still receiving the BA intervention. The between-group comparison for the primary clinical outcome at 1 month was an adjusted between-group mean difference of -0.50 PHQ-9 points (95% CI -2.01 to 1.01), but only a small number of participants had completed the intervention at this point. At 3 months, the PHQ-9 adjusted mean difference (AMD) was 0.19 (95% CI -1.36 to 1.75). When we examined loneliness, the adjusted between-group difference in the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale at 1 month was 0.28 (95% CI -0.51 to 1.06) and at 3 months -0.87 (95% CI -1.56 to -0.18), suggesting evidence of benefit of the intervention at this time point. For anxiety, the GAD adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 0.20 (-1.33, 1.73) and at 3 months 0.31 (-1.08, 1.70). For the SF-12 (physical component score), the adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 0.34 (-4.17, 4.85) and at 3 months 0.11 (-4.46, 4.67). For the SF-12 (mental component score), the adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 1.91 (-2.64, 5.15) and at 3 months 1.26 (-2.64, 5.15). Participants who withdrew had minimal depressive symptoms at entry. There were no adverse events. The Behavioural Activation in Social Isolation (BASIL) study had 2 main limitations. First, we found that the intervention was still being delivered at the prespecified primary outcome point, and this fed into the design of the main trial where a primary outcome of 3 months is now collected. Second, this was a pilot trial and was not designed to test between-group differences with high levels of statistical power. Type 2 errors are likely to have occurred, and a larger trial is now underway to test for robust effects and replicate signals of effectiveness in important secondary outcomes such as loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that BA is a credible intervention to mitigate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 isolation for older adults. We demonstrated that it is feasible to undertake a trial of BA. The intervention can be delivered remotely and at scale, but should be reserved for older adults with evidence of depressive symptoms. The significant reduction in loneliness is unlikely to be a chance finding, and replication will be explored in a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN94091479.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Health Services for the Aged , Loneliness , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Aged , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Internet , Male , Pilot Projects , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation , State Medicine , United Kingdom
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 352-362, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have found that severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was associated with the physical and psychological stress of those infected. However, research is sparse regarding the long-term health consequence of community SARS exposure for older adults. METHODS: Using data from the 2011 and 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we estimated multilevel regression models of allostatic load (AL) in the years after the SARS epidemic among 7735 respondents. Interaction terms between SARS epidemic exposure and social participation or community environment were included to examine potential effects. RESULTS: We found that community SARS exposure was associated with greater AL for those who had no social participation. Among those who were in worse community environment, community SARS exposure was strongly related to elevated load in the cardiovascular system. However, for those had social participation and lived in better community environment, community SARS exposure manifested no association with AL years later. Active social participation and better community environment could offset the negative association between SARS exposure and AL. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings helped determine the positive direction of future social efforts and policy decisions to guide the global recovery from the devastating COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Allostasis/physiology , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Social Participation , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Social Environment , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(9): 1070-1075, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed restrictions on people's social behavior. However, there is limited evidence regarding the relationship between changes in social participation and depressive symptom onset among older adults during the pandemic. We examined the association between changes in social participation and the onset of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal study. SETTING: Communities in Minokamo City, a semi-urban area in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years using random sampling. Participants completed a questionnaire survey at baseline (March 2020) and follow-up (October 2020). MEASUREMENTS: Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Two-Question Screen. Based on their social participation status in March and October 2020, participants were classified into four groups: "continued participation," "decreased participation," "increased participation," and "consistent non-participation." RESULTS: A total of 597 older adults without depressive symptoms at baseline were analyzed (mean age = 79.8 years; 50.4% females). Depressive symptoms occurred in 20.1% of the participants during the observation period. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis showed that decreased social participation was significantly associated with the onset of the depressive symptoms, compared to continued participation, after adjusting for all covariates (incidence rate ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.50, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Older adults with decreased social participation during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated a high risk of developing depressive symptoms. We recommend that resuming community activities and promoting the participation of older adults, with sufficient consideration for infection prevention, are needed to maintain mental health among older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation
19.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1254-1257, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401078

ABSTRACT

Academic medical centers have historically been defined by scientific discovery for health advancement. However, the mounting challenges of modern medicine are fueled by the social, economic, and political determinants of health that predict vulnerability and accelerate poor outcomes. To surmount looming threats to health, the academic medical mindset must equally prioritize social engagement-work that directly addresses the systemic social causes of health and illness-alongside the traditional pedagogy of laboratory-based, translational, and clinical research. Considerable barriers still exist, rooted in historical priorities and significant funding structured to reward scientific achievements. Academic medicine has the agency to support elements of restructuring to help prioritize research, education, and training to more prominently include social engagement. Crucial steps to ensure the success of this process include prioritizing financial commitments to community-engaged scholarship and programmatic work and rigorous recognition of faculty who work on socially engaged scholarship within promotion schemes. The COVID pandemic presents an unprecedented opportunity for academic medicine to reflect on the breadth of the work we promote and encourage, work that reflects all the complex elements of health-those that can be documented in a lab notebook and those rooted in social systems and structures that we have neglected for too long.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Participation , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Faculty, Medical , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans
20.
Nurs Forum ; 57(1): 42-48, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted face-to-face education and forced universities into an emergency remote teaching curriculum. Studies show that students' engagement, social presence, and satisfaction are critical factors for optimal online teaching. PURPOSE: Therefore, in this study, we sought to understand how the sudden transition to emergency remote teaching impacted nursing students' engagement and social presence, as well as how it affected their satisfaction with online courses in a middle-eastern public university. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive correlative research design was adopted in this study. Data were collected through three questionnaires measuring students' engagement, social presence, and satisfaction with emergency remote teaching compared to the traditional approach from a sample of 177 nursing students. RESULTS: Results indicate that students had a high level of engagement but low social presence and low satisfaction level with emergency remote teaching. Additionally, both engagement and social presence were positively associated with satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the importance of engaging students and integrating social presence strategies into online courses to enhance nursing students' satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation
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