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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 236-243, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671566

ABSTRACT

Widespread misperceptions about COVID-19 and the novel coronavirus threaten to exacerbate the severity of the pandemic. We conducted preregistered survey experiments in the United States, Great Britain and Canada examining the effectiveness of fact-checks that seek to correct these false or unsupported beliefs. Across three countries with differing levels of political conflict over the pandemic response, we demonstrate that fact-checks reduce targeted misperceptions, especially among the groups who are most vulnerable to these claims, and have minimal spillover effects on the accuracy of related beliefs. However, these reductions in COVID-19 misperception beliefs do not persist over time in panel data even after repeated exposure. These results suggest that fact-checks can successfully change the COVID-19 beliefs of the people who would benefit from them most but that their effects are ephemeral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Culture , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Perception/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Canada/epidemiology , Ethnopsychology , Female , Humans , Male , Psychology, Social/methods , Psychology, Social/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/ethics , Social Media , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262827, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The potential role of medical students in raising awareness during public health emergencies has been acknowledged. To further explore their potentials as public educators and role models for the communities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, this study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of these students toward COVID-19. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Indonesia. Socio-demographics characteristics, social interaction history, information-seeking behavior, as well as knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. A p-value of <0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of 4870 respondents, 64.9% had positive attitude and 51.5% had positive practice toward COVID-19, while only 29.8% had adequate knowledge. Knowledge was slightly positively correlated with attitude and practice (ρ = 0.074 and ρ = 0.054, respectively; both p<0.001), while attitude was weakly correlated with practice (ρ = 0.234, p<0.001). Several factors including age, sex, place of residence, institution type, academic level, family income, history of chronic illness, prior volunteering experience, and perceptual awareness on COVID-19 were significantly associated with either knowledge, attitude, and/or practice toward COVID-19. Furthermore, health institution's and the government's press releases, as well as health expert opinions were deemed as the most reliable sources of COVID-19-related information-yet trivially none of these sources were associated with knowledge, attitude, and practice in the study population. CONCLUSION: Many undergraduate medical students in Indonesia had positive attitude and practice against COVID-19, yet only a few had adequate knowledge. This warrants further interventions to keep them updated with COVID-19 evidence to maximize their potentials in raising public awareness on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Perception/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262161, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643255

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the mediating roles of positive and negative emotions on the relationship between COVID-19-related risk perception and coping behaviours adopted by Chinese college students in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an internet-based questionnaire survey from mid February-late October 2020, among 1038 college students, from six Chinese universities (females = 73.41%), ranging within 17-26 years. The survey questionnaire included three major components-the COVID-19-Related Risk Perception Scale (CRPS), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS-Revision), and Coping Response of COVID-19 Scale (CRCS). Descriptive statistics and a mediated model were used to analyse the collected data. A partial mediation relationship was found between COVID-19-related risk perception and 1) active-response behaviour (ß = 0.05, 95% Confidence Interval [CI: 0.03, 0.08]), 2) self-protection behaviour through positive emotions (ß = 0.03, CI [0.01, 0.04]), and 3) risk-taking behaviour through negative emotions (ß = -0.04, CI [-0.07, -0.02]). This study's double-mediation model has been shown to detect the effect coping mechanisms to COVID-19. Furthermore, it implies that public health managers should consider the differences in coping mechanisms and the diverse mediating roles of positive and negative emotions for coping with public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Perception/psychology , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 114(1): 72-86, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451867

ABSTRACT

Choosing a larger-later reward over a smaller-sooner reward may be thought of as altruism toward one's future self. A question that arises in this connection is: What is the relation between delay and social discounting? To begin to answer this question, social and delay discount functions need to be comparable. Delay is ordinarily measured on a ratio scale (time), which allows for meaningful division and addition. Social distance is ordinarily measured on an ordinal scale (rank order of social closeness). To convert social distance to a ratio scale we use a psychophysical distance function obtained via magnitude estimation (Stevens, 1956). The distance functions obtained are well described by a power function (median exponent = 1.9); we show how they may be used to rescale ordinal to ratio social discount functions.


Subject(s)
Delay Discounting , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Perception/psychology , Adult , Altruism , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological , Probability
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 382, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had various effects on the social life and daily activities of people in most countries in the world, including Iran. Hygienic precautions have been recommended, such as wearing masks and maintaining social distancing, to reduce the spread of the COVID-19. However, some people in society have not considered and ignored these health issues. This study aims to identify the sociological perceptions of people who ignore the COVID-19 warning. A qualitative study was carried out from May to July 2020. The interviewees were purposefully selected from people in Isfahan who avoided paying attention to the COVID-19 warnings. The saturation point was reached in 20 semi-structured interviews. The thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the transcribed documents using MAXQDA software (version 12). RESULTS: The results show 2 themes and 4 sub-themes related to the sociological perception of people who ignore the COVID-19 warning. The themes and sub-themes include: feelings of social anomie (disruption and social unrest, social distrust), unmet social relationship needs (intention to maintain social participation, Feeling of reduced social support). In order to tackle social perceptions contrary to health observance during the coronavirus pandemic, educational resources such as mass media, cyberspace and social programs on the necessity and importance of health observance need to be used. Policies should also be implemented in the social, cultural and legislative contexts to enhance the degree of individuals' social responsibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Iran , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception
6.
Perception ; 50(10): 876-889, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435183

ABSTRACT

As face masks have become more commonplace in many regions due to COVID-19, concerns have been raised about their effects on the perception of mask wearers and social cohesion more broadly, including racial profiling. In two studies we examined the effects of masks on social judgments of mask wearers, and whether masks have different effects on judgments of Black and White faces. Participants rated 20 Black and 20 White faces with and without masks on trustworthiness/approachability (Studies 1 and 2) and on dominance/competence and attractiveness (Study 2). In both studies masks increased perceived trustworthiness and reduced the effect of face race on judgments. Masks also increased perceived attractiveness, but had no effect on the perception of dominance/competence. Overall, this study found no negative effects of face masks on judgments of mask wearers, though further research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Facial Recognition , Masks , Social Perception , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Judgment , Recognition, Psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
7.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e43433, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1368080

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever vivências de enfermeiros e médicos de Unidades de Pronto Atendimento no enfrentamento da pandemia da Covid-19. Método: estudo descritivo-exploratório de abordagem qualitativa, realizado com sete médicos e sete enfermeiros atuantes em duas Unidades de Pronto Atendimento, referência para Covid-19. As entrevistas ocorreram entre setembro e novembro de 2020 e foram guiadas por questionário semiestruturado. Os depoimentos foram gravados, transcritos e submetidos a Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: surgiram duas categorias de análise: "A gente se sente esgotado": a vivência de enfermeiros e médicos e Estratégias para enfrentar os percalços no contexto da pandemia. Considerações finais: os profissionais vivenciaram diversos desafios, como falta de protocolo institucional, falta de estrutura física, material, recursos humanos e capacitação, dificuldade para sensibilizar a população e preocupação de contaminar-se e contaminar a família. Entretanto, apoiaram-se em diferentes estratégias, como autoisolamento preventivo, apoio familiar, troca de experiências com outros profissionais e manter-se atualizado sobre a doença.


Objetivo: describir las experiencias de enfermeros y médicos de Unidades de Urgencias en el enfrentamiento de la pandemia de Covid-19. Método: estudio descriptivo-exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo, realizado con siete médicos y siete enfermeros que trabajan en dos Unidades de Urgencias, referencia para Covid-19. Las entrevistas tuvieron lugar entre septiembre y noviembre de 2020 y se guiaron por un cuestionario semiestructurado. Las declaraciones fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a Análisis de Contenido. Resultados: surgieron dos categorías de análisis: "Nos sentimos agotados": la experiencia de enfermeros y médicos y Estrategias para enfrentar los percances en el contexto de la pandemia. Consideraciones finales: los profesionales experimentaron varios desafíos, como la falta de protocolo institucional, la falta de estructura física, material, recursos humanos y capacitación, la dificultad para sensibilizar a la población y la preocupación por contaminar a sí mismo y a la familia. Sin embargo, se apoyaron en diferentes estrategias, como el autoaislamiento preventivo, el apoyo familiar, el intercambio de experiencias con otros profesionales y mantenerse al día sobre la enfermedad.


Objective: to describe experiences of nurses and doctors of Emergency Care Units in coping with the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: descriptive-exploratory study with a qualitative approach, conducted with seven doctors and seven nurses working in two Emergency Care Units, reference for Covid-19. The interviews took place between September and November 2020 and were guided by a semi-structured questionnaire. The statements were recorded, transcribed and submitted to Content Analysis. Results: two categories of analysis emerged: "We feel exhausted": the experience of nurses and doctors and Strategies to face the mishaps in the pandemic context. Final considerations: the professionals experienced several challenges, such as lack of institutional protocol, lack of physical structure, material, human resources and training, difficulty in sensitizing the population and concern to contaminate oneself and the family. However, they relied on different strategies, such as preventive self-isolation, family support, exchange of experiences with other professionals and keeping up to date on the disease.


Subject(s)
Social Perception , Working Conditions , Secondary Care , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Physicians , Nurses
8.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360392

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine how prisoners' early release affects other citizens' perceived insecurity and their attitudes towards those released prisoners, and how citizens' political orientation influences these variables. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A total of 383 Portuguese participants were presented with a recommendation from the United Nations for the release of prisoners because of COVID-19 and then asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring their political orientation, support for the early release of prisoners, perceived insecurity regarding such measure and their attitudes towards the released prisoners. FINDINGS: Results showed that support for the release of prisoners during COVID-19 is associated with perceived insecurity and both, in turn, predicts inclusive attitudes regarding these prisoners, while only perceived insecurity is associated with an agreement with an intensification of social control measures. Right-wing participants were found to express the negative side. The more participants felt insecure, the more they believed released prisoners should not have the same rights as common citizens and the more they should be left out of the community. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The major limitation of this study concerns the sample: the authors collected answers from Portuguese participants exclusively, most of which held a university degree. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: At least two major implications can be drawn from this study's results. These implications deal with prisoners' entrance in what can be considered a cycle of exclusion and the promotion of their social reintegration once they are released from prison. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings point out the necessity to firstly put an effort in deconstructing the insecurity perception that results from the prospective of having prisoners back into society - that is to understand why it happens and how it can be reduced - promoting efficacy in the inclusion of these prisoners and preventing the emergence of controlling or protective approaches directed to these individuals in their return to society by enhancing people's awareness that the social reintegration of ex-prisoners will benefit the whole community. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The authors present a different perspective of the impact that managing COVID-19 in prisons has on society.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Politics , Prisoners/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Inclusion , Social Perception
9.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 805-812, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burgeoning evidence suggests that loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic is tied to high levels of depression and anxiety. The current study is unique, though, in examining which facets of social behavior and perceived social quality are most tied to internalizing symptoms using longitudinal data, including a pre-pandemic baseline, collected from a community sample of adults with pre-existing mental health concerns (analyzed n = 144). METHODS: Participants completed measures of depressive and anxious symptoms pre-pandemic, followed by three weekly surveys during the pandemic. We distinguished four social variables: in-person social engagement, remote social engagement, social disruption, and social distress. OLS and mixed-effects regression models examined 1) pre-pandemic baseline symptoms as predictors of social functioning during the pandemic and 2) time-lagged associations between symptoms and social functioning during the pandemic. RESULTS: Social behavior and social perceptions were dissociable. Baseline depressive, but not anxious, symptoms predicted greater social distress during the pandemic. Both anxious and depressive symptoms were predicted by social variables, but the specific associations differed: depressive symptoms were related to perceived social quality, whereas anxious symptoms were more tied to reported social behavior. LIMITATIONS: We relied on self-report indices, and causality should not be inferred directly from these correlational data. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results indicate that it is possible to follow social guidelines and even to spend relatively few hours socializing with close others, while still feeling connected and rewarded; however, people who struggle with depression and anhedonia were particularly vulnerable to distressing feelings of social disconnection amid the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Social Perception
10.
Dermatol Clin ; 39(4): 609-618, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330740

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created challenges across medicine, including in medical education, with deeply rooted impacts in the dermatology residency experience. Its effects are both acute and chronic, including: shifts to virtual education and conferences, skewed clinical experiences, negatively impacted wellness, and uncertainty in the future. As educators and mentors, it is important to recognize and address these issues so that we may remain transparent, adaptable, and engaged as we continue to build a better tomorrow for our resident trainees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatology/education , Fellowships and Scholarships/trends , Internship and Residency/trends , Patient Care Management/trends , Skin Diseases/therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , Humans , Social Perception
12.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211029812, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309880

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of all including university students. With the preventive measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, all face-to-face teaching and learning are converted to e-learning. The COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of e-learning may influence these students' mental conditions. This study aimed to determine the association of factors with mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress) among university students in Malaysia. Study participants were tertiary education students from both the private and public universities in Malaysia. Participants were recruited via university emails and social media. The survey was administered via the online REDCap platform, from April to June 2020, during the movement control order period in the country. The questionnaire captured data on socio-demographic characteristics, academic information, implementation of e-learning, perception towards e-learning and COVID-19; as well as DASS 21 to screen for depression, anxiety and stress. The levels of stress, anxiety and depression were 56.5% (95% CI: 50.7%, 62.1%), 51.3% (95% CI: 45.6%, 57.0%) and 29.4% (95% CI: 24.3%, 34.8%) respectively. Most participants had good perception towards e-learning but negative perception on COVID-19. From the multivariate analysis, participants with positive perception on COVID-19 were protective towards stress (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.99), anxiety (aOR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and depression (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Older students were 14% (aOR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.94) and 11% (aOR: 0.89: 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) less likely for anxiety and depression, respectively. Students originated from the Malay ethnicity had higher odds (aOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.56) for depression. These findings demonstrated that the mental status of university students was greatly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely and credible information should be disseminated to alleviate their negative perception towards COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Depression/psychology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/ethnology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Multivariate Analysis , Social Perception/psychology , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
14.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 14747049211021524, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266462

ABSTRACT

Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral disapproval. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across three studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale-Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Disgust , Morals , Social Perception , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Theory , United States , Young Adult
15.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 31-40, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Media play a key part in shaping nurses' social perception. Newspapers were chosen as the subject of this content analysis, as they are the main resource that Italians use to inform themselves. For this reason, ne wspapers are an appropriate resource to analyse the image of the nurse that, as found in literature, is seen as a dynamic phenomenon that changes according to different scenarios. Given the media focus on nurses during COVID- 19 it seems reasonable to analyse what nurse image was emerged. METHOD: A Content Analysis with an inductive process was conducted. The analysis' objective was to evaluate the image of the nurse in national and local newspapers, published between the 30th of January and the 18th of May 2020. A triangulation methodology was used between the two researchers to ensure data quality. R ESULTS: Five themes were identified. The risks for the nurse's psycho-physic wellbeing. Taking responsibility and human relations despite barriers. The acknowledgment of professional attributes. Uncertainty on the continuity of the nurses' social role emerged from the media. Nurses only wish to be appreciated for what they do. The agreement between the researchers on the themes has a Krippendor ff 's alpha between =0.713 and =0.985. CONCLUSIONS: The media's interest highlighted the nurses' competence in assisting patients with COVID-19. However, there isn't in-depth analysis, of the contemporar y image of the nurse, specifically in relation to leadership. Positive and negative tropes are recalled. The superficiality and fragility of the mediatic phenomena emerged, as opposed to a real positive strengthening of the nurse's social perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Newspapers as Topic , Nurses/psychology , Public Opinion , Humans , Italy , Leadership , Nurse's Role , Nurses/organization & administration , Social Perception
16.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(9): 1904-1912, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Media sources have consistently described older adults as a medically vulnerable population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, yet a lack of concern over their health and safety has resulted in dismissal and devaluation. This unprecedented situation highlights ongoing societal ageism and its manifestations in public discourse. This analysis asks how national news sources performed explicit and implicit ageism during the first month of the pandemic. METHOD: Using content and critical discourse analysis methods, we analyzed 287 articles concerning older adults and COVID-19 published between March 11 and April 10, 2020, in 4 major U.S.-based newspapers. RESULTS: Findings indicate that while ageism was rarely discussed explicitly, ageist bias was evident in implicit reporting patterns (e.g., frequent use of the term "elderly," portrayals of older adults as "vulnerable"). Infection and death rates and institutionalized care were among the most commonly reported topics, providing a limited portrait of aging during the pandemic. The older "survivor" narrative offers a positive alternative by suggesting exceptional examples of resilience and grit. However, the survivor narrative may also implicitly place blame on those unable to survive or thrive in later life. DISCUSSION: This study provides insight for policy makers, researchers, and practitioners exploring societal perceptions of older adults and how these perceptions are disseminated and maintained by the media.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , COVID-19 , Information Dissemination/ethics , Social Media , Social Perception , Aged , Ageism/ethics , Ageism/legislation & jurisprudence , Ageism/prevention & control , Ageism/psychology , Aging/ethics , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Data Mining/ethics , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Geriatrics/trends , Humans , Newspapers as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Environment , Social Media/ethics , Social Media/trends , Social Perception/ethics , Social Perception/psychology , United States , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
17.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 943-952, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of antecedent variables on older adults' intention to get a CORONAVIRUS DISEASE-2019 vaccine. Older adults are at higher risk of severe illness from the disease and face an increasingly ageist general population who misrepresent the pandemic as an older adult problem. We use the Theory of Planned Behavior framework to examine vaccine behavior intention. METHOD: A convenience sample (n = 583) of adults aged 60 and older in the United States participated in an online survey using vignettes. Hierarchical regression and analysis of covariance were used to test our model. RESULTS: Results suggest that perceived risk of the pandemic, general vaccine beliefs, and political affiliation influence respondents' attitude toward the vaccine. Respondents' attitudes toward the vaccine and their physician's recommendation help shape vaccine intention. CONCLUSION: The results provide partial support to the proposed model in shaping vaccine intention among older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Health Risk Behaviors , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination , Aged , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Politics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology
18.
Med Arch ; 75(1): 50-55, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consumers' willingness to use health chatbots can eventually determine if the adoption of health chatbots will succeed in delivering healthcare services for combating COVID-19. However, little research to date has empirically explored influential factors of consumer willingness toward using these novel technologies, and the effect of individual differences in predicting this willingness. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore (a) the influential factors of consumers' willingness to use health chatbots related to COVID-19, (b) the effect of individual differences in predicting willingness, and (c) the likelihood of using health chatbots in the near future as well as the challenges/barriers that could hinder peoples' motivations. METHODS: An online survey was conducted which comprised of two sections. Section one measured participants' willingness by evaluating the following six factors: performance efficacy, intrinsic motivation, anthropomorphism, social influence, facilitating conditions, and emotions. Section two included questions on demographics, the likelihood of using health chatbots in the future, and concerns that could impede such motivation. RESULTS: A total of 166 individuals provided complete responses. Although 40% were aware of health chatbots and only 24% had used them before, about 84% wanted to use health chatbots in the future. The strongest predictors of willingness to use health chatbots came from the intrinsic motivation factor whereas the next strongest predictors came from the performance efficacy factor. Nearly 39.5% of participants perceived health chatbots to have human-like features such as consciousness and free will, but no emotions. About 38.4% were uncertain about the ease of using health chatbots. CONCLUSION: This study contributes toward theoretically understanding factors influencing peoples' willingness to use COVID-19-related health chatbots. The findings also show that the perception of chatbots' benefits outweigh the challenges.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/statistics & numerical data , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Social Media , Social Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 84, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major public health issue, with the primary preventive measure being an annual influenza vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination coverage among the at-risk population is low. Our understanding of the behaviour of the influenza virus during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic is limited, meaning influenza vaccination is still recommended for individuals at risk for severe complications due to influenza infection. The aim of the study is to determine the intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza among the at-risk population in the 2020-21 campaign during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to analyse the factors which influence such intention. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (aged over 18) with risk factors in central Catalonia where the need for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (SIV) was recommended. RESULTS: A total of 434 participants responded to the survey, 43.3% of whom intended to be vaccinated against influenza for the 2020-2021 influenza season, 40.8% had no intention to be vaccinated and 15.9% were uncertain or did not express their opinion. The intention to get vaccinated against influenza is associated with having dependents, the individual's perception of the risk of being infected with influenza and the perceived risk of transmission to dependents. It is also associated with age, whether the individual had received influenza vaccine the previous season or any other season before. The best predictors of the intention to vaccinate are the individual's perception of the risk of catching influenza and whether the individual had been vaccinated in the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: Intention to vaccinate can be a good predictor of individual behaviour in relation to vaccination. During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic many individuals are hesitant to influenza vaccination. In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage in people included in risk groups, it is necessary to promote educational actions, especially among those who express doubts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human , Intention , Mass Vaccination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(6): 706-715, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207141

ABSTRACT

Anti-intellectualism (the generalized distrust of experts and intellectuals) is an important concept in explaining the public's engagement with advice from scientists and experts. We ask whether it has shaped the mass public's response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provide evidence of a consistent connection between anti-intellectualism and COVID-19 risk perceptions, social distancing, mask usage, misperceptions and information acquisition using a representative survey of 27,615 Canadians conducted from March to July 2020. We exploit a panel component of our design (N = 4,910) to strongly link anti-intellectualism and within-respondent change in mask usage. Finally, we provide experimental evidence of anti-intellectualism's importance in information search behaviour with two conjoint studies (N ~ 2,500) that show that preferences for COVID-19 news and COVID-19 information from experts dissipate among respondents with higher levels of anti-intellectual sentiment. Anti-intellectualism poses a fundamental challenge in maintaining and increasing public compliance with expert-guided COVID-19 health directives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Communication , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Social Perception , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Health Communication/methods , Health Communication/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Information Seeking Behavior/ethics , Mass Behavior , Public Health/methods , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media/ethics , Social Participation , Social Perception/ethics , Social Perception/psychology , Trust
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