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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892867

ABSTRACT

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has become more prevalent globally. The disorder is predominantly characterised by low social skills noted explicitly in people with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). The individuals usually possess a normal or superior intelligence quotient (IQ) but the disability impedes the achievement of their actual high potential, hence compromising their quality of life (QoL). Managing adversities encountered by children with HFASD often compromises the QoL of the entire family. Thus, this study aimed to identify specific domains of QoL among mothers of high-functioning autistic adolescents. The study assessed seven mothers of adolescents with HFASD using a semi-structured interview format. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted to analyse the data. The results suggested that mothers perceived their QoL based on physical and emotional well-being, material well-being, interpersonal relationship, and environmental well-being. Intervention for HFASD is multidisciplinary, which targets a broad spectrum of symptoms and skills deficits and customises the programme to meet each individual's different needs. Nonetheless, intervention facilities in Malaysia are seriously limited, particularly in supporting QoL for children with HFASD. Therefore, by identifying the domains of QoL would improve the mothers' resilience in raising their children with HFASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Mothers , Quality of Life/psychology , Social Skills
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e35595, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020 and 2021, people increasingly used the internet to connect socially and professionally. However, people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) experience challenges in using social media, and rehabilitation professionals have reported feeling underprepared to support them in its use. To date, no review of social media skills training to inform ABI rehabilitation has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed to examine research on interventions addressing social media skills and safety, with a focus on people living with health conditions; free web-based resources for the general public on social media skills training; and currently available online support groups for people with ABI. METHODS: An integrative scoping review was conducted, with a systematic search strategy applied in March and November 2020 across OvidSP (MEDLINE, AMED, PsycINFO, and Embase), Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Google, and Facebook. The data collected were critically appraised and synthesized to describe the key content and features of social media training resources. RESULTS: This review identified 47 peer-reviewed academic articles, 48 social media training websites, and 120 online support groups for people with ABI. A key recommendation was interactive training with practical components addressing cybersafety, how to use platforms, and how to connect with others. However, no social media training resources that were relevant and accessible for people with ABI were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Training resources to support people with ABI in safely using social media are limited. The key content to be addressed and the features to be incorporated into web-based social media training were determined, including the need for interactive training that is co-designed and safe and incorporates practical components that support people with ABI. These findings can be used to inform the development of web-based evidence-based support for people with ABI who may be vulnerable when participating in social media.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Medicine , Social Media , Brain Injuries/rehabilitation , Humans , Self-Help Groups , Social Skills
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051600, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal skills, encompassing communication and empathy, are key components of effective medical consultations. Although many organisations have implemented structured training programmes, limited evidence exists on their effectiveness in improving physician interpersonal skills. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a standardised, multifaceted, interpersonal skills development programme for hospital physicians. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a prospective, randomised (with a 1:1 allocation ratio), controlled, open-label, two parallel arm, superiority trial conducted at a single university hospital. Physicians will be randomised to receive either a multifaceted training programme or no intervention. The experimental intervention combines two 4-hour training sessions, dissemination of interactive educational materials, review of video-recorded consultations and individual feedback. The primary outcome measure is the overall 4-Habits Coding Scheme score assessed by two independent raters blinded to the study arm, based on video-recorded consultations, before and after intervention. The secondary outcomes include patient satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, physician self-actualisation and the length of medical consultation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved on 21 October 2020 by the CECIC Rhône-Alpes Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France (IRB 5891). All participants will provide written informed consent. Efforts will be made to release the primary results within 6 to 9 months of study completion, regardless of whether they confirm or deny the research hypothesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04703816.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Referral and Consultation , Social Skills
4.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 34(2): 246-251, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: After the COVID-19 pandemic, several randomized controlled trials came to a halt; however, we chose to reinvent our study and shifted to a home-based, telehealth intervention delivery format to support children with autism spectrum disorder and their families. Children with autism spectrum disorder have social communication impairments as well as perceptuomotor and cognitive comorbidities. Continued access to care is crucial for their long-term development. METHODS: We created a general movement intervention to target strength, endurance, executive functioning, and social skills through goal-directed games and activities delivered using a telehealth intervention model. FINDINGS: Our family-centered approach allowed for collaboration between trainers and caregivers and made it easy for families to replicate training activities at home. CONCLUSIONS: While more studies comparing telehealth and face-to-face interventions are needed, we encourage researchers and clinicians to consider family-centered telehealth as a valid and feasible intervention delivery method, to increase the likelihood of carryover of skills into the daily lives of children and ultimately enhance their long-term development.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Social Skills
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662653

ABSTRACT

Including students with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs) in regular classrooms has become a law-enforced common practice in many high- and middle-income countries. Still, without appropriate actions supporting the implementation of inclusive pedagogical practice, students with NDDs remain at increased risk for absenteeism, bullying and underachievement. There is limited knowledge on the feasibility of social skills group training (SSGT) in naturalistic settings. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to explore the lived experiences of (i) students diagnosed with autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and those showing subclinical social difficulties receiving either SSGT or active social control activities in a regular senior high school setting, (ii) teachers providing SSGT or the active control activity and (iii) school leaders facilitating the implementation of these actions. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, comparison between real life versus digital administration of SSGT was also examined. Within a randomized controlled pilot trial of the school-tailored SSGT SKOLKONTAKT®, the primary perspectives of 20 students, teachers and school leaders on SSGT or the social control activities were explored. All groups perceived SSGT to enhance school attendance and academic achievement of students, as well as teacher inclusion skills and the social school climate. Findings indicate that SSGT is largely feasible and socially valid, and broader implementation of SSGT in school settings appears meaningful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Skills , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493216

ABSTRACT

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone Use , Child Behavior/psychology , Child Care/methods , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Activities of Daily Living , Aggression , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep , Social Skills
8.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc82, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389115

ABSTRACT

Objective: The AIXTRA Competence Center for Training and Patient Safety at RWTH Aachen University has developed a concept to enable learning of communication skills with simulated persons (SP) digitally. Methodology: Existing SP cases in curricular teaching were checked for digital applicability and modified. Digital seminars with the methodology of simulated conversations with SP, for planned 690 students for the courses "history taking", 6th semester, conversations in psychiatry, 8th semester, and in the clinical competence course, 10th semester, were conducted via video conferencing software. The structure is similar to SP-seminars in classroom teaching with a case presentation, a doctor/patient dialogue and a feedback session. In the 6th and 10th semester, the seminars were evaluated anonymously by the students using an online questionnaire. SP were asked by e-mail for their assessment. The lecturers were asked about their experience with the digital seminars by means of qualitative interviews. Results: The survey of students with 92 completed questionnaires indicates a high level of acceptance. Digital teaching with SP was rated "very good" by 63% of the students and "good" by 37% as an overall mark for the course. The digital implementation is well practicable, the retention and accessibility of all learning goals is rated as given. Conclusion: Digital teaching with SP can be well realized with appropriate preparation. Specific aspects of digital implementation (e.g. role and data protection) must be taken into account. The differentiated evaluation of the surveys will bring further results and deductive questions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Patient Simulation , Social Skills , Videoconferencing/organization & administration , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , Physician-Patient Relations , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(2): 1-9, 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110765

ABSTRACT

Research carried out in 2016 by the authors investigated the challenges that doctors in training experience around leadership and followership in the NHS. The study explored contemporary healthcare leadership culture and the role of followership from the perspective of early career doctors. It found that the leadership and followership challenges for these doctors in training were associated with issues of social and professional identity, communication, the medical hierarchy, and relationships with senior colleagues (support and trust). These challenges were exacerbated by the busy and turbulent clinical environment in which they worked. To cope with various clinical situations and forms of leadership, doctors in training engage in a range of different followership behaviours and strategies. The study raised implications for medical education and training and suggested that followership should be included as part of formal training in communication and team working skills. The importance of both leadership and followership in the delivery of safe and effective patient care has been brought sharply into focus by the COVID-19 pandemic. This article revisits these challenges in light of the pandemic and its impact on the experiences of doctors in training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Leadership , Medical Staff, Hospital , Teaching/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Career Mobility , Cooperative Behavior , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/trends , Humans , Medical Staff, Hospital/education , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Medical Staff, Hospital/standards , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Skills
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(10): 3637-3650, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002119

ABSTRACT

Families often face financial and geographical barriers to services for children with autism. The current study explored the effectiveness of a parent-supported adaptation of the computer game-based social skills program Secret Agent Society (SAS). Seventy child-parent dyads were randomized to SAS (n = 35) or a caregiver-supported cognitive skills training game (CIA-control comparison; n = 35), both completed over 10 weeks. Child participants were on the autism spectrum and aged seven to 12 years (60 boys, 10 girls). SAS participants improved more than CIA participants on parent-rated social skills and problem behaviors and teacher-rated social skills. Findings suggest the intervention may be a convenient, cost-effective therapeutic approach, especially during times of restricted face-to-face service access, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Video Games , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Skills
13.
Behav Modif ; 45(2): 251-271, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949203

ABSTRACT

Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often have deficits in interpersonal skills due to limited social-communication opportunities. Knowing how to engage in "small talk" or simple social conversational exchanges can be beneficial in postsecondary schooling, employment sites, community environments, and social gatherings. Recently, covert audio coaching (CAC) showed a positive impact on increasing conversational exchanges. As the COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for remote delivery tools, we explored the effectiveness of remote audio coaching (RAC) to teach this skill to college students with IDD. We used a multiple baseline design across participants to examine whether RAC might increase on-topic, small talk conversational exchanges. Results demonstrated that RAC effectively increased small talk skills between participants and a confederate. Upon removal of RAC, all participants still performed above their baselines, with two participants maintaining near mastery levels 2 weeks after the intervention was removed. Limitations and future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
Communication , Education of Intellectually Disabled/methods , Education, Distance/methods , Mentoring/methods , Social Skills , Adult , Developmental Disabilities , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , Program Evaluation , Southeastern United States , Students , Teaching , Universities , Young Adult
14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 563397, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858825

ABSTRACT

We start (section The COVID-19 Pandemic and Italy's Response to It) by focusing on Italy's "tough" response to COVID-19 pandemic, which included total lockdown with very limited possibility of movement for over 60 million individuals. We analyse (section Sweden's Softer Approach) Sweden's softer approach, which is based on relatively lax measures and tends to safeguard fundamental constitutional rights. We problematise (section General Disagreement Among Experts: A Pressing Epistemic Problem) around the stalemate that arises as a consequence of the implementation of these different approaches, both epistemically grounded and equally justified, in the face of an unknown virus, in society. We point out that in some cases, like the one we discuss here, the epistemic justification that underlies scientific expertise is not enough to direct public debates and that politicians shouldn't exclusively focus on it. We claim that, especially in situations of emergency when experts disagree, decision makers ought to promote broad discussions, with attention to public reason as well as to constitutional rights, in the attempt to find a shared procedural and democratic agreement on how to act. On these grounds (section The Need of More Public Discourse in Fighting Covid-19) we call for an increase role of different types of expertise in public debates thus for the inclusion of ethicists, bioethicists, economists, psychologists, moral and legal philosophers in any scientific committee responsible for taking important decisions for public health, especially during situations like pandemics. Likewise, in the interest of public reason and representativeness, we also claim that it may be fruitful to bring in non-experts, or experts whose expertise is not based solely on "epistemic status," but rather on either experience or political advocacy, of either the homeless, the immigrant, or other disenfranchised groups. This, in expanding the epistemic-expert pool, may also make it "more representative of society as a whole."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Skills , Sweden/epidemiology
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200350, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. RESULTS: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIOS: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Homes , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telephone , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Skills , Telephone/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(3): e23-e30, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore factors associated with the work intention of hospital workers in the early stages of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in South Korea. METHODS: An online self-reported survey was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Respondents were asked to report their perceived threat and perceived risk of infection, evaluation of hospital response, demographics, and job-related factors. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 441 employees participated in this study. Of respondents, 60% were willing to accept their work during an infectious disease outbreak and 12.5% were unwilling to accept the work. In addition, 8% of respondents reported that they had considered quitting their job, 54.4% reported that their job was dangerous, and 50.1% of respondents perceived the severity of COVID-19 as high. Perceived threat and effectiveness of hospital response were associated with hospital employees' intention to work. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital workers are at the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak. This study highlighted hospital workers' perceived effectiveness of organizational response to the outbreak, and perceived threats were found to be important factors for whether they continued to work or not in the fight against the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intention , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Regression Analysis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Skills , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
18.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(8): 519-525, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42129

ABSTRACT

This study implements a computer-assisted content analysis to identify which social grooming factors reduce social media users' incivility when commenting or posting about the COVID-19 situation in South Korea. In addition, this study conducts semantic network analysis to interpret qualitatively how people express their thoughts. The findings suggest that social network size is a negative predictor of incivility. Moreover, Twitter users who have built larger networks and gained positive responses from others are less likely to use uncivil language. Lastly, linguistic choice among users is different depending on the size of their social network.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Incivility , Online Social Networking , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Media , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Semantics , Social Skills
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