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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 156-164, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201766

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: COVID-19 pandemic has triggered social stigma towards individuals affected and their families. This study describes the process undertaken for the development and validation of scales to assess stigmatizing attitudes and experiences among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 participants from the community. Methods: COVID-19 Stigma Scale and Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale constituting 13 and six items, respectively, were developed based on review of literature and news reports, expert committee evaluation and participants' interviews through telephone for a multicentric study in India. For content validity, 61 (30 COVID-19-recovered and 31 non-COVID-19 participants from the community) were recruited. Test-retest reliability of the scales was assessed among 99 participants (41 COVID-19 recovered and 58 non-COVID-19). Participants were administered the scale at two-time points after a gap of 7-12 days. Cronbach's alpha, overall percentage agreement and kappa statistics were used to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: Items in the scales were relevant and comprehensible. Both the scales had Cronbach's α above 0.6 indicating moderate-to-good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability assessed using kappa statistics indicated that for the COVID-19 Stigma Scale, seven items had a moderate agreement (0.4-0.6). For the Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale, four items had a moderate agreement. Interpretation & conclusions: Validity and reliability of the two stigma scales indicated that the scales were comprehensible and had moderate internal consistency. These scales could be used to assess COVID-19 stigma and help in the development of appropriate stigma reduction interventions for COVID-19 infected, and mitigation of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Prof Case Manag ; 28(1): 20-32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stigmatizing anyone during a pandemic poses a threat to everyone and can be an obstacle to disease treatment. The stigma around COVID-19 stems from the fact that it is a life-threatening disease and a lot is unknown about it. AIM: This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing and clarifying the concept of stigma in the context of COVID-19; determining its psychological and socio-psychological outcomes; enhancing understanding and recognition of features, antecedents, and consequences of the concept; and proposing an adequate definition for use in clinical practice or research. METHODS: Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis was used. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Stigma in the context of COVID-19 has antecedents, which include informational and psychological issues, media performance, and some governments' policies and actions to control COVID-19 pandemic. The attributes of COVID-19 stigma are subjective and variable, perceived, and/or experienced with interrelated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural or institutional dimensions that can be summarized as social stigma and self-stigma. The consequences of COVID-19 stigma are social isolation and psychological burden, physical and mental violence and harassment, hiding disease, and reduced care-seeking behavior. These results will extend the body of knowledge on theory and practice and also assists future researchers in many folds. IMPLICATIONS FOR CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: These findings will be a major tool for the case manager/health care team, policy makers, and other human resource planning professionals to develop plans for preventing, combating, and stopping the COVID-19-related stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , Pandemics , Social Isolation
4.
Seizure ; 99: 40-42, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Arabic word "Assarɛ" (الصرع) continues to be used to stigmatize Moroccan people with epilepsy (PWE), affecting their quality of life and reducing their likelihood of visiting a doctor. METHODS: 298 participants responded to an automated questionnaire, administered via social media, which investigated the socio-demographic information and proposed new terms to replace or salvage the term "Assarε." RESULTS: Most of the participants refused the use of "Assarɛ" term when referring to Epilepsy. "Brain Electrical Disorder" (الإعتلال الكهربائي للدماغ) and "Lipilipsy" (لبيليبسي) were the most commonly nominated terms to replace "Assarɛ". Independent variables, such as age over 35 years, education level, and the number of people living with epilepsy, influenced the respondents' choices. CONCLUSION: The desire of most participants in the survey to change the label "Assarɛ" demonstrates the widespread and severe stigmatisation and marginalisation of PWE.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Quality of Life , Adult , Humans , Social Stigma , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(5): e750501, 2022 08 01.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118354
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made evident the exclusion to which older people may be subjected for reasons of age. This study delves into the cultural image of older adults during the pandemic from the perspective of people between 60 and 81 years of age. Through a qualitative methodology, the voices of 37 people have been collected through in-depth interviews. Two main themes are derived from the inductive analysis: on the one hand, the devaluation of older people, and on the other hand, the positive image of the older population as older and valid. We conclude that people over 60 years of age in the Basque Country denounce the stigma of low capacity attributed to the older population during the pandemic. They reject the signs of age-based overprotection manifested during the pandemic and highlight the vital experience by which older people could be considered referents in situations of social crisis. They reflect on the initiatives necessary to improve the cultural image of the older population and point out the opportunities for active ageing, education based on values and intergenerational relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Voice , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Stigma , Educational Status
7.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e79, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106291

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Mental health-related stigma and discrimination are a complex and widespread issue with negative effects on numerous aspects of life of people with lived experience of mental health conditions. Research shows that social contact is the best evidence-based intervention to reduce stigma. Within the context of a rapid development of remote technology, and COVID-19-related restrictions for face-to-face contact, the aim of this paper is to categorise, compare and define indirect social contact (ISC) interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in mental health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: MEDLINE, Global Health, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched using a strategy including terms related to 'stigma and discrimination', 'intervention', 'indirect social contact', 'mental health' and 'low- and middle-income countries'. Relevant information on ISC interventions was extracted from the included articles, and a quality assessment was conducted. Emerging themes were coded using a thematic synthesis method, and a narrative synthesis was undertaken to present the results. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the review overall. One study was ineffective; this was not considered for the categorisation of interventions, and it was considered separately for the comparison of interventions. Of the eight effective studies included in synthesis, interventions were categorised by content, combination of stigma-reducing strategies, medium of delivery, delivery agents, target condition and population, as well as by active or passive interaction and follow-up. Most of the interventions used education and ISC. Recovery and personal experience were important content components as all studies included either one or both. Cultural adaptation and local relevance were also important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: ISC interventions were effective in overall terms for both the general public and healthcare providers, including medical students. A new definition of ISC interventions in LMICs is proposed. More research and better reporting of intervention details are needed to explore the effectiveness of ISC strategies in LMICs, especially in regions where little relevant research has been conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Developing Countries , Social Stigma , Mental Health , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology
8.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 127(6): 485-494, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098646

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the level of discrimination against people with intellectual disability during COVID-19, and assessed stereotypes, levels of familiarity with people with intellectual disability, and personal experiences with COVID-19 as potential correlates. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a large sample from the Dutch population (n = 1,797). Salient stereotype factors of people with intellectual disability were "friendly" and "in need of help," but not "give nuisance." Those respondents who were unfamiliar with people with intellectual disability in real life demonstrated higher levels of discrimination, perceiving them as more of a nuisance and as being less in need of help, in comparison to those who were more familiar. People with intellectual disability were judged by an ambivalent set of stereotypes during the COVID-19 pandemic that were in line with pre-COVID-19 findings and as such seemed to be fairly persistent and robust. There is a pressing need to both raise awareness of stereotypes towards and discrimination against people with intellectual disability via advocacy and education, and to facilitate positive encounters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Humans , Stereotyping , Social Stigma , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the advent of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the coexistence between social stigma and depression symptoms (depression hereafter) in COVID-19 patients has been mentioned, but the mechanisms involved remains unclear. This study aimed to explore how the stigma affects depression during the mid-pandemic period. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using non-probability sampling was conducted among asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers in Shanghai, China (April 2022). An online questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic characteristics and psychological traits. Logistic regression and path analysis were performed to analyze the depression risk factors and examine the mediation model, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1283 participants (59.6% men) were involved in this study, in which 44.7% of carriers reported having depression. Univariate analyses found that education level (OR 0.575; 95% CI 0.448-0.737) and doses of vaccine (OR 1.693; 95% CI 1.042-2.750), were significantly associated with depression among asymptomatic carriers. The association between social stigma and depression was fully mediated by their feelings of entrapment and decadence (indirect effect = 0.204, p < 0.001; direct effect = -0.059, p = 0.058). The mediating role of entrapment between stigma and depression was moderated by age group (estimate = 0.116, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Mental health issues resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic are increasingly apparent in China and require urgent attention and responses. These findings provide new perspectives for the early prevention of depression in asymptomatic carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065993

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally and affected the delivery of health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe the interventions adopted to maintain the delivery of other health services. METHODS: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes using the World Health Organization health system building blocks as a guiding framework. RESULTS: Governance strategies included the establishment of coordination committees and the development and dissemination of guidelines. Infrastructure and commodity strategies included the review of drug supply plans and allowing emergency orders. Workforce strategies included the provision of infection prevention and control equipment, recruitment and provision of incentives. Service delivery modifications included the designation of facilities for COVID-19 management, patient self-management, dispensing drugs for longer periods and the leveraging community patient networks to distribute medicines. However, multi-month drug dispensing led to drug stock-outs while community drug distribution was associated with stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Health service maintenance during emergencies requires coordination to harness existing health system investments. The essential services continuity committee coordinated efforts to maintain services and should remain a critical element of emergency response. Self-management and leveraging patient networks should address stigma to support service continuity in similar settings and strengthen service delivery beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Stigma , Uganda/epidemiology
11.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0272931, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV-related stigma is a global problem among HIV clients with far-reaching effects including increased rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, HIV-related stigma experiences and coping strategies have received little attention, especially among pregnant women in rural settings. We explored the HIV-related stigma experiences and coping strategies among pregnant women in rural northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women seeking care at Aboke Health Center IV, Kole district, northern Uganda. We conducted 12 in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analyzed using the inductive thematic approach of Braun and Clarke. RESULTS: The age range of the 12 participants was 17 to 35 years while the average duration with HIV since diagnosis was five years. The majority of the participants were subsistence farmers who had attained a primary level of education. Social rejection and public ridicule were identified as HIV-related stigma experiences while ignoring, social support, and prayers were identified as HIV-related coping strategies among the study participants. CONCLUSION: Enacted HIV-related stigma is common among pregnant women in rural northern Uganda. Healthcare providers should work closely with HIV-positive women and other stakeholders to identify and strengthen HIV-related stigma coping strategies among pregnant women in rural settings.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnant Women , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma , Uganda
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 85, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spotting is an informal practice among people who use drugs (PWUD) where they witness other people using drugs and respond if an overdose occurs. During COVID-19 restrictions, remote spotting (e.g., using a telephone, video call, and/or a social media app) emerged to address physical distancing requirements and reduced access to harm reduction and/or sexually transmitted blood borne infection (STBBI's) prevention services. We explored spotting implementation issues from the perspectives of spotters and spottees. METHODS: Research assistants with lived/living expertise of drug use used personal networks and word of mouth to recruit PWUD from Ontario and Nova Scotia who provided or used informal spotting. All participants completed a semi-structured, audio-recorded telephone interview about spotting service design, benefits, challenges, and recommendations. Recordings were transcribed and thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: We interviewed 20 individuals between 08/2020-11/2020 who were involved in informal spotting. Spotting was provided on various platforms (e.g., telephone, video calls, and through texts) and locations (e.g. home, car), offered connection and community support, and addressed barriers to the use of supervised consumption sites (e.g., location, stigma, confidentiality, safety, availability, COVID-19 related closures). Spotting calls often began with setting an overdose response plan (i.e., when and who to call). Many participants noted that, due to the criminalization of drug use and fear of arrest, they preferred that roommates/friends/family members be called instead of emergency services in case of an overdose. Both spotters and spottees raised concerns about the timeliness of overdose response, particularly in remote and rural settings. CONCLUSION: Spotting is a novel addition to, but not replacement for, existing harm reduction services. To optimize overdose/COVID-19/STBBI's prevention services, additional supports (e.g., changes to Good Samaritan Laws) are needed. The criminalization of drug use may limit uptake of formal spotting services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Drug Overdose/therapy , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Crime , Emergency Treatment , Fear , Harm Reduction , Humans , Needle-Exchange Programs , Nova Scotia , Ontario , Social Stigma , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221128512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053825

ABSTRACT

Objective: In Malaysia, HIV is concentrated among key populations who experience barriers to care due to stigma and healthcare discrimination. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased barriers to healthcare. Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is a transformative tele-education strategy that could improve HIV prevention and treatment. Methods: Practicing physicians who were aged 18 years or older and had internet access participated in asynchronous online focus groups. Results: Barriers to Project ECHO were conflicting priorities, time constraints, and technology. Facilitators included content and format, dedicated time, asynchronized flexible programming, incentives, and ensuring technology was available. Conclusion: Project ECHO is a promising intervention that can increase physicians' knowledge and skill set in specialty medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventionists in Malaysia in particular, but also in general, should consider these barriers and facilitators when developing Project ECHO as they may aid in developing a more robust program and increase participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Stigma
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(31): e29907, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051696

ABSTRACT

Since the emergency approval of several therapeutic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in the United States, >500 million doses have been administered. However, there have been disparities in vaccine acceptability and uptake. We examined demographic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, and psychosocial factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in older adults (≥50 years) living with HIV in the Coachella Valley, California. Participants completed a 1-time anonymous online questionnaire assessing their demographic (i.e., age, race, education, etc), HIV disease (i.e., viral suppression, years living with HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis), psychosocial (i.e., HIV-related stigma, personal mastery, depression, etc) characteristics, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability. Respondents were offered an electronic $20 United States dollar (USD) gift card for survey completion. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable tests were conducted to analyze the data. Between September 2020 and February 2021, 114 surveys were completed. Eighty-six (75%) agreed/strongly agreed with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability statement that they saw no problem with receiving a COVID-19 vaccine if one became available. Among those who agreed/strongly agreed, the mean age was 62.2 years (standard deviation = 7.20); 86% self-identified as White; 95% male; 91% with more than high school education; and 31% with annual income <$20,000 USD. Among respondents who disagreed/strongly disagreed, the mean age was 59.9 years (standard deviation = 4.85); 50% self-identified as White; 50% male; 64% with more than high school education; and 4% with annual income <$20,000 USD. In the univariable analyses, those who disagreed/strongly disagreed with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability statement were significantly more likely to be living with HIV for fewer years, experiencing higher levels of HIV-related stigma and depression, and with lower levels of personal mastery. In the multivariable logistic regression model, self-identification as female vs male and unemployed vs employed was significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.71 and odds ratio = 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.70 respectively), adjusting for ethnicity, marital status, education, disability, years living with HIV, HIV-related stigma, and depression. Additional studies are needed to understand vaccine-related decision-making among older adults living with HIV. Programmatic efforts may also be necessary to disseminate accurate information/resources about COVID-19 vaccines to those with more recent HIV diagnoses, experiencing HIV-related stigma and depression, with lower levels of personal mastery, and facing socioeconomic disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Stigma , United States/epidemiology
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 429, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050329

ABSTRACT

The association between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma of having a mental illness is not clear. This study examined the association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma among patients with recurrent depressive disorder (depression hereafter) using network analysis. Participants were 1149 depressed patients (842 men, 307 women) who completed survey measures of perceived stigma and COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. T-tests, chi-square tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between depressed patients who indented to accepted vaccines and those who were hesitant. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses assessed the unique association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma, independent of depression severity. Network analysis examined item-level relations between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and perceived stigma after controlling for depressive symptoms. Altogether, 617 depressed patients (53.7%, 95 confidence intervals (CI) %: 50.82-56.58%) reported they would accept future COVID-19 vaccination. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated higher perceived stigma scores predicted lower levels of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance (ß = -0.125, P < 0.001), even after controlling for depression severity. In the network model of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and perceived stigma nodes, "Feel others avoid me because of my illness", "Feel useless", and "Feel less competent than I did before" were the most influential symptoms. Furthermore, "COVID-19 vaccination acceptance" had the strongest connections with illness stigma items reflecting social rejection or social isolation concerns ("Employers/co-workers have discriminated", "Treated with less respect than usual", "Sense of being unequal in my relationships with others"). Given that a substantial proportion of depressed patients reported hesitancy with accepting COVID-19 vaccines and experiences of mental illness stigma related to social rejection and social isolation, providers working with this group should provide interventions to reduce stigma concerns toward addressing reluctance in receiving COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Social Stigma , Vaccination
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 238-245, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The stigmatization by healthcare professionals (HP) of patients suffering from mental disorders is an important problem that interferes with the delivery of medical assistance. Social distancing by HP is an integral part of stigmatization, which differs between various mental disorders, as well as between psychiatrists (PSY) versus nonpsychiatrist healthcare professionals (NPHP). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 141 HP: PSY (n=20; 36.2±4.2 y.o.) and NPHP (n=121; 25.9±2.2 y.o.). The NPHP group included general practitioners (GP)/physicians (n=29; 20.6%), surgeons (n=19; 13.5%), obstetrician-gynecologists (n=26; 18.4%), neurologists (n=11; 7.8%), pediatricians (n=6; 4.3%), and other subspecialists (including urologists, tuberculosis specialists, ophthalmologists and dermatologists) (n=30; 21.3%). The modified Bogardus Social Distance Self-Assessment Scale (BSDS) was used to evaluate the indicators of social distance phenomena. The assessment was performed by HP for the following groups of patients with the following mental disorders: alcohol use disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, drug addiction, epilepsy, mental retardation, personality disorder, schizophrenia. All statistical calculations were performed using IBM SPSS-27 software (IBM Corp. 2021, licensed to Samara State Medical University). P-value ≤0.05 was determined as significant for the between-group (PSY vs NPHP) comparisons using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: Our data analysis showed that HP achieved varying social distance scores for patients depending on the type of mental disorder, but with common trends among PSY and NPHPs. The mean (SD) scores of social distance ranged from 3.65(1.50) for depression to 5.25 (1.74) for drug addiction in the PSY, versus 3.44 (1.69), 6.19 (1.37) in NPHP, respectively. As compared to PSY, mean BSDS total scores were greater in the NPHP group, notably in the obstetricians-gynecologist - 6.27(1.40), and GP - 6.62 (0.90) groups, with similar trends of differing attitudes appeared among pediatricians - 7.00 (0.01) - regarding drug addiction, whereas the neurologists demonstrated a tendency towards lower social distance in relation to patients with depression - 2.27 (1.68), and epilepsy - 2.82 (1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Social distance measures by PSY and NPHP groups in contemporary Russia were highest in relation to patients with drug addiction, and lowest scores for depression and epilepsy. Stigmatization among HPs seems to influence health care delivery to certain categories of patients, which calls for further investigation. Higher social distance scores for patients with drug addiction might be related to higher stigma and lack of compassion toward these patients. Conversely, lower scores of social distance and corresponding emotional acceptance of people with depression by HP might interfere in the timely diagnosis and availability of appropriate care at an early stage amenable to treatment. This might reflect the cultural context of depressive mentality in Russia, or elevated prevalence of depressive states among HP. We propose interventions aiming to destigmatize mental disorders by targeting particular subgroups of vulnerable patients and also certain representatives of HP community.


Subject(s)
General Practitioners , Mental Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Physical Distancing , Psychological Distance , Social Stigma , Young Adult
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1388: 23-49, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027432

ABSTRACT

Stigma and mistrust generate significant barriers to the uptake of biomedical, clinical and public health measures to combat infectious diseases. Many pandemics such as HIV, TB and COVID-19 disproportionately affect poorer communities, and the social and public health impact is connected through socio-political histories and contexts. This chapter describes activities and reflections of a South African public engagement programme, Eh!woza, that aims to bring together the biomedicine of disease with its social context and impact. We describe experiences working on tuberculosis-related public engagement programmes in South Africa, and how these approaches were refocused to address the COVID-19 pandemic. We reflect on the lesson learned and considerations around visualising the social impact of disease and making the visualisation of accurate information relatable to younger audiences. Much of the discussion is situated within description and reflection, touching on both the historical and contemporary cultural and political conditions in which infectious diseases have flourished. Finally, the challenges we faced when effectively disseminating media on large-scale digital platforms are highlighted, raising important questions around representation, mass targets, and impactful dissemination of public engagement outputs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Social Stigma , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
18.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VII(2): 167-168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026048

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic continues to stalk the globe, ever since the first outbreak in December 2019. Variants of concern and fear of subsequent pandemic waves continue to challenge every nation. The virus has caught communities off-guard many times with grave consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Social Stigma
19.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274323, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021966

ABSTRACT

Stigmatization of COVID-19 disease has been speculated due to misinformation about the disease, fearing of contracting the infection, absence of available cure, and holding responsibility for infecting others. We aimed to establish the prevalence of COVID-19 related stigma and its association with empathic responding, in addition to exploring predictors of stigma and testing intention among Jordanian people. A quantitative, descriptive and predictive design was used and data were collected using a web-based survey from 1074 adults. Findings showed that participants had high stigmatization against COVID-19 infection. Higher empathic responding (both cognitive and affective), being a female participant, and older age resulted in higher stigmatization. Only stigmatization of COVID-19 negatively predicted individuals' intention for testing. These findings warrant intensive efforts from the Jordanian government on a local and national level to provide ongoing public education related to several aspects of COVID-19 disease, in order to reduce or prevent the associated stigma and increase people's intention for testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Empathy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intention , Jordan/epidemiology , Social Stigma
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1681, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related stigma has been identified as a critical issue since the beginning of the pandemic. We developed a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma, inflicted by the non-infected general population. We applied the questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma among Tehran citizens from 27 to 30 September 2020. METHODS: A preliminary questionnaire with 18 items was developed. The total score ranged from 18 to 54; a higher score indicated a higher level of COVID-19 related stigma. An expert panel assessed the face and content validity. Of 1637 randomly recruited Tehran citizens without a history of COVID-19 infection, 1064 participants consented and were interviewed by trained interviewers by phone. RESULTS: Item content validity index (I-CVI), Item content validity ratio (I-CVR), and Item face validity index (I-FVI) were higher than 0.78 for all 18 items. The content and face validity were established with a scale content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.90 and a scale face validity index (S-CVI) of 93.9%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire with 18 items was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.625. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five latent variables, including "blaming", "social discrimination", "dishonor label", "interpersonal contact", and "retribution and requital attitude". The median of the stigma score was 24 [25th percentile: 22, 75the percentile: 28]. A large majority (86.8%) of participants reported a low level of stigma with a score below 31. None of the participants showed a high level of stigma with a score above 43. We found that the higher the educational level the lower the participant's stigma score. CONCLUSION: We found a low level of stigmatizing thoughts and behavior among the non-infected general population in Tehran, which may be due to the social desirability effect, to the widespread nature of COVID-19, or to the adaptation to sociocultural diversity of the large city.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
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