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1.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 48(9): 427-429, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180194
3.
Age Ageing ; 51(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151830

Subject(s)
Social Support , Humans
4.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 18(12): 723-734, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151050

ABSTRACT

Social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These circumstances are the non-medical factors that influence health outcomes. Evidence indicates that health behaviours, comorbidities and disease-modifying therapies all contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) outcomes; however, our knowledge of the effects of social determinants - that is, the 'risks of risks' - on health has not yet changed our approach to MS. Assessing and addressing social determinants of health could fundamentally improve health and health care in MS; this approach has already been successful in improving outcomes in other chronic diseases. In this narrative Review, we identify and discuss the body of evidence supporting an effect of many social determinants of health, including racial background, employment and social support, on MS outcomes. It must be noted that many of the published studies were subject to bias, and screening tools and/or practical interventions that address these social determinants are, for the most part, lacking. The existing work does not fully explore the potential bidirectional and complex relationships between social determinants of health and MS, and the interpretation of findings is complicated by the interactions and intersections among many of the identified determinants. On the basis of the reviewed literature, we consider that, if effective interventions targeting social determinants of health were available, they could have substantial effects on MS outcomes. Therefore, funding for and focused design of studies to evaluate and address social determinants of health are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Social Determinants of Health , Social Support
5.
Patient Educ Couns ; 105(7): 2436-2442, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthy individuals from hereditary cancer families undergoing genetic testing for cancer susceptibility (GTC) report more distress when they perceive their social support as low and suppress their emotions. This study aimed to explore how suppressing emotions and perceiving others as unsupportive are related with cancer-risk distress. METHODS: We performed a regression-based mediation analysis to assess if expressive suppression mediates or is mediated by perceived social support in the relation with cancer-risk distress. Participants were 125 healthy adults aged over 18 (M = 36.07, SD = 12.86), mostly female (72,4%), who undergone GTC to assess the presence of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or Lynch syndromes. RESULTS: Controlling for age and gender, we found a moderate size indirect effect of social support on cancer-risk distress through expressive suppression (ß = -0.095) and a direct effect of expressive suppression on cancer-risk distress. CONCLUSIONS: When healthy individuals from hereditary cancer families perceive their social network as less responsive, they tend to not express their emotions, which relates to increased distress facing GTC. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Practitioners may assess cancer-risk related distress before the GTC and offer distressed individuals interventions focused on changing emotion regulation strategies in a safe group context.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neoplasms , Adult , Emotions/physiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/genetics , Social Support
6.
BMJ ; 379: o2870, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137638
7.
BMJ ; 379: o2837, 2022 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137635
8.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(11): 591-601, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129143

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parental mental disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder (BPD), impair parenting behavior. Consequently, the children exhibit an elevated risk for psychopathology across their lifespan. Social support for parents is thought to moderate the relationship between parental mental illness and parenting behavior. It may dampen negative effects and serve as starting point for preventive interventions. This paper provides a literature overview regarding the impact of social support on the sequelae of parental mental illness and BPD for parenting behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature highlights the increased burden of families with a mentally ill parent and associated changes in parenting behavior like increased hostility and affective dysregulation, especially in the context of parental BPD. Literature further demonstrates the powerful impact of social support in buffering such negative outcomes. The effect of social support seems to be moderated itself by further factors like socioeconomic status, gender, or characteristics of the social network. Social support facilitates positive parenting in mentally ill parents and may be particularly important in parents with BPD. However, social support is embedded within a framework of influencing factors, which need consideration when interpreting scientific results.


Subject(s)
Borderline Personality Disorder , Child of Impaired Parents , Child , Humans , Parenting/psychology , Borderline Personality Disorder/psychology , Parents/psychology , Child of Impaired Parents/psychology , Social Support
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The implementation of online teaching in the context of epidemic prevention and control has had an impact on the learning engagement of college students to some extent. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms that influence perceived social support and health behaviors on learning engagement, so as to make college students more focused on their studies by improving their physical and mental health as well as their ability to perceive social support. METHODS: A total of 538 college students from Henan Province, China, were studied using the Perceived Social Support Scale, Health Behavior Scale and Learning Engagement Scale, and the data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Amos 26.0 software (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: (1) The level of health behavior among college students was positively correlated with perceived social support ability (ß = 0.289, p < 0.001); both perceived social support and health behaviors predicted college students' learning engagement significantly (ß = 0.200, p < 0.01; ß = 0.406, p < 0.001). (2) College students' perceived social support partially mediated the relationship between health behaviors and learning engagement. CONCLUSION: One of the main ways to improve college students' learning engagement is to improve their health behavior and perceived social support. This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between health behaviors and learning engagement, as well as to the development of interventions to improve learning engagement among college students.


Subject(s)
Social Support , Students , Health Behavior , Humans , Learning , Mental Health
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1023914, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142356

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since becoming available, vaccines against COVID-19 have been a focus of public debate. This is particularly relevant among healthcare and social workers, who interact with vulnerable patients and clients on a daily basis. With employers implementing educational programs and offering incentives to raise vaccine willingness among their staff, it is crucial to understand drivers of vaccine acceptance and hesitancy as well as the impact employers can play on vaccine decision-making. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study via computer-assisted telephone and web interviews. We recruited from a pool of employees from nursing and social care institutions in Vienna and Lower Austria operated by one healthcare NGO. Variables included in the analysis were socio-demographic attributes, reasons for or against the vaccine, sources of information, opinions of mandatory vaccination, and whether respondents had previously been infected with COVID-19 or knew someone who had. Results: 86.2% of respondents had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. 13.8% were unvaccinated. Vaccinated respondents' main reason for getting the vaccine was to protect themselves (79.6%) as well as others (74.1%), while non-vaccinated respondents cited a fear of short or long-term side effects (58.8 and 42.4%, respectively) as their primary reason for not getting vaccinated. 72.8% of the unvaccinated said no incentive would make them change their mind, while 17.4% specified abstract concepts or systemic change as effective incentives. Monetary incentives were not seen as a motivator. Unvaccinated respondents were significantly more worried about the future than vaccinated respondents (78.8 vs. 26.3%, p < 0.001). They were also significantly more likely to view their employers' vaccine recommendations as "manipulative" (50.6 vs. 12.4%, p < 0.001), while vaccinated respondents were significantly more likely to view them as "supportive" (68.0 vs. 25.9%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: While employers have the means to mediate public health decision-making by providing information, deciding to become vaccinated is a more complex process including public debate, world views, political influences, and the uptake of information. Employers can act as mediators for public health decision-making, moving policy measures beyond an individualized view of health choices and health literacy toward more structural, systemic, and community-based efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Austria , Social Support
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 970378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142326

ABSTRACT

Background: Female long haulers deal with persistent post-acute COVID-19 symptoms that have serious health implications. This study aimed to identify resilience resources at multiple socio-ecological levels for female long haulers and describe how resilience resources affect their responses to long COVID. Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to recruit participants through social media from April to June 2021 followed by 15 semi-structured interviews. An inductive analytical approach was adopted to categorize themes by open and axial coding that were verified by peer review. Results: Female long haulers relied on resources at various socio-ecological levels to foster their resilience in response to long COVID. At the individual level, they utilized cognitive and emotional resources to increase knowledge, learn new skills, set goals, and manage emotions; behavioral resources (e.g., internal motivation and executive functioning) to perform physical, creative, and recreational activities, and adopt healthier eating habits; and spiritual resources to perform spiritual rituals and connect with God. At the social level, the support from existing relationships and/or online social support groups enhanced their social identity and provided material and informational resources. At the health systems level, the guidance from counselors and physicians and availability of clinics, medicines, and health equipment assisted them in symptom management and medication adherence. Conclusion: The resilience of female long haulers can be enhanced through (1) offering financial and health-related resources, (2) developing online social-support groups, (3) counseling and care service training for healthcare professionals, and (4) implementing more psychosocial interventions by labor organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Adaptation, Psychological , Qualitative Research , Social Support
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare well-being and physical activity (PA) before and during COVID-19 confinement in older adults with heart failure (HF), to compare well-being and PA during COVID-19 confinement in octogenarians and non-octogenarians, and to explore well-being, social support, attention to symptoms, and assistance needs during confinement in this population. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was performed. Well-being (Cantril Ladder of Life) and PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were assessed. Semi-structured interviews were performed to assess the rest of the variables. RESULTS: 120 participants were evaluated (74.16 ± 12.90 years; octogenarians = 44.16%, non-octogenarians = 55.83%). Both groups showed lower well-being and performed less PA during confinement than before (p < 0.001). Octogenarians reported lower well-being (p = 0.02), higher sedentary time (p = 0.03), and lower levels of moderate PA (p = 0.04) during confinement. Most individuals in the sample considered their well-being to have decreased during confinement, 30% reported decreased social support, 50% increased their attention to symptoms, and 60% were not satisfied with the assistance received. Octogenarians were more severely impacted during confinement than non-octogenarians in terms of well-being, attention to symptoms, and assistance needs. CONCLUSIONS: Well-being and PA decreased during confinement, although octogenarians were more affected than non-octogenarians. Remote monitoring strategies are needed in elders with HF to control health outcomes in critical periods, especially in octogenarians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Support , Heart Failure/therapy , Exercise , Sedentary Behavior
13.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 93: 97-102, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119837

ABSTRACT

Inequalities in mental healthcare and lack of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic have lowered quality of life and increased overall burden of disease in people with Parkinson's (PWP). Although the pandemic has brought attention to these inequalities, they are long standing and will persist unless addressed. Lack of awareness of mental health issues is a major barrier and even when recognized disparities based on race, gender, and socioeconomic factors limit access to already scarce resources. Stigma regarding mental illness is highly prevalent and is a major barrier even when adequate care exists. Limited access to mental healthcare during the pandemic and in general increases the burden on caregivers and families. Historically, initiatives to improve mental healthcare for PWP focused on interventions designed for specialty and academic centers generally located in large metropolitan areas, which has created unintended geographic disparities in access. In order to address these issues this point of view suggests a community-based wellness model to extend the reach of mental healthcare resources for PWP.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities/trends , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/trends , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Social Support/trends , Health Resources/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Social Support/psychology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerning rates of psychological disorders are increasingly recognized in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the associations of different structural and functional social supports on depression, anxiety, and stress among young adults in Vietnam. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was performed on 236 respondents aged 16 to 30 years in Vietnam from June to July 2020. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21); the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the LUBBEN Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) was used to measure psychological health, functional and structural social support characteristics. Multi-level mixed-effect logistic regression was used to identify associations between social support and anxiety, depression, and stress. RESULTS: The rate of at least mild depression, anxiety, and stress were 30.1%, 34.8%, and 35.6%, respectively. Structural supports measured by LSNS-6 were not associated with the likelihood of having depression, anxiety, and stress (p>0.05). Respondents having friends with whom they could share joys and sorrows were less likely to have anxiety (aOR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.41-0.90) and stress (aOR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.45-0.96). Having family support in decision-making was also negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Meanwhile, those having family and friends who tried to help them were more likely to suffer stress (aOR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.16-3.24) and depression (aOR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.11-3.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted a high rate of psychological problems among young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. Emotional support from friends and advice support from family were important components that should be considered in further interventions to mitigate the psychological problems in young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Support
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 961215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109876

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-Asian racism has surged, yet little is known about Asian Americans' experiences of social support. Therefore, we designed a qualitative, intrinsic, revelatory case study to examine the nature and quality of social support for Asian Americans during the first 6 months of the pandemic. Our sample consisted of 193 Asian Americans (from over 32 U.S. states) disclosing their experiences of inadequate social support. They described their support network as (1) Being unable to relate, (2) Encouraging their silence, (3) Minimizing anti-Asian racism, (4) Denying anti-Asian racism, and (5) Victim-blaming. Regarding our participants' recommendations for increasing social support for Asian Americans, a total of seven recommendations emerged: (1) Legitimize anti-Asian racism, (2) Teach Asian American history, (3) Destigmatize mental health resources to make them accessible for Asian American families (4) Promote bystander intervention trainings, (5) Build solidarity with and beyond Asian Americans to dismantle racism, (6) Increase media attention on anti-Asian racism, and (7) Elect political leaders who will advocate for Asian Americans. Altogether, our findings underscore the need for systemic forms of advocacy to combat anti-Asian racism, and shed light on the injurious nature of social support for Asian American victims of racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , Asian Americans/psychology , Racism/psychology , Pandemics , Social Support
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(8): 1564-1571, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find the moderating role of social support and creative coping, and the mediating role of cyberchondria in relationship between fear of coronavirus disease-2019 and stress in university students. METHODS: The correlational study was conducted at the Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan, between May and September 2020, and comprised students regardless of gender and age from different public and private universities across Pakistan. Data was collected online using Fear of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Scale, Cyberchondria Severity Scale, Creative Coping Strategies Scale, Social Support Survey, Perceived Stress Scale and Perception of Academic Stress Scale. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 205 subjects, 83(40.5%) were males and 122(59.5%) were females. The overall mean age was 21.22±1.84 years. Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 had significant positive relationship with cyberchondria, and cyberchondria had significant positive relationship with creative coping and academic stress (p<0.05). Social support had significant negative relationship with general stress (p<0.05). There was significant interaction among fear of coronavirus disease-2019, creative coping, social support and cyberchondria in predicting general stress (p<0.05). Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 alone did not predict stress (p>0.05), but it significantly predicted cyberchondria which, in turn, predicted stress (p<0.05). Creative coping and social support significantly moderated the relationship involving fear of coronavirus disease-2019, cyberchondria and general stress (p<0.05). The female subjects utilised more creative coping strategies, received more social support, and had higher levels of general stress compared to the males (p<0.05), while the male subjects had more mistrust on medical professionals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings are important for students, parents and teachers to understand the role of social support to reduce the fear of coronavirus disease-2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear , Social Support , Students
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099558

ABSTRACT

Loneliness is associated with depression, sleep disturbance, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and it is a global public health problem. Since physical and mental health have a great impact on loneliness, middle-aged and elderly people who are blind or visually impaired may be more affected by loneliness. Previous research has confirmed that effective social support can enhance physical and mental health and alleviate the negative effects of life stress. Therefore, in this study, we applied a cross-sectional design where data were collected using questionnaires completed in person, by phone, or online for a total of 456 middle-aged and elderly people with visual impairment. We found that the enrolled participants who were unemployed, lacked a stable source of income, lived alone, or were unable to move independently were prone to experiencing high levels of loneliness and low social support, which highlights the necessity of interventions such as counseling to alleviate the sense of loneliness in such groups. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social support measures to reduce the sense of loneliness should be highly encouraged to ensure that middle-aged and elderly people with visual impairment can continue to live independently, and social support seems to be an important factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vision, Low , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Support , Depression/psychology
18.
Orv Hetil ; 163(42): 1654-1662, 2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the capacity of health and social care systems. The limited availability of care systems and the specific challenges of the pandemic have increased the burden and stress on family caregivers. OBJECTIVE: This paper focuses on the burden of family caregivers in the light of their experiences with health and social services. METHODS: Online questionnaire survey (n = 1004; active caregivers during COVID-19 pandemic: n = 491); data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative (content analysis) methods. RESULTS: More than half of the active caregivers experienced an increasing burden in caregiving after the release of COVID-19. Associations are between the increase in caregiving burden during COVID-19 and the municipality type of caregiver's home, the cared for's dementia involvement, the use of home help or other care assistance, and employment. In addition, those who reported an increased burden due to the pandemic also perceived the caregiving role as more stressful. The most significant additional burden was the increased mental and psychological strain caused by restrictions, difficulties in providing care, and the pandemic. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the increase in caregiving burden during COVID-19 can be explained by the specific challenges of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Family caregivers are particularly vulnerable and need special emergency services in such situations. The significantly increased mental strain in emergency situations draws attention to the need for mental health care for carers. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(42): 1654-1662.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Health Informatics J ; 28(4): 14604582221135431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098247

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the perceived impact and benefits of Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), a tele-mentoring intervention for health and social care providers, patients and the health system in Northern Ireland. Having access to a specialist, a space to share experiences, and being able to disseminate up-to-date best practice were all cited as improving provider knowledge as well as improving quality of care for patients. Healthcare providers reported being more confident in managing patients and that relationships had been improved between different levels of the health system. ECHO was described as improving access to education and training by removing geographic and time barriers. This is one of the first studies to qualitatively analyse impact across a number of different clinical and social care ECHO networks. The results strongly indicate the perceived benefit of ECHO in improving provider, patient and health system outcomes such as increased healthcare provider knowledge and confidence to manage patients at primary levels of the health system. This has implications for future service design, particularly within the context of COVID-19 in which virtual and online training is necessitated by social distancing requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Northern Ireland , Community Health Services , Social Support , Health Personnel/education
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065709, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The association between impaired digital provision, access and health outcomes has not been systematically studied. The Wolverhampton Digital ENablement programme (WODEN) is a multiagency collaborative approach to determine and address digital factors that may impact on health and social care in a single deprived multiethnic health economy. The objective of this study is to determine the association between measurable broadband provision and demographic and health outcomes in a defined population. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional whole local population-level study with cohorts defined according to broadband provision. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Data for all residents of the City of Wolverhampton, totalling 269 785 residents. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Poor broadband provision is associated with variation in demographics and with increased comorbidity and urgent care needs. RESULTS: Broadband provision was measured using the Broadband Infrastructure Index (BII) in 158 City localities housing a total of 269 785 residents. Lower broadband provision as determined by BII was associated with younger age (p<0.001), white ethnic status (p<0.001), lesser deprivation as measured by Index of Multiple Deprivation (p<0.001), a higher number of health comorbidities (p<0.001) and more non-elective urgent events over 12 months (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Local municipal and health authorities are advised to consider the variations in broadband provision within their locality and determine equal distribution both on a geographical basis but also against demographic, health and social data to determine equitable distribution as a platform for equitable access to digital resources for their residents.


Subject(s)
Economics, Medical , Ethnicity , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geography , Social Support
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