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1.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(4): e2-e13, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638060

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Preparation for an impending death through end-of-life (EOL) discussions and human presence when a person is dying is important for both patients and families. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study whether EOL discussions were offered and to what degree patients were alone at time of death when dying from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), comparing deaths in nursing homes and hospitals. METHODS: The national Swedish Register of Palliative Care was used. All expected deaths from COVID-19 in nursing homes and hospitals were compared with, and contrasted to, deaths in a reference population (deaths in 2019). RESULTS: A total of 1346 expected COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes (n = 908) and hospitals (n = 438) were analyzed. Those who died were of a more advanced age in nursing homes (mean 86.4 years) and of a lower age in hospitals (mean 80.7 years) (P < 0.0001). Fewer EOL discussions with patients were held compared with deaths in 2019 (74% vs. 79%, P < 0.001), and dying with someone present was much more uncommon (59% vs. 83%, P < 0.0001). In comparisons between nursing homes and hospital deaths, more patients dying in nursing homes were women (56% vs. 37%, P < 0.0001), and significantly fewer had a retained ability to express their will during the last week of life (54% vs. 89%, P < 0.0001). Relatives were present at time of death in only 13% and 24% of the cases in nursing homes and hospitals, respectively (P < 0.001). The corresponding figures for staff were 52% and 38% (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Dying from COVID-19 negatively affects the possibility of holding an EOL discussion and the chances of dying with someone present. This has considerable social and existential consequences for both patients and families.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Loneliness , Palliative Care , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quality of Health Care , Terminal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S2): e2021508, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: the new coronavirus pandemic COVID-19 has had a strong psy- chological impact on the world population. Volunteer psychologists, and psychologists that work in the emer- gencies have also been exposed to the consequences of the impact of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of the psychologist during the Covid-19 emergency intervention. METHODS: an exploratory study, following a qualitative design using Focus Group method was adopted. A total of 24 psychologists was recruited from volunteers of the "Pronto Pșy - Covid-19" service, organized by the Ital- ian Society of Emergency Psychology Social Support, Emilia Romagna. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) was held about: their experiences during the online psychological support; needs detected by users; training needs that emerged during the intervention and professional skills applied. RESULTS: five themes were identi- fied: psychological distress of rescuers; online emergency setting; support of colleagues and gratitude as stress management strategies; need of skill and tools in pandemic emergency intervention; integrated psychological intervention. DISCUSSION: the stress reaction of the emergency psychologists was due in particular to the type of emergency and lack of standardized approach. The group meetings represented an important resource to face traumatic stress. CONCLUSIONS: this study showed the role the need for specific tools for pandemic intervention to protect the well-being of the professional from impact of stress. Further research is needed. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Psychotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613807

ABSTRACT

Due to the demanding changes caused in the population by the COVID-19 pandemic, including a persisting experience of fear and social isolation, multiple studies have focused on the protective role of several psychological characteristics on mental health. Emotional intelligence and social support are commonly linked to mental health and well-being. The present study aims to analyze the mediator role of emotional intelligence and social support on university students' mental health, taking into consideration the role of gender differences. An online questionnaire was administered to a sample of 923 university students during the COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal. Significant gender differences were found on mental health symptoms, emotional intelligence, and social support. A double mediation model was computed to verify if gender influences on mental health were mediated by emotional intelligence and social support. The results show indirect effects of gender on mental health. However, as both mediators mediate in the opposite direction, the total indirect effects become null. Thus, a strong direct effect of gender on mental health remains. The results of the present study have theoretical implications on protective factors of mental health by gender and practical implications for psychological intervention in university counselling services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Emotional Intelligence , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Universities
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3396-3402, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The COVID-19 emergency may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with regard to people with MS (pwMS) chronic exposure to a wide range of challenging life events has been shown to be correlated with worsening of neurological symptoms, increased lesion burden on brain magnetic resonance imaging and relapses. The aim was to investigate perceived stress, depression, perceived social support, habits and behaviour changes in pwMS through COVID-19 in comparison to a control group. METHODS: A web-based survey was posted on SMsocialnetwork.com to investigate perceived stress (using the Perceived Stress Scale), depression (with Patient Health Questionnaire 2) and perceived social support (using Social Provision Scale 10 item) in pwMS and a control group through the COVID-19 pandemic. A secondary group of people with migraine was investigated. RESULTS: In all, 1286 answers from 612 pwMS and 674 control people were included in the final analysis. The answers from 318 people with migraine were included for a secondary analysis. A higher proportion of pwMS were depressed (43.1% vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001), had a high level of perceived stress (58% vs. 39.8%; p < 0.001) and felt significantly less social support (median 33 vs. 35; Q1-Q3 28-36 vs. 32-37; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. A higher percentage of people with migraine were depressed (50% vs. 43%, p = 0.04) compared to pwMS. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the negative impact that prolonged stress may have on clinical and radiological disease activity of pwMS, and bearing in mind that a beneficial effect has been demonstrated and achieved with stress management, it is suggested to promote stress control in these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 530, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of undergraduate students in China have been reported to have psychological problems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of preventive and control measures were implemented, which undoubtedly worsened their psychological health. Coping style and social support were probably important factors that affected the psychological well-being of undergraduate students during the pandemic. This study aimed to explore the effects of coping style and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of college students and relevant risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in February and March of 2020 by distributing an online questionnaire among undergraduate students from seven geographical regions across China. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information; the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS); and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). For the analyses, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple linear regression were utilized. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 3113 college students, the rates of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms were 13.3, 15.4 and 6.8%, respectively. Increased rates of current smoking and drinking (5.5 and 25.2%, respectively) among undergraduates were identified. The results indicated that the PSSS subscales and SCSQ subscales were significantly associated with DASS-21 scores (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that active coping style and family support were protective factors while passive coping style could aggravate psychological problems among participants (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable number of college students adopted passive coping strategies to cope with negative feelings, such as smoking and drinking, which were detrimental to their mental health. In contrast, active coping strategies helped improve their psychological well-being. Moreover, family support was particularly important for maintaining their mental health and ameliorating mental health challenges in this major health crisis. Consequently, suitable psychointervention, routine screening for risk behaviors, and provision of further social support are needed for undergraduate students in the COVID-19 pandemic or other emergency public health events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 851, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious outbreaks are known to cause fear and panic. Exploration of pregnant individuals' psychosocial condition using a qualitative lens during an infectious outbreak is limited. In this study we explore pregnant individuals' lived experiences as well as their psychological and behavioural responses during COVID-19 with the goal of providing useful strategies from the patient's perspective to enable health care providers to help pregnant patients navigate this and future pandemics. METHODS: Pregnant individuals between 20-weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum who received maternity care from an urban academic interprofessional teaching unit in Toronto, Canada were invited to participate. Semi-structured 60 min interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using descriptive thematic analysis. Interview questions probed psychological responses to the pandemic, behavioural and lifestyle changes, strategies to mitigate distress while pregnant during COVID-19 and advice for other patients and the healthcare team. RESULTS: There were 12 participants, mean age 35 years (range 30-43 years), all 1 to 6 months postpartum. Six main themes emerged: 1) Childbearing-related challenges to everyday life; 2) Increased worry, uncertainty and fear; 3) Pervasive sense of loss; 4) Challenges accessing care; 5) Strategies for coping with pandemic stress; 6) Reflections and advice to other pregnant people and health care professionals. Pregnant individuals described lack of social support due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and a profound sense of loss of what they thought their pregnancy and postpartum period should have been. Advice to healthcare providers included providing mental health support, clear and up to date communication as well as more postpartum and breastfeeding support. CONCLUSIONS: These participants described experiencing psychosocial distress during their pregnancies and postpartum. In a stressful situation such as a global pandemic, health care providers need to play a pivotal role to ensure pregnant individuals feel supported and receive consistent care throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period. The health care provider should ensure that mental health concerns are addressed and provide postpartum and breastfeeding support. Without addressing this need for support, parental mental health, relationships, parent-infant bonding, and infant development may be negatively impacted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services/standards , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260506, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a shift in focus of international dementia policies from improving diagnostic rates to enhancing the post-diagnostic support provided to people with dementia and their carers. There is, however, little agreement over what constitutes good post-diagnostic support. This study aimed to identify the components of post-diagnostic dementia support. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative design using interviews, focus groups and observation to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders on the content of post-diagnostic dementia support. Purposive sampling was used to identify sites in England and Wales recognised as delivering good practice. Participants included 17 people with dementia, 31 carers, 68 service managers or funders, and 78 frontline staff. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. Forty-eight sessions of observation were completed and recorded in fieldnotes. Components were identified through an inductive, thematic approach and cross-checked against national guidelines and existing frameworks; they were subsequently critically reviewed by a range of experts and our mixed stakeholder panel. RESULTS: Twenty distinct components of post-diagnostic support were identified, related to five themes: timely identification and management of needs; understanding and managing dementia; emotional and psychological wellbeing; practical support; and integrating support. The first and last of these were cross-cutting themes facilitating the delivery of a unique constellation of components of post-diagnostic support to each individual living with dementia or dyad at a particular time. CONCLUSIONS: Our work offers an empirically based framework to inform the development and delivery of holistic, integrated and continuous dementia care from diagnosis to end of life. It highlights the relevance of many components to both people living with dementia and their carers. Since the framework was developed in England and Wales, further research is needed to explore the relevance of our components to other sectors, countries and care systems.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Social Support , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationships between sociodemographic variables, intolerance to uncertainty (INT), social support, and psychological distress (i.e., indicators of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) and perceived stress (PS)) in Brazilian men during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with national coverage, of the web survey type, and conducted with 1006 Brazilian men during the period of social circulation restriction imposed by the health authorities in Brazil for suppression of the coronavirus and control of the pandemic. Structural equation modeling analysis was performed. RESULTS: Statistically significant direct effects of race/skin color (λ = 0.268; p-value < 0.001), socioeconomic status (SES) (λ = 0.306; p-value < 0.001), household composition (λ = 0.281; p-value < 0.001), PS (λ = 0.513; p-value < 0.001), and INT (λ = 0.421; p-value < 0.001) were evidenced in the occurrence of CMDs. Black-skinned men with higher SES, living alone, and with higher PS and INT levels presented higher prevalence values of CMDs. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of PS and INT were the factors that presented the strongest associations with the occurrence of CMDs among the men. It is necessary to implement actions to reduce the stress-generating sources as well as to promote an increase in resilience and the development of intrinsic reinforcements to deal with uncertain threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Uncertainty
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24400, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585787

ABSTRACT

Coping style represents the cognitive and behavioral patterns to manage particular demands appraised as taxing the resources of individuals. Studies report associations between certain coping styles and levels of adjustment of anxious symptomatology and emotional distress. The main objective of this study was to analyze behavioral co-occurrent patterns and relationships in the coping strategies used to deal with psychological distress displayed by the Spanish adult population during the first State of Emergency and lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study that uses selective methodology complemented with an indirect observational methodology, with a nomothetic/punctual/unidimensional design. We collected 996 surveys from 19 out of the 22 autonomous regions in Spain. We focused the analysis on sociodemographic variables, cumulative incidence of the COVID-19 disease and psychological distress variables. We performed two different inferential analyses: Lag sequential analysis to define the participant coping patterns, and polar coordinate analysis to study the interrelationship of the focal behavior with conditioned behaviors. We found behavioral co-occurrent patterns of coping strategies with problem avoidance being found as the coping strategy most frequently engaged by participants. Interestingly, the problem avoidance strategy was not associated with lower anxious symptomatology. By contrast, emotion-focused strategies such as express emotions and social support were associated with higher anxious symptomatology. Our findings underscore the importance of furthering our understanding of coping as a way to aid psychological distress during global public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Support , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574098

ABSTRACT

Population ageing requires society to adjust by ensuring additional types of services and assistance for elderly people. These may be provided by either organized services and sources of informal social support. The latter are especially important since a lack of social support is associated with a lower level of psychological and physical well-being. During the Covid-19 pandemic, social support for the elderly has proven to be even more crucial, also due to physical distancing. Therefore, this study aims to identify and describe the various types of personal social support networks available to the elderly population during the pandemic. To this end, a survey of Slovenians older than 64 years was conducted from April 25 to May 4, 2020 on a probability web-panel-based sample (n = 605). The ego networks were clustered by a hierarchical clustering approach for symbolic data. Clustering was performed for different types of social support (socializing, instrumental support, emotional support) and different characteristics of the social support networks (i.e., type of relationship, number of contacts, geographical distance). The results show that most of the elderly population in Slovenia has a satisfactory social support network, while the share of those without any (accessible) source of social support is significant. The results are particularly valuable for sustainable care policy planning, crisis intervention planning as well as any future waves of the coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Support , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Slovenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575897

ABSTRACT

Medical personnel working in emergency rooms (ER) are at increased risk of mental health problems and suicidality. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions can improve burnout and other mental health outcomes in health care providers. In contrast, few longitudinal prospective studies have examined protective functions of dispositional mindfulness in this population. The objective of this study was to examine whether mindfulness prospectively predicts anxiety, depression, and social impairment in a sample of emergency care professionals. The authors administered online surveys to ER personnel prior to work in ER, and at 3 and 6 months follow up. Participants were 190 ER personnel (73% residents, 16% medical students, 11% nurses). Linear mixed effects regression was used to model longitudinal 3-month and 6-month follow up of depression, anxiety, and social impairment. Predictors included time-varying contemporaneous work stressors, perceived social support at work and life events, and baseline dispositional mindfulness, demographics, and workplace characteristics. Mindfulness indexed when starting ER work predicted less depression, anxiety, and social impairment 6 months later. Mindfulness remained a strong predictor of mental health outcomes after controlling for time-varying stressful events in emergency care, negative life events, and social support at work. Mindfulness moderated the adverse impact of poor social support at work on depression. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study to show that mindfulness prospectively and robustly predicts anxiety, depression, and social impairment. Results support the role of mindfulness as a potential resilience factor in at-risk health care providers.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , Depression/pathology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mindfulness/methods , Adult , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Occupational Stress , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1949, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While previous studies have examined the relationships between social support and health care accessibility among ethnic minority populations, studies on Korean Americans remain scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess the relationship between Korean Americans' mental health, accessibility to health care, and how they perceive the level of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD/RESULT: We distributed online surveys to Korean Americans from May 24, 2020, to June 14, 2020, generating 790 responses from participants residing in 42 states. Binary Logistic and Ordinary Least Square regression analyses revealed that poor mental health was associated with language barriers inhibiting Korean Americans' access to COVID-19-related information. Their perceived social support from family members and close friends was positively associated with mental health. CONCLUSION: Our findings recommend that equipping community health care services with translators or interpreters is necessary. Additionally, health practitioners and staff should be trained to utilize telehealth tools to effectively treat individuals with mental health problems. American policymakers and health care professionals need to understand and address the unique hardships Korean Americans experience amid COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asian Americans , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Social Work , United States/epidemiology
16.
Work ; 70(2): 347-354, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran, the number of patients admitted to hospitals and the workload of nurses has increased. High workload can reduce efficiency and quality of life. In the meantime the percived social support may had a moderating role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of workload and perceived social support on quality of life in nurses who work in COVID-19 inpatient wards. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study. 336 nurses who worked in inpatient wards with COVID-19 patients were randomly selected and studied. NASA-TLX Workload Questionnaire, WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire and Multidimensional Social Support Perception Scale were used to data collection. Structural equation modelling in PLS software was used to modelling. RESULTS: The results showed that the average score of workload, perceived social support and quality of life were 80.87±20.17, 56.23±11.46 and 55.87±13.74, respectively. A significant inverse relationship was observed between workload and quality of life (P < 0.05). Also, perceived social support had a moderator effect on relationship between workload and quality of life (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High workload can upset the balance between work and life that leads to decrease the quality of life. Perceived social support as a moderator can reduce the negative impact of workload on quality of life. In the COVID-19 pandemic where nurses' workload have increased, by increasing the perceived social support can manage the negative effect of workload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload
18.
Aust J Prim Health ; 27(5): 391-396, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532229

ABSTRACT

Former quota refugees are known to have higher health and social care needs than the general population in resettlement countries. However, migrants with a refugee-like background (refugee-like migrants) in New Zealand are not currently offered systematic government-sponsored induction or health services. This study explored the experiences of New Zealand health and social care providers in general practice. Staff at two Wellington region general practices with known populations of refugee-like migrants and former quota refugees were approached to participate in an exploratory qualitative study. Semistructured audio-recorded interviews and focus groups were undertaken. Deductive and inductive analyses were used to identify key themes. Twelve interviews were undertaken with professionals with backgrounds in clinical pharmacy, cross-cultural work, general practice medicine, primary care nursing, reception and social work. Key themes from the interviews were communication challenges, organisational structure and teamwork, considerations to best meet core health and support needs, and the value of contextual knowledge. Healthcare workers perceived many similarities between working with refugee-like migrants and working with former quota refugees. Even though communication challenges were addressed, there were still barriers affecting the delivery of core health and support services. Primary care practices should focus on organisational structure to provide high-quality, contextually informed, interprofessional team-based health and social care.


Subject(s)
Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , New Zealand , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research , Social Support
19.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1623-1632, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527984

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is placing demands on parents that may amplify the risk of parents' distress and poor parenting. Leveraging a prepandemic study in New Zealand, the current research tested whether parents' psychological distress during a mandated lockdown predicts relative residual changes in poorer parenting and whether partner support and cooperative coparenting buffer this potentially detrimental effect. Participants included 362 parents; 310 were from the same family (155 dyads). Parents had completed assessments of psychological distress and parenting prior to the pandemic and then reported on their distress, parenting, partner support, and cooperative coparenting during a nationwide COVID-19 lockdown. Parents' distress during the lockdown predicted relative residual increases in harsh parenting, but this effect was buffered by partner support. Parents' distress also predicted residual decreases in warm/responsive parenting and parent-child relationship quality, but these effects were buffered by cooperative coparenting. Partner support and cooperative coparenting are important targets for future research and interventions to help parents navigate challenging family contexts, including COVID-19 lockdowns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S2): S82-S83, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526716
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