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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265029, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The response of small business managers to an external event such as the pandemic can have a profound effect on the work environment, health and well-being for themselves and their employees. Previous research on small business managers during the pandemic has mainly focused on traditional pathogenic effects, and there is a lack of studies looking at the issue from a salutogenic health promotion perspective. The aim of this study is to explore whether a sense of coherence and general resistance resources were experienced by small business managers in Sweden and Norway during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative design was applied through exploratory interviews with 16 managers of small businesses in Sweden and Norway. A content analysis of the interviews was conducted using the sense of coherence concept by Aaron Antonovsky, with the three main components of comprehensibility, meaningfulness and manageability acting as a conceptual framework for the analysis process. RESULTS: Within the three main sense-of-coherence categories, six general resistance resources were identified as being important for the managers to handle uncertainty during the pandemic. These were understanding rules and regulations, social support, optimism, proactivity, problem-solving and flexibility and cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: The small business managers handled the pandemic in a way that worked well in their contexts, and the pandemic generally did not have a negative effect on their businesses or themselves. A salutogenic approach, through which the managers focused on identifying and using resources, was an important factor for managing stressors and adversity during the pandemic. Hence, the concept of salutogenesis may be used as an intervention to foster better health in small businesses, both at a personal and organisational level in order to handle future challenges effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Sense of Coherence , Social Support/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway , Qualitative Research , Small Business , Sweden
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263502, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses stand in an unknown situation while facing continuous news feeds. Social media is a ubiquitous tool to gain and share reliable knowledge and experiences regarding COVID-19. The article aims to explore how nurses use social media in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A scoping review inspired by Arksey and O'Mally was conducted by searches in Medline, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete and Web of Sciences. Empirical research studies investigating nurses' use of social media in relation to COVID-19 were included. Exclusion criteria were: Literature reviews, articles in languages other than English, articles about E-health, and articles investigating healthcare professionals without specification of nurses included. Articles, published in January-November 2020, were included and analysed through a thematic analysis. The PRISMA-ScR checklist was used. RESULTS: Most of the eleven included studies were cross-sectional surveys, conducted in developing countries, and had neither social media nor nurses as their main focus of interest. Three themes were identified: 'Social media as a knowledge node', 'Social media functioned as profession-promoting channels' and 'Social media as a disciplinary tool'. Nurses used social media as channels to gain and share information about COVID-19, and to support each other by highlighting the need for training and changes in delivery of care and redeployment. Further, social media functioned as profession-promoting channels partly sharing heroic self-representations and acknowledgment of frontline persons in the pandemic, partly by displaying critical working conditions. Finally, nurses used social media to educate people to perform the 'right 'COVID-19' behaviours in society. CONCLUSION: This review provided snapshots of nurses' uses of social media from various regions in the world, but revealed a need for studies from further countries and continents. The study calls for further multi-methodological and in depth qualitative research, including theoretically framed studies, with a specific focus on the uses of social media among nurses during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Information Dissemination , Nurses/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Professional Role/psychology , Social Support/psychology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263583, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686104

ABSTRACT

A growing body of research has reported on the potential opioid-sparing effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, but less is known about specific mechanisms. The present research examines cannabis-related posts in two large online communities on the Reddit platform ("subreddits") to compare mentions of naturalistic cannabis use by persons self-identifying as actively using opioids versus persons in recovery. We extracted all posts mentioning cannabis-related keywords (e.g., "weed", "cannabis", "marijuana") from December 2015 through August 2019 from an opioid use subreddit and an opioid recovery subreddit. To investigate how cannabis is discussed at-scale, we identified and compared the most frequent phrases in cannabis-related posts in each subreddit using term-frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weighting. To contextualize these findings, we also conducted a qualitative content analysis of 200 random posts (100 from each subreddit). Cannabis-related posts were about twice as prevalent in the recovery subreddit (n = 908; 5.4% of 16,791 posts) than in the active opioid use subreddit (n = 4,224; 2.6% of 159,994 posts, p < .001). The most frequent phrases from the recovery subreddit referred to time without using opioids and the possibility of using cannabis as a "treatment." The most frequent phrases from the opioid subreddit referred to concurrent use of cannabis and opioids. The most common motivations for using cannabis were to manage opioid withdrawal symptoms in the recovery subreddit, often in conjunction with anti-anxiety and GI-distress "comfort meds," and to enhance the "high" when used in combination with opioids in the opioid subreddit. Despite limitations in generalizability from pseudonymous online posts, this examination of reports of naturalistic cannabis use in relation to opioid use identified withdrawal symptom management as a common motivation. Future research is warranted with more structured assessments that examines the role of cannabis and cannabinoids in addressing both somatic and affective symptoms of opioid withdrawal.


Subject(s)
Medical Marijuana/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Social Support/psychology , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabis , Humans , Marijuana Abuse/psychology , Marijuana Smoking , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Social Media , Social Support/trends , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 10, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy was the first European country to experience a massive outbreak of Sars-coV-2 in March 2020. Severe measures were introduced to face the pandemic, significantly impacting all healthcare services, including pediatric palliative care (PPC) networks. We investigated how the Covid-19 pandemic modified the provision of PPC services in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. Both the acute and long-term impacts on the families were addressed. METHODS: We administered a retrospective three-sections online questionnaire to the eligible families assisted by our regional PPC network. Inclusion criteria were: child needing specialistic PPC, adequate knowledge of the Italian language, being in charge of the PPC regional network of Friuli Venezia Giulia from February 1, 2020. The three sections examined the same issues in different periods: the pre-covid period (until February 29, 2020), the lockdown period (March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020), and the post-lockdown period (May 2021). RESULTS: Twelve patients were included. During the lockdown period, 54.6% of children had to stop physiotherapy sessions, while, among those who continued, 80.0% experienced a reduction in the sessions' frequency. In the post-lockdown period, 45.5% of children did not have physiotherapy as often as before the pandemic onset. Overall, the access to medical visits during the lockdown and after its end was significantly reduced (p = 0.01). The level of support perceived by the families descended from grade 3 (intermediate) in the pre-covid period to 2 (low) during the lockdown (p < 0.05) and returned to grade 3 in the post-lockdown period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic and the related restrictions impacted the families and caused a transitory contraction of the perceived support. The most significant change was reduced access to medical visits and physiotherapy, which lasted over a year after the start of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Palliative Care , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Family/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1990551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541467

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has represented a burden to communities worldwide. Research indicates that this burden is not equally distributed in the community, and vulnerable groups, such as violence-exposed individuals may pay a particularly high prize. Perceived social support is known to buffer against negative effects of trauma and adversity, but it is not clear whether this is the case during times of social restrictions and lockdowns. In this study, we tested if perceived social support could buffer the link between pandemic worry and psychological distress in a community sample and in the subgroup exposed to violence during the pandemic. Methods: A stratified, presumed representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 1,041, response rate = 39.9%) responded to a cross-sectional web survey in May 2020. Fifty-nine participants (5.7%) had been exposed to physical, sexual, and/or psychological violence during the last month. Results: Current violence, pandemic worry, and perceived social support were independently associated with psychological distress. In the total sample, perceived social support moderated the relationship between pandemic worry and psychological distress. However, this was not found in individuals who were exposed to current violence. Conclusions: Even though high levels of perceived social support can protect against psychological distress in the face of pandemic worry in the community, it seems that this resource is not as useful for individuals exposed to current violence. Outreach health and care services are warranted to support the needs of this particular vulnerable group.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha representado una carga para las comunidades alrededor del mundo. La investigación indica que esta carga no se distribuye equitativamente en la comunidad, y los grupos vulnerables, como los individuos expuestos a violencia pueden pagar un precio particularmente alto. Se sabe que el apoyo social percibido actúa como modulador en contra los efectos negativos del trauma y la adversidad, pero no está claro si este es el caso durante periodos de restricciones sociales y confinamientos. En este estudio, evaluamos si el apoyo social percibido podría modular la asociación entre la preocupación pandémica y el sufrimiento psicológico en una muestra de la comunidad y en el subgrupo expuesto a violencia durante la pandemia.Métodos: Una muestra estratificada, que se presume representativa de la población noruega (N = 1,041, tasa de respuesta = 39,9%) respondió una encuesta web transversal en mayo de 2020. Cincuenta y nueve participantes (5.7%) habían estado expuestos a violencia física, sexual, y/o psicológica durante el último mes.Resultados: La violencia actual, la preocupación pandémica y el apoyo social percibido se asociaron de forma independiente al sufrimiento psicológico. En la muestra total, el apoyo social percibido moderó la relación entre la preocupación pandémica y el sufrimiento psicológico. Sin embargo, esto no fue encontrado en individuos que estaban expuestos a violencia actual.Conclusiones: Incluso aunque altos niveles de apoyo social percibido pueden proteger contra el sufrimiento psicológico de cara a la preocupación pandémica en la comunidad, parece que este recurso no es tan útil para individuos expuestos a violencia actual.Extender el alcance de los servicios de salud y cuidado se justifica para apoyar las necesidades de este grupo vulnerable en particular.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Exposure to Violence/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22871, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537332

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed novel risks related to the indoor mixing of individuals from different households and challenged policymakers to adequately regulate this behaviour. While in many cases household visits are necessary for the purpose of social care, they have been linked to broadening community transmission of the virus. In this study we propose a novel, privacy-preserving framework for the measurement of household visitation at national and regional scales, making use of passively collected mobility data. We implement this approach in England from January 2020 to May 2021. The measures expose significant spatial and temporal variation in household visitation patterns, impacted by both national and regional lockdown policies, and the rollout of the vaccination programme. The findings point to complex social processes unfolding differently over space and time, likely informed by variations in policy adherence, vaccine relaxation, and regional interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Social Support/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/trends , England , Family Characteristics , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Models, Statistical , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Interaction/classification , Social Support/methods , Vaccines
10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 93: 97-102, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536977

ABSTRACT

Inequalities in mental healthcare and lack of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic have lowered quality of life and increased overall burden of disease in people with Parkinson's (PWP). Although the pandemic has brought attention to these inequalities, they are long standing and will persist unless addressed. Lack of awareness of mental health issues is a major barrier and even when recognized disparities based on race, gender, and socioeconomic factors limit access to already scarce resources. Stigma regarding mental illness is highly prevalent and is a major barrier even when adequate care exists. Limited access to mental healthcare during the pandemic and in general increases the burden on caregivers and families. Historically, initiatives to improve mental healthcare for PWP focused on interventions designed for specialty and academic centers generally located in large metropolitan areas, which has created unintended geographic disparities in access. In order to address these issues this point of view suggests a community-based wellness model to extend the reach of mental healthcare resources for PWP.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities/trends , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/trends , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Social Support/trends , Health Resources/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Social Support/psychology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259858, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Professional burnout represents a significant threat to the American healthcare system. Organizational and individual factors may increase healthcare providers' susceptibility or resistance to burnout. We hypothesized that during the COVID-19 pandemic, 1) higher levels of perceived organizational support (POS) are associated with lower risk for burnout and anxiety, and 2) anxiety mediates the association between POS and burnout. METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective study, we surveyed healthcare providers employed full-time at a large, multihospital healthcare system monthly over 6 months (April to November 2020). Participants were randomized using a 1:1 allocation stratified by provider type, gender, and academic hospital status to receive one of two versions of the survey instrument formulated with different ordering of the measures to minimize response bias due to context effects. The exposure of interest was POS measured using the validated 8-item Survey of POS (SPOS) scale. Primary outcomes of interest were anxiety and risk for burnout as measured by the validated 10-item Burnout scale from the Professional Quality (Pro-QOL) instrument and 4-item Emotional Distress-Anxiety short form of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scale, respectively. Linear mixed models evaluated the associations between POS and both burnout and anxiety. A mediation analysis evaluated whether anxiety mediated the POS-burnout association. RESULTS: Of the 538 participants recruited, 402 (75%) were included in the primary analysis. 55% of participants were physicians, 73% 25-44 years of age, 73% female, 83% White, and 44% had ≥1 dependent. Higher POS was significantly associated with a lower risk for burnout (-0.23; 95% CI -0.26, -0.21; p<0.001) and lower degree of anxiety (-0.07; 95% CI -0.09, -0.06; p = 0.010). Anxiety mediated the associated between POS and burnout (direct effect -0.17; 95% CI -0.21, -0.13; p<0.001; total effect -0.23; 95% CI -0.28, -0.19; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: During a health crisis, increasing the organizational support perceived by healthcare employees may reduce the risk for burnout through a reduction in anxiety. Improving the relationship between healthcare organizations and the individuals they employ may reduce detrimental effects of psychological distress among healthcare providers and ultimately improve patient care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Organizational Culture , Social Support/psychology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Social Support/statistics & numerical data
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