Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Filter
1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741812, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775898

ABSTRACT

Background: With the rapid urbanization, citizenization of migrants is becoming the development tendency in China. It is significant to analyze the determining factors of the settlement intention of migrants. Methods: The data we used were taken from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) in 2017. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between air pollution, economic advantages, and settlement intention between different migrants and the moderating effect of social welfare. Results: At the individual level, being female, married, urban and other ethnic, having higher education, older, and health associated with likelihood of settlement intention of migrants. Higher health education, social integration, and, have a health record were positively associated with the likelihood of settlement intention. Higher educated, urban areas, and Han migrants were willing to reduce their pursuit of health for economic development. Conclusion: Health education and more social organizational participation can reduce the negative effect of air pollution and increase the positive effect of economic advantages on settlement intention of migrants. But, in less economically advantaged areas, it has no obvious effect. In the choice of health and wealth, the settlement intention of migrants shows difference, and unfairness and social welfare, in particular health education, can narrow this difference.


Subject(s)
Transients and Migrants , China , Female , Humans , Intention , Social Welfare
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 764559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566666

ABSTRACT

Over the last 12 years the United Kingdom (UK) has seen the introduction of an austerity programme-a fiscal policy-with the primary goal to reduce the government's budget deficit and the role of the welfare system. Between 2010 and 2015 there was an estimated reduction of £14.5 billion in spending, attributable to decreasing the value of benefits and restricting entitlement to benefit claimants. By 2020, there had been an estimated unprecedented £27 billion less spent on welfare compared with spending in 2010. Whilst fiscally-successful at reducing spending, some implemented welfare policies have had direct consequences for people's health, increasing inequalities which have been heavily criticized. Moreover, there is growing concern that this has an intergenerational effect. In this paper, we describe the ethical principles in human research, how these have been considered in public health policy, and the existing evidence of the direct and intergenerational health and welfare consequences of some recent, nationally-implemented welfare policies. We argue that ethical principles, specifically the ethical principle of safety that is applied in all research, should be applied to all public welfare policies to stop the rising inequalities in health we are seeing across generations. We highlight that initial changes implemented to welfare policies as a response to COVID-19 demonstrate that there can be a political and societal perceived value in going further to support individuals and their families during times of adversity, and consider the ethical implications of this.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Welfare
5.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(9 Suppl 1): 3-4, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529149
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502071

ABSTRACT

Latin American governments swiftly implemented income assistance programs to sustain families' livelihoods during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. This paper analyzes the potential coverage and generosity of these measures and assesses the suitability of current safety nets to deal with unexpected negative income shocks in 10 Latin American countries. The expansion of pre-existing programs (most notably conditional cash transfers and non-contributory pensions) during the COVID-19 crisis was generally insufficient to compensate for the inability to work among the poorest segments of the population. When COVID-19 ad hoc programs are analyzed, the coverage and replacement rates of regular labor income among households in the first quintile of the country's labor income distribution increase substantially. Yet, these programs present substantial coverage challenges among families composed of fundamentally informal workers who are non-poor, but are at a high risk of poverty. These results highlight the limitations of the fragmented nature of social protection systems in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors , Developing Countries , Emergencies , Family Characteristics , Humans , Income , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pensions , Physical Distancing , Public Policy
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488590

ABSTRACT

Community services have played a significant role in supporting the psychosocial health and well-being of vulnerable populations during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. To meet increased community needs, organisations were required to rapidly modify service provision, often using remote delivery systems. This in-depth study, undertaken early in the pandemic, explored staff and clients' experiences of adapting to using telehealth to provide and access services in one regional social services agency. Semi-structured interviews from 15 staff and 11 clients from a regional not-for-profit agency in Western Australia were recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding, and thematic analysis identified eight subthemes, with experiences and perceptions of telehealth varying substantially among staff and client groups. Distinct benefits and challenges were associated with telehealth. Participants highlighted tensions and complexities and commented on the place of telehealth in the community service sector. Clients expressed the importance of relationships and communication. This study provides in-depth insights into the contextualised experiences of staff and clients during a time at which change was both enabled and necessary. The findings highlight the need for tailored service delivery; choice; client collaboration; ongoing staff training relating to telehealth; and guidelines specific to telehealth in the community service sector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Australia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Welfare
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114455, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447163

ABSTRACT

The Nordic Paradox of inequality describes how the Nordic countries have puzzlingly high levels of relative health inequalities compared to other nations, despite extensive universal welfare systems and progressive tax regimes that redistribute income. However, the veracity and origins of this paradox have been contested across decades of literature, as many scholars argue it relates to measurement issues or historical coincidences. Disentangling between potential explanations is crucial to determine if widespread adoption of the Nordic model could represent a sufficient panacea for lowering health inequalities, or if new approaches must be pioneered. As newfound challenges to welfare systems continue to emerge, evidence describing the benefits of welfare systems is becoming ever more important. Preliminary evidence indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic is drastically exacerbating social inequalities in health across the world, via direct and indirect effects. We argue that the COVID-19 pandemic therefore represents a unique opportunity to measure the value of welfare systems in insulating their populations from rising social inequalities in health. However, COVID-19 has also created new measurement challenges and interrupted data collection mechanisms. Robust academic studies will therefore be needed-drawing on novel data collection methods-to measure increasing social inequalities in health in a timely fashion. In order to assure that policies implemented to reduce inequalities can be guided by accurate and updated information, policymakers, academics, and the international community must work together to ensure streamlined data collection, reporting, analysis, and evidence-based decision-making. In this way, the pandemic may offer the opportunity to finally clarify some of the mechanisms underpinning the Nordic Paradox, and potentially more firmly establish the merits of the Nordic model as a global example for reducing social inequalities in health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257469, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430538

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have adverse effects on the economy through damage to migration and remittances. We use a unique monthly household panel dataset that covers the period both before and after the outbreak to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on a variety of household welfare outcomes in Tajikistan, where remittance inflows in recent years have exceeded a quarter of annual GDP. We provide several findings. First, after April 2020, the adverse effects of the pandemic on household welfare were significantly observed and were particularly pronounced in the second quarter of 2020. Second, in contrast to expectation, the pandemic had a sharp but only transitory effect on the stock of migrants working abroad in the spring. Some expected migrants were forced to remain in their home country during the border closures, while some incumbent migrants expecting to return were unable to do so and remained employed in their destination countries. Both departures and returns started to increase again from summer. Employment and remittances of the migrants quickly recovered to levels seen in previous years after a sharp decline in April and May. Third, regression analyses reveal that both migration and remittances have helped to mitigate the adverse economic outcomes at home during the "with-COVID-19" period, suggesting that they served as a form of insurance. Overall, the unfavorable effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were severe and temporary right after the outbreak, but households with migrants were more resilient against the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Family Characteristics , Human Migration , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Social Welfare/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Employment , Humans , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tajikistan/epidemiology
10.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25(supl.1): e200753, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1389010

ABSTRACT

São tecidas neste texto algumas reflexões em torno das respostas que têm sido empreendidas pelos setores da saúde, previdência social e assistência social, que compõem a seguridade social no Brasil, tomando-se a sua centralidade, que deveria ser assumida para o enfrentamento da pandemia causada pelo SARS-Cov-2. Com essa leitura de contexto e com o pressuposto de uma ação profissional para a participação social com autonomia, partilham-se experiências de intervenção em Terapia Ocupacional Social com jovens que vivem em periferias urbanas e, certamente, pobres para o mercado/consumo, mas ricos de vida, na pandemia de Covid-19. O intuito foi produzir um cuidado que se coaduna com a proteção social e se direciona, na defesa do valor inegociável de cada vida e do seu pulsar, para a promoção de uma circulação emancipatória, questão agravada, mas anterior à pandemia e sempre presente entre esses jovens. (AU)


En este texto se tejen algunas reflexiones alrededor de las respuestas que han emprendido los sectores de la salud, previsión social y asistencia social que componen la seguridad social en Brasil, tomando su centralidad, que debería ser asumida para el enfrentamiento de la pandemia causada por el SARS-Cov-2. Con esa lectura de contexto y con el presupuesto de una acción profesional para la participación social con autonomía, se comparten las experiencias de intervención en Terapia Ocupacional Social con jóvenes que viven en periferias urbanas, ciertamente pobres para el mercado/consumo, pero ricos en vida, durante la pandemia de Covid-19. El objetivo fue producir un cuidado que se une con la protección social y se dirige, en la defensa del valor innegociable de cada vida y de su pulsación, hacia la promoción de una circulación emancipadora, cuestión agravada por la pandemia, pero anterior a ella, y siempre presente entre esos jóvenes. (AU)


This text elaborates some reflections regarding the responses that have been undertaken by the sectors: health, social security and social assistance, which make up social security in Brazil. It assumes its centrality, to face the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Considering this context and assuming a professional action for social participation with autonomy, we share experiences in Social Occupational Therapy with young people who live in urban peripheries, certainly poor for the market/consumption, but rich in life, in the Covid-19 pandemic. The aim was to produce care that is consistent with social protection and is directed, in defense of the non-negotiable value of each life and of its pulse, towards the promotion of an emancipatory circulation, an issue that existed prior to the pandemic, albeit now aggravated, and always present among this group of young people. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Social Welfare/psychology , Occupational Therapy/methods , Social Protection in Health , COVID-19 , Poverty Areas , 59903
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186613

ABSTRACT

After a decade of civil war and the 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak, Sierra Leone now faces the COVID-19 pandemic with a fragile health system. As was demonstrated during Ebola, preparedness is key to limiting a health crisis' spread and impact on health systems and ensuring continued care for vulnerable populations including people living with HIV (PLHIV). To assess COVID-19 preparedness and inform interventions to ensure continuity of HIV services at health facilities (HFs) and community service points (CSPs), we conducted site readiness assessments in Freetown, the epicenter of COVID-19 in Sierra Leone. Data were collected at nine high-volume HIV HFs and seven CSPs in April 2020, a month after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. CSPs comprised three community drop-in centers providing HIV counseling and testing services as well as HIV prevention services (e.g., condoms and lubricants) for key and priority populations and four community-based support groups serving PLHIV. At the time of assessment, CSPs did not provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) but were considered potential sites for expansion of differentiated service delivery (DSD)-a client-centered approach to HIV care-in the context of COVID-19. Overall, 5/9 HFs had trained staff on use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and prevention of COVID-19 transmission. Most had access to masks (5/9) and gloves (7/9) for management of suspected/confirmed COVID-19 cases, and 4/9 HFs had triage procedures for isolation of suspected cases. Conversely, few CSPs had access to masks (2/7) or gloves (2/7) and no staff were trained on PPE use or COVID-19 transmission. 7/9 HFs had adequate ART stock for multi-month dispensing though few had procedures for (3/9) or had trained staff in providing DSD (2/9). Among CSPs where measures were applicable, 2/4 had procedures for DSD, 1/3 had staff trained on DSD and none had adequate ART stock. Identification of gaps in COVID-19 preparedness is a critical step in providing support for infection control and modified service delivery. Findings from this assessment highlight gaps in COVID-19 preparedness measures at sites supporting PLHIV in Sierra Leone and indicate CSPs may require intensive supervision and training to ensure HIV services are uninterrupted while minimizing COVID-19 risk, especially if used as sites to scale up DSD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Health Facilities , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Social Welfare
15.
Fam Community Health ; 44(2): 78-80, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165533

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of social determinants of health in affecting health outcomes. Populations with high social risk are disproportionately impacted by the virus and its economic consequences. Primary care practices have a unique opportunity to implement interventions to mitigate their patients' unmet social needs, such as food and income insecurity. In this commentary, we outline key considerations for clinics implementing programs that identify and address patients' social needs in a way that promotes equity, quality, and sustainability. We provide examples from our own experience at a federally qualified health center.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Primary Health Care/methods , Quality of Health Care , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Social Determinants of Health , Social Welfare , COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pandemics , Poverty , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(3): 295, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164856
18.
Sante Publique ; 32(5): 461-471, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136554

ABSTRACT

This article proposes to clarify the concept of social inequality in health: theoretically first, then by mobilizing it on a specific study field, the Covid-19 pandemic in Quebec during the spring of 2020.It begins with a discussion of various definitions of social inequalities in health and then proposes the following one: these are differences in health observed between several social groups and which result from the power relation(s) between these groups.Applying this definition to the Covid-19 pandemic occurs in two stages. First, power relations that differentiate exposure to the various risks caused by the pandemic are identified: being infected, dying of it, but also seeing one's health affected by the pandemic without necessarily being infected with the new coronavirus. The study of this latter risk requires monitoring exposure to social determinants of health that is unbalanced by the context of the pandemic: income, social network, care and social services, education, stigma.This first step of the analysis considers power relations taken in isolation from each other. The second explores their articulation. Its common thread is the ethno-racial relation, of which are analyzed the links with socio-economic relation. Finally, a systemic perspective of inequalities is drawn, essential for identifying actions to be taken to fight against social inequalities in health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(6): 1249-1262, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122769

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the depression, anxiety and stress status of health sector and community service workers who were actively working during the pandemic period. METHODS: This is a descriptive study. A total of 735 people consisting of 426 health sector employees and 309 service sector employees, constituted the study sample. In this study, the data were collected using the personal information form and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21). A regression model was established to test the effect of socio-demographic characteristics on depression, anxiety, and stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: While there was no difference in working a second job across different sectors (p = 0.450), the household income (p < 0.001) and the increase in expenditures during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.001) were different across the sectors. The scores of the overall scale and its sub-dimensions were significantly different across the sectors (p < 0.001). The DASS-21 scores were higher in the participants, who started to smoke more and who had their sleep duration decreased (p < 0.001). There is a statistically significant difference between social media use and the DASS-21 score (p < 0.001). There is a significant difference across all DASS-21 subgroups by the daily working hours in the health sector (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study provides significant findings regarding the mental health of individuals who continued working during the pandemic. To implement effective mental health interventions to risk groups and affected people in the COVID-19 pandemic, the recommendations of leading organizations, including WHO and ILO, should be implemented effectively concerning occupational health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Pandemics , Sleep , Social Welfare , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workforce , Young Adult
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(4): 529-538, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123133

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has prompted unprecedented government action around the world. We introduce the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT), a dataset that addresses the need for continuously updated, readily usable and comparable information on policy measures. From 1 January 2020, the data capture government policies related to closure and containment, health and economic policy for more than 180 countries, plus several countries' subnational jurisdictions. Policy responses are recorded on ordinal or continuous scales for 19 policy areas, capturing variation in degree of response. We present two motivating applications of the data, highlighting patterns in the timing of policy adoption and subsequent policy easing and reimposition, and illustrating how the data can be combined with behavioural and epidemiological indicators. This database enables researchers and policymakers to explore the empirical effects of policy responses on the spread of COVID-19 cases and deaths, as well as on economic and social welfare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Government , Public Policy , Social Welfare , COVID-19 Vaccines , Contact Tracing , Databases, Factual , Financial Support , Health Policy , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Transportation , Travel
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL