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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(4): 634-638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the effect of social work intervention on psychological intervention of medical workers after the epidemic under the mode of "internet plus Music Therapy". SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The observation objects in this study were all medical workers in fever clinic under the epidemic situation in COVID-19. A total of 60 cases were selected, and the proportion of anxiety and depression of medical workers in fever clinic was investigated by electronic questionnaire. After completing the investigation, social work intervention measures under the mode of "internet plus Music Therapy" were implemented. RESULTS: After implementation, the proportion of anxiety and depression of medical workers were significantly lower than those before intervention (P<0.05). The development of music therapy activities has alleviated the job anxiety of medical workers to a great extent, and the job anxiety test, total score and scores of various factors have all decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Social work intervention under the mode of "internet plus Music Therapy" can relieve anxiety and depression, and ensure the mental health of frontline medical staff during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Music Therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Work
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010025

ABSTRACT

Mindfulness-based art therapy has shown to improve psychological well-being. Zentangle is an easy-to-learn, mindfulness-based art therapy suitable for everyone. We reported the transition from face-to-face to online Zentangle workshops in family social services during COVID-19. We explored feedback from face-to-face workshops and the acceptability of an online approach utilizing information communication technology (ICT) to achieve greater service reach, satisfaction, and knowledge and related outcomes. Under the Hong Kong Jockey Club SMART Family-Link Project and in collaboration with Caritas Integrated Family Service Centre-Aberdeen, this study was conducted in two phases: a four-session, face-to-face workshop (phase one) and eleven online single-session workshops (phase two) from September 2019 to September 2020. A total of 305 participants joined the workshops. Phase one participants (n = 11) reported high satisfaction (4.7 out of 5), increases in knowledge (4.2/5) and confidence (3.9/5) towards managing stress, increases in knowledge (4.1/5) and confidence (3.9/5) in showing support and care towards family members, and an increase in knowledge towards strengthening family relationships (4.0/5). Phase two participants (n = 294) also reported high satisfaction (4.7/5) and strongly agreed that ICT helped with learning Zentangle more conveniently, that they had increased knowledge and interest in Zentangle (all 4.7/5), and would definitely join the workshop again (4.8/5). The qualitative data supported the quantitative findings. We are the first to report on the utilization of ICT in an exploratory trial of brief, online Zentangle art workshops targeting the general public, with high satisfaction and positive participant experiences with ICT integration, learning Zentangle, and enhanced psychological and family well-being. This study provided preliminary evidence on the use of ICT to successfully transition face-to-face to online workshops and reach a wider audience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Information Technology , Learning , Social Work
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E48, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Multisector collaboration is a widely promoted strategy to increase equitable availability, access, and use of healthy foods, safe places for physical activity, social supports, and preventive health care services. Yet fewer studies and resources exist for collaboration among governmental and nongovernmental agencies to address public problems in rural areas, despite an excess burden of risk factors for cancer morbidity and mortality. We aimed to learn about cancer prevention activities and collaboration facilitators among rural informal interagency networks. EVALUATION METHODS: In 2020, researchers conducted semistructured interviews with staff from rural public health and social services agencies, community health centers, and extension offices. Agency staff were from 5 service areas across 27 rural counties in Missouri and Illinois with high poverty rates and excess cancer risks and mortality. We conducted a thematic analysis to code interview transcripts and identify key themes. RESULTS: Exchanging information, cohosting annual or one-time events, and promoting other agencies' services and programs were the most commonly described collaborative activities among the 32 participants interviewed. Participants indicated a desire to improve collaborations by writing more grants together to codevelop ongoing prevention programs and further share resources. Participants expressed needs to increase community outreach, improve referral systems, and expand screenings. We identified 5 facilitator themes: commitment to address community needs, mutual willingness to collaborate, long-standing relationships, smaller community structures, and necessity of leveraging limited resources. Challenges included lack of funding and time, long travel distances, competing priorities, difficulty replacing staff in remote communities, and jurisdictional boundaries. Although the COVID-19 pandemic further limited staff availability for collaboration, participants noted benefits of remote collaborative meetings. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: Rural areas need consistent funding and other resources to support health-improving multisector initiatives. Existing strengths found in the rural underresourced areas can facilitate multisector collaborations for cancer prevention, including long-standing relationships, small community structures, and the need to leverage limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rural Health Services , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Rural Population , Social Work
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 957173, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993912

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study analyzes the subjective emotional impact COVID-19 deaths have had on healthcare, social services, and funeral services professionals, it explores the different implications, and analyzes the different reactions of health and social care professionals and funeral professionals to the volume of deaths. Methods: This work is based on a qualitative, phenomenological, and interpretative approach through in-depth interviews with 42 informants, including 36 social and healthcare professionals, as well as 6 family members of those who died from COVID-19 in Madrid. The interviews were processed through a qualitative, interpretative, categorical analysis. Results: Healthcare professionals were overexposed to a significant number of deaths under dramatic circumstances. Many of these professionals had difficulties processing their experiences and expressed the need for psychological help. The fact that certain professionals had previous exposure to high mortality rates was not a protective factor. Some coping differences were seen between healthcare professionals and professionals dedicated to the care of the deceased (undertakers or firemen), particularly in the degree to which they personalized the care they provided. Conclusion: The overexposure to death with the circumstances that existed during the state of emergency had a significant emotional impact on the professionals, which can lead to mental health problems in the near term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Qualitative Research , Social Work
5.
Soc Work ; 67(4): 311-320, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973256

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is not only limited to physical health but also extends to various aspects of everyday life. The present study proposes that the prolonged pandemic can lead to pandemic-work conflict (PWC). The article examines how the pandemic interferes with work, the association between PWC and mental health, and the underlying mechanism of this process. A total of 303 full-time social workers in Hong Kong responded to measures on PWC, psychological capital (PsyCap), and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Data were collected between February and April 2020, when the COVID-19 outbreak was beginning to worsen; 15.8 percent and 14.9 percent of the participants reported mild to severe anxiety and depression, respectively. Time-based PWC was positively associated and strain-based PWC was negatively associated with PsyCap, which was in turn negatively associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. PsyCap was a significant mediator of these relationships. The findings suggest that the relationship between strain-based PWC and psychological distress can be explained by PsyCap, whereby the depletion of psychological resources may contribute to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Positive psychological resources may be an intervening point for promoting mental health among the social services workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Social Work , Social Workers , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Soc Work Health Care ; 61(4): 218-242, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967718

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the world. In Canada, the impact has been worrisome. Canada is a large, sparsely populated country with a system of universal health care that is decided nationally and enacted by each province and territory. There are variations in health care, as well as in the provision of social work, throughout the country. The aim of this survey is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social workers employed in health care. Participants were recruited for an online survey via social media, professional associations, and social work education programs. Three hundred and seventy-six social workers participated. Analyses were performed to: (1) investigate the changes in workplace conditions indicated by social workers as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) examine reported levels of distress, social support, quality of professional life, resilience, and posttraumatic growth among respondents during this time; and (3) contextualize these findings by exploring similarities and differences across geographic locations. Many respondents were deemed essential workers. Significant differences across regions were not found. The knowledge generated has important implications for all sectors of the social work profession in Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Work
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963973

ABSTRACT

People who use drugs are highly marginalized communities and are disproportionately affected by environmental changes-e.g., neighborhood gentrification-that affect housing availability and stability, particularly in urban locations. These changes could negatively affect individuals' access to and utilization of health care and social services, resulting in poorer health outcomes. This study examined the impact of gentrification and housing instability on drug users' access to harm reduction and other health services. Data were collected from 139 clients of a large harm reduction organization. Results showed that 67% of the participants were either unstably housed or homeless, and about one-third of participants indicated that their current housing situations negatively affected their access to primary care (33.9%), behavioral health services (36.7%) and basic services (38.3%). While homeless individuals were still able to access services generally, a greater percentage-compared to those unstably or stably housed-reported difficulty accessing care. As these data were collected prior to the COVID pandemic, it is likely that many of our participants faced greater struggles with housing insecurity and health care access issues due to shutdowns and increased need for social isolation and quarantine. More work is needed to address housing instability and homelessness among already marginalized populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , District of Columbia , Health Services Accessibility , Housing , Housing Instability , Humans , Social Work
8.
Soc Work ; 67(4): 341-350, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961149

ABSTRACT

This ethnographic study explores how Japanese immigrant and temporary resident parents support their children's acculturation to U.S. society. Anti-Asian hatred is a neglected social justice issue with a long history extending to hate crimes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet the U.S. population includes an increasing number of Asian immigrants. Some of them, such as recent Japanese immigrants and temporary residents, are from majority groups in their countries of origin, and do not have cultural socialization practices to protect their children from racism and xenophobia. This article focuses on in-depth, individual interviews with 14 Japanese immigrant and temporary resident parents of children attending U.S. local schools. Parents described their cultural socialization as centering on developing a Japanese cultural self, for example, through participation in a Japanese supplementary school. Parents also reported experiences of anti-Asian racism and xenophobia, including social exclusion. However, they typically did not describe preparing children directly for responding to and coping with anti-Asian bias. Rather, they and their children took responsibility for bias directed against them, and avoided drawing attention to their differences. Authors discuss implications for how social workers can recognize distress in Japanese children and effectively support them and others experiencing similar acculturation challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Acculturation , Child , Hate , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Parents , Social Work , United States
9.
Soc Work ; 67(4): 381-390, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961148

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 highlights the need for portability of social work licensure to be a priority. The Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) spearheaded some initiatives, such as the creation and promotion of the Social Work Registry and Model Social Work Practice Act, with the hope that these efforts would enhance the ability of social workers to be licensed in multiple states. Neither has solved the portability problem. Licensure endorsement, an approach historically supported by ASWB, does not have the advantages of mutual recognition that is being supported by other professions to facilitate interstate practice. This article, the first written on licensure portability in the social work scholarly literature, examines existing licensure portability models and supports the establishment of a social work interstate compact to overcome barriers to social work mobility and access to client care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Work , Humans , Licensure , United States
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant adverse social and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has cast broader light on the importance of addressing social determinants of health (SDOH). Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MMCOs) have increasingly taken on a leadership role in integrating medical and social services for Medicaid members. However, the experiences of MMCOs in addressing member social needs during the pandemic has not yet been examined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe MMCOs' experiences with addressing the social needs of Medicaid members during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was a qualitative study using data from 28 semi-structured interviews with representatives from 14 MMCOs, including state-specific markets of eight national and regional managed care organizations. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: the impact of the pandemic, SDOH response efforts, an expanding definition of SDOH, and managed care beyond COVID-19. Specifically, participants discussed the impact of the pandemic on enrollees, communities, and healthcare delivery, and detailed their evolving efforts to address member nonmedical needs during the pandemic. They reported an increased demand for social services coupled with a significant retraction of community social service resources. To address these emerging social service gaps, participants described mounting a prompt and adaptable response that was facilitated by strong existing relationships with community partners. CONCLUSION: Among MMCOs, the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the importance of addressing member social needs, and the need for broader consideration of what constitutes SDOH from a healthcare delivery standpoint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Medicaid/trends , Social Determinants of Health/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Managed Care Programs/statistics & numerical data , Managed Care Programs/trends , Medicaid/economics , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Work , Stakeholder Participation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934063

ABSTRACT

Within child welfare systems, the issue of parental alcohol misuse (PAM) and the responsibility for supporting children affected by PAM impacts on multiple health and social care services. An innovation pilot project (IPP) was set up to reduce the fragmentation between services and to help identify children affected by PAM. The current study presents findings regarding the IPP, examining its implementation, the service delivery, and the perceived impact for family members. Qualitative data were collected from 41 participants. This included interviews with alcohol-misusing parents (n = 13), affected adult family members (n = 5), and children affected by PAM (n = 9). Two focus groups and three one-to-one interviews were conducted with project workers (n = 7) and multi-agency service managers (n = 7). Data were analysed thematically relating to three main themes: (1) innovation in team composition and multi-disciplinary team working, (2) innovative ways of working, and (3) the benefits of a whole-family approach. The findings highlighted the importance of time for the team to 'bed in' and come together under one structure, a focus and oversight on whole-family care, and the importance of offering early, targeted, and flexible interventions to prevent crisis points and manage the consequences of PAM. Consideration will need to be given to joint commissioning to strengthen family-focused support.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Adult , Alcoholism/prevention & control , Child , Family , Humans , Pilot Projects , Social Support , Social Work
12.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933357

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Thousands of youth are sexually trafficked each year worldwide. Increased public attention to the commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of children has resulted in the rapid deployment of hybrid community public health and social service programs for these vulnerable youth. Research on the effectiveness of these advocacy programs is lacking, particularly whether they decrease psychosocial distress and increase readiness to leave CSE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cisgender girls under age 18 at the time of CSE, and who were identified as at-risk for sex trafficking revictimization, were included in an evaluation of an anti-trafficking advocacy program in the North Texas region of the United States. The program includes crisis response, case management, referral, and mentoring services in collaboration with multi-disciplinary team (MDT) responses to identified youth sex trafficking. Case management notes, needs assessments and individualized treatment plans were collected at intake and every 30 days until study conclusion. Standardized surveys, including the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) were collected at intake and every 180 days until the study concluded. Analyses included descriptive statistics, paired t-tests, chi-square, multivariate linear and logistic regressions, Poisson regressions, and latent profile analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Texas Christian University's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results of this study will be presented to the scientific community at conferences and in peer-reviewed journals and non-scholarly outlets such as public health and social service conferences.


Subject(s)
Human Trafficking , Sexual Behavior , Adolescent , Case Management , Child , Female , Human Trafficking/prevention & control , Humans , Social Support , Social Work , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0265354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child and family social workers in the UK work closely with other agencies including schools and the police, and typically they are based in local authority offices. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of placing social workers in schools (SWIS) on the need for social care interventions. SWIS was piloted in three local authorities in 2018-2020, and findings from a feasibility study of the pilots suggests SWIS may operate through three key pathways: (1) by enhancing schools' response to safeguarding issues, (2) through increased collaboration between social workers, school staff, and parents, and (3) by improving relationships between social workers and young people. METHODS: The study is a two-arm pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial building on three feasibility studies which found SWIS to be promising. Social workers will work within secondary schools across local authorities in England. 280 mainstream secondary schools will be randomly allocated with a 1:1 ratio to SWIS or a comparison arm, which will be schools that continue as normal, without a social worker. The primary outcome will be the rate of Child Protection (Section 47) enquiries. Secondary outcomes will comprise rate of referrals to children's social care, rate of Child in Need (Section 17) assessments, days spent in care, and educational attendance and attainment. The study also includes an economic evaluation, and an implementation and process evaluation. Social care outcomes will be measured in July 2022, and educational outcomes will be measured in July 2023. Days in care will be measured at both time points. DISCUSSION: Findings will explore the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SWIS on the need for social care interventions. A final report will be published in January 2024. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered retrospectively with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry on 13.11.2020 (ISRCTN90922032).


Subject(s)
Schools , Social Work , Adolescent , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Parents , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies
14.
Soc Work Health Care ; 61(5): 323-337, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921901

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted social work practice globally. Using a cross-sectional survey, we examined the experiences of hospital social workers (N = 230) in Ontario, Canada during the second wave of the pandemic. Nearly three quarters (73%) of respondents reported workload changes, and 82% had increased responsibilities due to patient care demands. Hospital social workers adapted and made an important contribution to health care during the pandemic by employing virtual resources, supporting interprofessional colleagues, focusing on advocacy, and providing mental health and trauma-focused care. They sought educational opportunities and contributed to the development of procedures. Recommendations to strengthen hospital pandemic social work practice are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Social Work
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884166

ABSTRACT

Health workers are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infections. What follows the acute infection is rarely reported in the occupational context. This study examines the employees' consequences of COVID-19 infection, the risk factors and the impact on quality of life over time. In this baseline survey, respondents were asked about their COVID-19 infection in 2020 and their current health situation. Out of 2053 participants, almost 73% experienced persistent symptoms for more than three months, with fatigue/exhaustion, concentration/memory problems and shortness of breath being most frequently reported. Risk factors were older age, female gender, previous illness, many and severe symptoms during the acute infection, and outpatient medical care. An impaired health-related quality of life was found in participants suffering from persistent symptoms. Overall, a high need for rehabilitation to improve health and work ability is evident. Further follow-up surveys will observe the changes and the impact of vaccination on the consequences of COVID-19 among health workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Work
16.
Soc Work ; 67(2): 191-195, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878822
17.
Soc Work Public Health ; 37(8): 703-718, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873814

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put the United States and the world into a state of uncertainty. Before the onset of the coronavirus, awareness of health disparities across cities in the United States was questionable at best. As the world continues to grapple with the fallout of the pandemic and the response to it, several states and developed and developing countries created and implemented response efforts that were used as a guide, which social workers are most qualified to address but have not been a focus on a national nor international stage. This commentary focuses on two American states - Texas and Ohio as well as other global countries, and their responses that gained worldwide attention related to healthcare accessibility, service provision, and the role social workers should play moving forward and beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Pandemics , Social Justice , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Work
18.
Health Expect ; 25(3): 1058-1068, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861343

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) do not tend to go very frequently to formal support services. The objective of this study is to identify barriers related to the accessibility, acceptability, equity, appropriateness and effectiveness of IPV services from the perspective of the professionals working in the IPV public services. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in the Madrid region based on 13 semi-structured interviews of young women who had survived IPV as well as 17 interviews with professionals. A thematic content analysis was performed, guided by the dimensions proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for friendly services for young people. RESULTS: From the perspective of the young women and professionals, barriers were identified for all the dimensions of the WHO's friendly services for young people: accessibility: lack of information and support from the social setting, scarce dissemination of the services, economic cost, non-adapted schedules, inadequate locations or lack of services in settings close to young people; acceptability: lack of protocols to guarantee confidentiality, lack of speed in the provision of services or their referral, unwelcoming environments or unsympathetic professional malpractice; equity: discriminatory professional attitudes towards groups with different social status and lack of protocols to ensure the care of these groups; appropriateness: unmet needs and lack of multidisciplinary teams; and effectiveness: shortage of time, resources, competent professionals, protocols and coordination. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to make the necessary changes to promote friendly services for the care of young people exposed to IPV. Additionally, it must be emphasized that resources are needed to raise awareness and disseminate IPV services, as well as to train professionals in this area. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This paper is based on professionals' perspectives of public IPV-related services of different areas such as Psychology, Social Work, Nursing, Psychiatry, Social Education and young women exposed to IPV. They either work in the public administration at the local, regional or state level or in NGOs in Spain.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Qualitative Research , Social Work , Spain
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045889, 2021 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on delivery of social support services. This might be expected to particularly affect older adults and people living with dementia (PLWD), and to reduce their well-being. AIMS: To explore how social support service use by older adults, carers and PLWD, and their mental well-being changed over the first 3 months since the pandemic outbreak. METHODS: Unpaid dementia carers, PLWD and older adults took part in a longitudinal online or telephone survey collected between April and May 2020, and at two subsequent timepoints 6 and 12 weeks after baseline. Participants were asked about their social support service usage in a typical week prior to the pandemic (at baseline), and in the past week at each of the three timepoints. They also completed measures of levels of depression, anxiety and mental well-being. RESULTS: 377 participants had complete data at all three timepoints. Social support service usage dropped shortly after lockdown measures were imposed at timepoint 1 (T1), to then increase again by T3. The access to paid care was least affected by COVID-19. Cases of anxiety dropped significantly across the study period, while cases of depression rose. Well-being increased significantly for older adults and PLWD from T1 to T3. CONCLUSIONS: Access to social support services has been significantly affected by the pandemic, which is starting to recover slowly. With mental well-being differently affected across groups, support needs to be put in place to maintain better well-being across those vulnerable groups during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Health Facility Closure , Social Work , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Social Support , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Lancet ; 399(10337): 1830-1844, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829700

ABSTRACT

Despite health gains over the past 30 years, children and adolescents are not reaching their health potential in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to health systems, social systems, such as schools, communities, families, and digital platforms, can be used to promote health. We did a targeted literature review of how well health and social systems are meeting the needs of children in LMICs using the framework of The Lancet Global Health Commission on high-quality health systems and we reviewed evidence for structural reforms in health and social sectors. We found that quality of services for children is substandard across both health and social systems. Health systems have deficits in care competence (eg, diagnosis and management), system competence (eg, timeliness, continuity, and referral), user experience (eg, respect and usability), service provision for common and serious conditions (eg, cancer, trauma, and mental health), and service offerings for adolescents. Education and social services for child health are limited by low funding and poor coordination with other sectors. Structural reforms are more likely to improve service quality substantially and at scale than are micro-level efforts. Promising approaches include governing for quality (eg, leadership, expert management, and learning systems), redesigning service delivery to maximise outcomes, and empowering families to better care for children and to demand quality care from health and social systems. Additional research is needed on health needs across the life course, health system performance for children and families, and large-scale evaluation of promising health and social programmes.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Health Promotion , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Poverty , Social Work
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