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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820262

ABSTRACT

Social workers during the COVID-19 pandemic are at risk due to exposure to varied populations in need, which may impact their resilience, burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion satisfaction. The study assessed resilience at work, burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion satisfaction among social workers in Israel during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (May to June 2020). A convenience sample of 332 social workers (291 women (87.6%)) filled out an online, structured questionnaire that included demographics, a professional quality of life scale (ProQOL) (including three subscales), and resilience at work (RAW) (including seven subscales). The overall mean of the RAW was medium (M = 71, SD ± 8.9) compared to standardized scores. The mean scores of two of the subscales of the RAW, maintaining perspective and staying healthy, were low. The mean scores of the sub-scales of ProQOL were: compassion satisfaction was close to the 50th percentile (M = 48.25); burnout (M = 30.18) and secondary trauma (M = 26.27) were below the 25th percentile. Significant low to medium positive associations were found between all the dependent variables, except for staying healthy. A negative association was identified between compassion satisfaction and burnout, as well as between compassion satisfaction and secondary trauma. High levels of compassion satisfaction and contentment, low levels of secondary trauma, and having a managerial position were predicted to be 40% of the RAW. Lower levels of maintaining perspective, secondary trauma, and being younger predicted 27% of burnout. Higher levels of finding your calling, living authentically, maintaining perspective, interacting cooperatively, being older, and not being a manager predicted 58% of compassion satisfaction. Lower levels of burnout, maintaining perspective, and being younger predicted 36% of secondary trauma. As the COVID-19 pandemic still challenges most societies, policymakers should consider ways to integrate mechanisms that will enhance social workers' resilience at work.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Empathy , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Social Workers , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Soc Work Health Care ; 61(1): 36-51, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671785

ABSTRACT

Continued provision of essential services is critical to maintaining society's functioning during a crisis. During COVID-19, lockdowns and restrictions designed to preserve the public's health forced an examination of what it means to be an essential worker. Drawing from thematic analyses of focus group data from 55 social workers employed in a large, urban, pediatric, quaternary hospital, this study examines the perspectives of hospital social workers on the meaning of the essential status designation of social work. Findings revealed themes pertaining the substance of social work, the ways in which essential status is carried out, and implications of the designation not only for the future of the profession but also for the populations who receive social work services. The discussion raised important questions about the essential role of social workers in broader health care settings. Our findings suggest that health care systems need to engage in ongoing discussions of how to maximize the efficacy of the social work workforce, both in terms of integration with medical teams and recognition of the important roles social workers play across the hospital system, and facilitate the performance of their essential functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers
3.
Soc Work Public Health ; 37(4): 319-341, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585306

ABSTRACT

The present research aims to identify the social consequences of Coronavirus (Covid-19), the role of clinical social worker in addressing this issue, the obstacles that impede him/her and the mechanisms as well as suggestions that improve this role. The author adopted the descriptive analytical approach and designed a questionnaire to collect data. The results showed that the consequence of "concern about losing relatives and friends because of Coronavirus" was ranked the first. However, the consequence of "self-harm that may induce suicide due to the social restrictions imposed by home quarantine" was ranked the last. In addition, the most prominent role of the clinical social worker in addressing this crisis was educating community members about its risks and the relevant social behaviors. Moreover, the most prominent obstacle was lack of training social workers to address this issue. To improve his/her roles, the research recommends presenting courses and workshops to raise the competence of clinical social workers dealing with crises, in general, and Coronavirus, in particular.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Workers , Female , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102361, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccine hesitancy is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to assess the uptake and hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A short online survey was posted between April 12 to July 31, 2021 targeted at health and social care workers (HCWs) across the globe. RESULTS: 275 from 37 countries responded. Most were hospital or primary care physicians or nurses, 59% women, aged 18-60 years, and 21% had chronic conditions with most prevalent being diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. We found that most HCWs (93%) had taken or willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. While 7% were vaccine hesitant (mainly women aged 30-39 years), respondents main concerns was the safety or potential side effects. Vaccine willing respondents raised concerns of unequal access to the COVID-19 vaccination in some countries, and highlighted that the only solution to overcoming COVID-19 infections was the vaccine booster doses given annually and free mass vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the majority of the frontline HCWs are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Further promotion of the COVID-19 vaccine would reassure and persuade HCWs to become vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel , Social Workers , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Geography , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Social Workers/psychology , Social Workers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Soc Work Public Health ; 37(3): 224-232, 2022 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541458

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to plan the protocol for providing psychosocial support by social workers in Iranian healthcare centers and reaching consensus in terms of implementing and offering comprehensive service to individuals dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study consists of four phases. The first phase, the literature review involved studying valid databases, while the second and third phases consisted of collecting data through the Focus Group Discussions with 23 specialists and experts in the field of social work and mental health. Having been designed, the protocol was then applied and assessed for two months in all the state health centers around Iran (633 hospitals). In the present study, Interventions used by the social workers were divided into 9 types: psychosocial assessment, counseling, training, working with the family, intervention in the crisis, intra- and extra-organizational support-seeking, referral and safe discharge. Interventions used by social workers were also divided based on the health center (psychosocial support for the target groups and bereavement intervention for the survivors) and the services offered in convalescent care facilities. This protocol leading social workers into the fields of bereavement interventions, inter-organizational interventions, working with families and working with the medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers/psychology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502419

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the awareness and status of cancer patients and healthcare providers (physicians, nurses and social workers) regarding community linkage, in order to establish a desirable care plan model in a future research project. The survey was conducted via two methods: face-to-face for cancer patients (n = 308) and oncology physicians (n = 210), and due to COVID-19 circumstances, online for nurses (n = 200) and social workers (n = 313). As a result, more than 95% of the healthcare providers responded that cancer patients required community-linked services and discharge plans, whereas 50.7% and 79.2% of cancer patients noted the importance of community-linked services and discharge plans, respectively. Social workers, among healthcare providers, showed the most positive experience about connecting patients to community services since 69.7% of them responded as "excellent". However, as a group, cancer patients considered the necessity of community-linked service as less important, as only 50.7% responded as agreeing it was necessary. The barriers to community linkage were the lack of communication among the different professions of healthcare providers, and the ambiguity in their roles. The findings of this study will inform future community-linked health research, policies and systems for cancer patients. In particular, an in-depth interview with cancer patients will be required to explore their lack of acknowledgment about the necessity of community-linked services. Therefore, this study is expected to contribute to the improvement and supplementation of cancer policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Nurses , Physicians , Health Personnel , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053959, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501721

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought tremendous changes in healthcare delivery and exacerbated a wide range of inequities. Social workers across a broad range of healthcare settings bring an expertise in social, behavioural and mental healthcare needed to help address these health inequities. In addition, social workers integrate policy-directed interventions and solutions in clinical practice, which is a needed perspective for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It remains unclear, however, what the most pressing policy issues are that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, many social workers in health settings tend to underuse policy in their direct practice. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) systematically scope the literature on social work, COVID-19 pandemic and policy; and (2) describe the competencies required by social workers and the social work profession to address the policy issues emerging during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review follows Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework. Identification of literature published between 1 December 2019 and the search date, 31 March 2021, will take place in two stages: (1) title and abstract review, and (2) full-text review. In partnership with a health science librarian, the research team listed keywords related to social work and policy to search databases including Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Services Abstract and Social Work Abstracts. Two graduate-level research assistants will conduct screening and full-text review. Data will then be extracted, charted, analysed and summarised to report on our results and implications on practice, policy and future research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results will help develop a policy practice competence framework to inform how social workers can influence policy. We will share our findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This study does not require Research Ethics Board approval as it uses publicly available sources of data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Workers , Capacity Building , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant burden on the mental health and wellbeing of frontline health and social care workers. The need to support frontline staff has been recognised. However, there is to date little research specifically on how best to support the mental health needs of frontline workers, and none on their own experiences and views about what might be most helpful. AIMS: We set out to redress this research gap by qualitatively exploring UK frontline health and social care workers' own experiences and views of psychosocial support during the pandemic. METHOD: Frontline health and social care workers were recruited purposively through social media and by snowball sampling via healthcare colleagues. Workers who volunteered to take part in the study were interviewed remotely following a semi-structured interview guide. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed by the research team following the principles of Reflexive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: We conducted 25 interviews with frontline workers from a variety of professional groups working in health and social care settings across the UK. Themes derived from our analysis showed that workers' experiences and views about psychosocial support were complex. Peer support was many workers' first line of support but could also be experienced as a burden. Workers were ambivalent about support shown by organisations, media and the public. Whilst workers valued psychological support services, there were many disparities in provision and barriers to access. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that frontline health and social care workers are likely to need a flexible system of support including peer, organisational and professional support. More research is needed to fully unpack the structural, systemic and individual barriers to accessing psychosocial support. Greater collaboration, consultation and co-production of support services and their evaluation is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , Qualitative Research , Social Workers/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Social Support
9.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(7-8): 770-785, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334137

ABSTRACT

Research on social public opinion of new media is currently an important interdisciplinary topic in the international academic community. Under the background of COVID-19, the major public health event of in China, this research took social workers as the research object who worked during the period of epidemic prevention and control. It referred to the international research on public opinion and selected 63 related hotly discussed articles and public comments on the WeChat public platform, the new Chinese Internet media. Moreover, the research conducted text mining on related public opinion with the 5 W communication model from public opinion evolution, text content, communication media, audiences, and public opinion influence, and used grounded theory building a development model of the generation of network public opinion. It also put forward the development needs of social work in the aspects of community resilience, social work practice, lack of public health social workers, and big data warning, etc., and pointed out that social work lacks its proper structural status in China's public health system and emergency management system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Social Media , China , Humans , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329137

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to evaluate and describe mental health workforce and capacity, and to describe the relationship between workforce capacity and patterns of care in local areas. We conducted a comparative demonstration study of the applicability of an internationally validated standardised service classification instrument-the Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories-DESDE-LTC) using the emerging mental health ecosystems research (MHESR) approach. Using DESDE-LTC as the framework, and drawing from international occupation classifications, the workforce was classified according to characteristics including the type of care provided and professional background. Our reference area was the Australian Capital Territory, which we compared with two other urban districts in Australia (Sydney and South East Sydney) and three benchmark international health districts (Helsinki-Uusima (Finland), Verona (Italy) and Gipuzkoa (Spain)). We also compared our data with national level data where available. The Australian and Finnish regions had a larger and more highly skilled workforce than the southern European regions. The pattern of workforce availability and profile varied, even within the same country, at the local level. We found significant differences between regional rates of identified rates of psychiatrists and psychologists, and national averages. Using a standardised classification instrument at the local level, and our occupational groupings, we were able to assess the available workforce and provide information relevant to planners about the actual capacity of the system. Data obtained at local level is critical to providing planners with reliable data to inform their decision making.


Subject(s)
Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Australia , Humans , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data , Social Workers/statistics & numerical data
12.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(7): e947-e957, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305567

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Literature on moral distress among oncology social workers (OSWs) is sparse. The aim of the current study was to examine the prevalence of moral distress and its domains of influence, and to identify demographic and work-related characteristics associated with moral distress among OSWs. METHODS: Data came from the Oncology Social Work Competencies, Opportunities, Roles, and Expertise survey, conducted from August to September 2020 (during the COVID-19 global pandemic). Data collected included demographic information (eg, age, sex, and race) and work-related characteristics (eg, job position, organization type, work setting, employment status, salary, years in the profession, and OSW-C certification). Moral distress was measured using the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals. Tests of association, including multivariate linear regression, were conducted to achieve the research aims. RESULTS: Total moral distress scores on the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (range 0-432) for 745 OSWs ranged from 1 to 273, with an average score of 74.0. The three highest indicators of moral distress were observed in the patient or family experience domain. Higher levels of moral distress were associated with younger age, being a direct service provider, provision of inpatient cancer care, and more years in the profession. CONCLUSION: OSWs are experiencing moral distress. Institutional investments in professional education and support of OSWs are needed to mitigate and possibly prevent moral distress experienced by cancer care providers and thus ensure the delivery of quality psychosocial care for patients with cancer and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Workers , Humans , Medical Oncology , Morals , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(5): 577-587, 2021 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294637

ABSTRACT

Summary: The main purpose of the current study was to assess whether there are significant differences among variables, such as social workers' familiarity with the crisis intervention model, receiving up-to-date information about the latest developments in COVID-19, having adequate information about what the symptoms of COVID-19 are, and willingness to work with COVID-19 patients, and social workers' ability to apply the crisis intervention model when they are working with clients and its three sub-scales (assessing and identifying the problem, establishing a relationship, and formulating an action plan). The cross-sectional survey method was used to conduct the sample of the study. The sample (N = 274) used in the study consisted of social workers in Kuwait.Findings: The results showed that CIS is valid and reliable and can be trusted to measure levels according to the purpose of the study. Analysis using T-test showed significant relationships between the CIS and study's variables at p < .05.Application: This study would help to raise the knowledge and awareness about the ability of social workers to apply the crisis intervention model during COVID-19 pandemic when they are working with clients and what variables may be associated with it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crisis Intervention , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Social Workers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Crisis Intervention/organization & administration , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Models, Organizational
14.
J Palliat Med ; 24(11): 1705-1709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287968

ABSTRACT

Background: Meeting the needs of seriously ill SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients requires novel models of deploying health social workers (SWs) to expand the palliative care workforce. To inform such expansion, understanding the current state of health SWs' core palliative care skills is necessary. Methods: Following minimal training, health SWs in one New York City hospital were surveyed about their frequency, competence, and confidence in using core palliative care skills. Results: Of the 170 health SWs surveyed, 46 (27%) responded, of whom 21 (46%) and 24 (52%) had palliative care training before and during the COVID-19 surge, respectively. Health SWs reported a "moderate improvement" in the use of three skills: "identify a medical decision maker," "assess prognostic understanding," and "coordinate care." There was "minimal decrease" to "no improvement" to "minimal improvement" in competence and confidence of skill use. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that educational initiatives can improve health SWs' use of core palliative care skills.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Humans , Social Workers
15.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(6): 714-723, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281675

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has required public social services departments to cope with an unexpected and unprecedented emergency situation. As community social workers work on the macrolevel and deal with entire communities in emergency situations, the present study investigated the challenges they face as well as the factors that promoted they are coping during the "age of COVID." Drawing on in-depth interviews with 20 managers of community social work departments in Israel, findings highlighted three main themes: (a) organizational politics, which impeded community social workers' work; (b) the mobilization of both professional community social work staff as well as civilians; and (c) the perception of the crisis as an opportunity. Findings pointed to the challenges, promotive factors, and perceptions of community social workers in public social services departments who have had to cope with the pandemic. We discuss these findings in light of the theoretical perspectives of "the politics of pandemic" pandemic, social support, and resilience. Implications for community practice are outlined. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Social Workers/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(3): 423-431, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275881

ABSTRACT

Preliminary evidence indicates that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects people differently along social axes, among which socioeconomic status is key. This study used mixed methods to add data from Israel to this developing body of knowledge. Using closed questions, the study compared 126 people living in poverty with 147 people not living in poverty in terms of their economic and employment status, need for assistance, and mental distress. In addition, in order to better understand the experiences of poverty, open questions regarding the effect of COVID-19 on the participants' lives and their means of coping with the pandemic were employed. The study was conducted in May 2020, just after the first lockdown, through online media and through social workers who personally went to disadvantaged neighborhoods to reach out to participants who are vulnerable to digital illiteracy. The analysis points to major differences between the groups, with people in poverty suffering more in terms of their economic and employment situation and mental distress. In addition, we found that people in poverty needed and received more support. The qualitative analysis indicates the specificities of the severe nature of the intersection of poverty and the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Social Workers , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 17(2-3): 146-157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276065

ABSTRACT

The rise of COVID-19 in March, 2020 led to an urgent and acute need for communication guidelines to help clinicians facing a novel disease, amidst a cacophony of voices and demands, find the words to use in the face of this public health emergency. We identified critical topics that arose at the interface of staff, patient and family to guide the structure and content of a guideline. Organized in an easy to read table, the guide was made available to a wide variety of websites, organizations and schools as a free PDF resource across the country and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Palliative Care/methods , Social Workers/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Humans , Palliative Care/psychology , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Quality of Life/psychology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234736

ABSTRACT

The current health crisis resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic increases the stress and anxiety levels in some professions, including social work. The present research aimed to determine the burnout levels of social workers in Spain during the first wave of the pandemic and the predictive variables. The methodological approach used was developed from a quantitative perspective through a simple random sampling from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on a sample of Spanish social workers. The results showed high levels of emotional exhaustion (70.1%) and depersonalization (48.5%), although the data related to a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (36.6%) was low. The burnout level was 20.4%, a reduced record considering the values of the first two subscales. In contrast, the logistic regressions carried out showed that teleworking and psychological treatment are predictive variables of emotional exhaustion. With depersonalization, age (41-50 years) and the perception of needing psychological or psychiatric treatment in the future act as predictive variables. In critical scenarios such as a pandemic, work organizations should implement measures to reduce the high percentages of emotional exhaustion, the workload, and the dehumanization of professionals, a consequence linked to depersonalization.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Adult , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers , Spain/epidemiology
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