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Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e238271, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20233806


Aim: This study determined whether COVID-19 fear is correlated with sociodemographic characteristics, general health, mental health, and sleep quality in an elderly Brazilians. Methods: Elderly people aged ≥ 60 years replied to an online survey containing questions about their sociodemographic characteristics; general health; levels of stress, anxiety, and depression; sleep quality; and COVID fear. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (α = 5%). In total, 705 elderly people with mean age of 66 ± 5 years, and most (82.7%) respondents were women, graduated and from southeastern Brazil. COVID-19 fear correlated positively and moderately with sleep quality and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (all p < 0.001). It was associated with females. Elderly people from northern and northeastern Brazil and diabetics had increased COVID-19 fear (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: The fear of COVID-19 exists among Brazilian female old people, diabetics, increases anxiety and stress symptoms, and worsen sleep quality in elderly people

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Fear/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Sleep Quality , Mental Disorders/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2220628, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243082


Vaccine certificates have been implemented worldwide, aiming to promote vaccination rates and to reduce the spread of COVID-19. However, their use during the COVID-19 pandemic was controversial and has been criticized for infringing upon medical autonomy and individual rights. We administered a national online survey exploring social and demographic factors predicting the degree of public approval of vaccine certificates in Canada. We conducted a multivariate linear regression which revealed which factors were predictive of vaccine certificate acceptance in Canada. Self-reported minority status (p < .001), rurality (p < .001), political ideology (p < .001), age (p < .001), having children under 18 in the household (p < .001), education (p = .014), and income status (p = .034) were significant predictors of attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccine certificates. We observed the lowest vaccine-certificate approval among participants who: self-identify as a visible minority; live in rural areas; are politically conservative; are 18-34 years of age; have children under age 18 living in the household; have completed an apprenticeship or trades education; and those with an annual income between $100,000-$159,999. The present findings are valuable for their ability to inform the implementation of vaccine certificates during future pandemic scenarios which may require targeted communication between public health agencies and under-vaccinated populations.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sociodemographic Factors , Pandemics , Self Report , Vaccination
Public Health Rep ; 138(4): 671-680, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325216


OBJECTIVE: While much has been reported about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food insecurity, longitudinal data and the variability experienced by people working in various industries are limited. This study aims to further characterize people experiencing food insecurity during the pandemic in terms of employment, sociodemographic characteristics, and degree of food insecurity. METHODS: The study sample consisted of people enrolled in the Communities, Households and SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology (CHASING) COVID Cohort Study from visit 1 (April-July 2020) through visit 7 (May-June 2021). We created weights to account for participants with incomplete or missing data. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to determine employment and sociodemographic correlates of food insecurity. We also examined patterns of food insecurity and use of food support programs. RESULTS: Of 6740 participants, 39.6% (n = 2670) were food insecure. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic White) participants, participants in households with children (vs no children), and participants with lower (vs higher) income and education levels had higher odds of food insecurity. By industry, people employed in construction, leisure and hospitality, and trade, transportation, and utilities industries had the highest prevalence of both food insecurity and income loss. Among participants reporting food insecurity, 42.0% (1122 of 2670) were persistently food insecure (≥4 consecutive visits) and 43.9% (1172 of 2670) did not use any food support programs. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic resulted in widespread food insecurity in our cohort, much of which was persistent. In addition to addressing sociodemographic disparities, future policies should focus on the needs of those working in industries vulnerable to economic disruption and ensure those experiencing food insecurity can access food support programs for which they are eligible.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Sociodemographic Factors , Food Supply , SARS-CoV-2 , Food Insecurity , Employment
Psico USF ; 28(1): 79-90, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2317008


This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the association of religiosity with behaviors and perceptions in the context of social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as mental health outcomes, in a university community in Central-West Brazil. A sample of 1,796 subjects responded to an online form with socio-demographic questions and the DASS-21 and PWBS scales. Religion was associated with the frequency of interactions, perceptions of the duration of the social distancing measures, changes in emotional state and history of psychological illness. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was lower among people with religion and their scores in psychological well-being were higher. (AU)

Trata-se de um estudo transversal com o objetivo de analisar a associação entre religiosidade e comportamentos e percepções frente ao distanciamento social decorrente da pandemia de Covid-19 e estado de saúde mental em uma comunidade universitária do Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Participaram do estudo 1796 sujeitos, os quais responderam a um formulário online com questões sociodemográficas e às escalas DASS-21 e EBEP. Observou-se associação entre religião e frequência de interações, percepção sobre a duração do distanciamento social e mudanças no estado emocional e histórico de alterações psicológicas. Constatou-se menor prevalência de sintomas relacionados à depressão, à ansiedade e ao estresse e maiores escores de bem-estar psicológico entre aqueles com religião. (AU)

Se trata de un estudio transversal con el objetivo de analizar la asociación entre religiosidad, comportamientos y percepciones frente al distanciamiento social resultante de la pandemia Covid-19 y el estado de salud mental en una comunidad universitaria de la región Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Participaron en el estudio 1796 sujetos, que respondieron un formulario en línea con preguntas sociodemográficas y las escalas DASS-21 y EBEP. Se observó asociación entre religión y frecuencia de interacciones, la percepción de la duración del aislamiento social y los cambios en el estado emocional y el historial de cambios psicológicos. Se observó una menor prevalencia de síntomas relacionados con la depresión, la ansiedad y el estrés, y puntuaciones más altas de bienestar psicológico entre quienes profesaban una religión. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Religion , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics as Topic , Analysis of Variance , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Faculty , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being
N C Med J ; 83(5): 366-374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316147


BACKGROUND There is limited research regarding associations between county-level factors and COVID-19 incidence and mortality. While the Carolinas are geographically connected, they are not homogeneous, with statewide political and intra-state socioeconomic differences leading to heterogeneous spread between and within states.METHODS Infection and mortality data from Johns Hopkins University during the 7 months since the first reported case in the Carolinas was combined with county-level socioeconomic/demographic factors. Time series imputations were performed whenever county-level reported infections were implausible. Multivariate Poisson regression models were fitted to extract incidence (infection and mortality) rate ratios by county-level factor. State-level differences in filtered trends were also calculated. Geospatial maps and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed stratifying by median county-level factor. Differences between North and South Carolina were identified.RESULTS Incidence and mortality rates were lower in North Carolina than South Carolina. Statistically significant higher incidence and mortality rates were associated with counties in both states with higher proportions of Black/African American populations and those without health insurance aged < 65 years. Counties with larger populations aged ≥ 75 years were associated with increased mortality (but decreased incidence) rates.LIMITATIONS COVID-19 data contained multiple inconsistencies, so imputation was needed, and covariate-based data was not synchronous and potentially insufficient in granularity given the epidemiology of the disease. County-level analyses imply within-county homogeneity, an assumption increasingly breached by larger counties.CONCLUSION While statewide interventions were initially implemented, inter-county racial/ethnic and socioeconomic variability points to the need for more heterogeneous interventions, including policies, as populations within particular counties may be at higher risk.

COVID-19 , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , South Carolina/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , North Carolina/epidemiology
Vaccine ; 41(24): 3673-3680, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308989


PURPOSE: Lower COVID-19 vaccination rates have been observed among some adult immigrant populations in Norway, and there appears to be an association with sociodemographic factors. However, knowledge is lacking on the distribution of vaccination rates and role of sociodemographic factors among adolescents. This study aims to describe COVID-19 vaccination rates among adolescents according to immigrant background, household income, and parental education. METHODS: In this nationwide registry study, we analyzed individual-level data on adolescents (12-17 years) from the Norwegian Emergency preparedness register for COVID-19 until September 15th, 2022. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) for receiving at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose by country background, household income and parental education, using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, and county. RESULTS: The sample comprised 384,815 adolescents. Foreign-born and Norwegian-born with foreign-born parents, had lower vaccination rates (57 % and 58 %) compared to adolescents with at least one Norwegian-born parent (84 %). Vaccination rates by country background varied from 88 % (Vietnam) to 31 % (Russia). Variation and associations by country background, household income, and parental education were greater among 12-15-year-olds than 16-17-year-olds. Household income and parental education were positively associated with vaccination. Compared to the lowest income and education category, IRRs for household income ranged from 1.07 (95 % CI 1.06-1.09) to 1.31 (95 % CI 1.29-1.33) among 12-15-year-olds, and 1.06 (95 % CI 1.04-1.07) to 1.17 (95 % CI 1.15-1.18) among 16-17-year-olds. For parental education, from IRR 1.08 (95 % CI 1.06-1.09) to 1.18 (95 % CI 1.17-1.20) among 12-15-year-olds, and 1.05 (95 % CI 1.04-1.07) to 1.09 (95 % CI 1.07-1.10) among 16-17-year-olds. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination rates varied by immigrant background and age group, with lower rates especially among adolescents with background from Eastern Europe and among younger adolescents. Household income and parental education were positively associated with vaccination rates. Our results may help target measures to increase vaccination rates among adolescents.

COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Sociodemographic Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Norway/epidemiology , Registries
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 25Fev. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2302638


Objetivo: verificar a prevalência de fatores sociodemográficos e da prática de atividade física com sintomas sugestivos de ansiedade e depressão em adultos durante a pandemia de Covid-19 no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Métodos: estudo observacional, transversal, com 1.019 participantes adultos residentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, realizado através de uma amostragem bola de neve. Resultados: sintomas de ansiedade estavam associados ao sexo feminino, em adultas jovens, com o ato de limpar/arrumar a residência e à inatividade física. Os sintomas de depressão associaram-se ao sexo feminino, à divisão da casa com outras pessoas que não eram familiares, grau de escolaridade, renda e à inatividade física. Conclusão: fatores sociodemográficos e a inatividade física estão associados com os sintomas de ansiedade e depressão durante a pandemia da COVID-19 (AU).

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of sociodemographic factors and the practice of physical activity with symptoms suggestive of anxiety and depression in adults during the Covid-19 pandemic, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study with 1,019 adult participants residing in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil carried out through a snowball sampling technique. Results: Anxiety symptoms were associated with being female, being young adults, cleaning/tidying the house, and physical inactivity. Depression symptoms were associated with female gender, sharing the house with other people who were not family members, level of education, income and physical inactivity. Conclusion: Sociodemographic factors and physical inactivity are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic (AU).

Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, durante la pandemia COVID-19, con la práctica de actividades físicas y factores sociodemográficos. Métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal con 1.019 participantes adultos residentes en el estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, realizado a través de un muestreo de bola de nieve. Resultados: Síntomas de ansiedad asociados con mujeres, adultos jóvenes, con el acto de limpiar / ordenar la casa e inactividad física. Los síntomas depresivos se asociaron con el género femenino, compartir la casa con otras personas que no eran familiares, nivel de educación, ingresos e inactividad física. Conclusión: Los factores sociodemográficos y la inactividad física se asocian con síntomas de ansiedad y depresión durante una pandemia de COVID-19 (AU).

Humans , Anxiety , Exercise , Depression , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19 , Sociodemographic Factors , Persons
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): e20226570, 21 janeiro 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2256009


OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação entre a violência e a qualidade de vida de mulheres isoladas socialmente em decorrência da COVID-19. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, quantitativo, desenvolvido em Campina Grande ­ PB, Brasil. A amostra constituiu-se de mulheres maiores de 18 anos, em isolamento social pela COVID-19. Utilizaram-se três instrumentos para coleta de dados, estes analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial, sendo adotado significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS: houve predominância de mulheres com baixa qualidade de vida (53,1%) e vítimas de violência psicológica (61,1%). A relação da violência física, psicológica e geral apresentou significância estatística entre todos os domínios de qualidade de vida nos testes de correlação de Spearman (p<0,05) e de comparação de Mann Whitney (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: o desfecho da violência física e psicológica relaciona-se de forma negativa nos aspectos físicos, psicológicos, relações sociais e meio ambiente da qualidade de vida de mulheres isoladas socialmente em decorrência da COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE: to assess the relationship between violence and the quality of life of women socially isolated due to COVID-19. METHOD: a cross-sectional, quantitative study was developed in Campina Grande ­ PB, Brazil. The sample comprised women over 18 years in social isolation due to COVID-19. Three instruments were used for data collection, and descriptive and inferential analyses were carried out, with a significance of p<0.05. RESULTS: there was a predominance of women with low quality of life (53.1%) and victims of psychological violence (61.1%). The relationship between physical, psychological, and general violence achieved statistical significance in all quality of life domains in the Spearman correlation test (p<0.05) and the Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: the outcome of physical and psychological violence is negatively related to the physical, psychological, social relationships, and environmental aspects of the quality of life of women socially isolated due to COVID-19.

OBJETIVO: evaluar la relación entre violencia y calidad de vida de mujeres en aislamiento social a causa del COVID-19. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, cuantitativo, desarrollado en Campina Grande ­ PB, Brasil. La muestra estuvo compuesta por mujeres mayores de 18 años en aislamiento social a causa del COVID-19. Se utilizaron tres instrumentos para recolección de datos y se realizaron análisis descriptivos e inferenciales, con una significancia de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: hubo predominio de mujeres con baja calidad de vida (53,1%) y víctimas de violencia psicológica (61,1%). La relación entre violencia física, psicológica y general alcanzó significación estadística en todos los dominios de calidad de vida en la prueba de correlación de Spearman (p<0,05) y la prueba de Mann-Whitney (p<0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: el resultado de la violencia física y psicológica se relaciona negativamente con aspectos físicos, psicológicos, de relaciones sociales y ambientales de calidad de vida de mujeres en aislamiento social a causa del COVID-19.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Social Isolation , Women , Violence Against Women , COVID-19 , Violence/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Physical Abuse , Sociodemographic Factors
Pan Afr Med J ; 43: 165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252879


Introduction: Africa has the slowest COVID-19 vaccination rate of any continent in the world, with only 29.8% of the population receiving at least one dose of the vaccine. This includes Ghana, where only 37.8% of the country have received at least one dose as of October, 2022. The key aims of this research were to determine levels of hesitancy in COVID-19 vaccines among unvaccinated individuals in Ghana and observe their trends across time, and to identify independent predictors associated with vaccine hesitancy among unvaccinated individuals. Methods: four online cross-sectional surveys of Ghanaian citizens were conducted in August, 2020 (N = 3048), March, 2021 (N = 1558), June, 2021 (N = 1295), and February, 2022 (N = 424). Results: overall hesitancy decreased from 36.8% (95% CI: 35.1%-38.5%) in August, 2020 to 17.2% (95% CI: 15.3%-19.1%) in March, 2021. However, hesitancy increased to 23.8% (95% CI: 21.5%-26.1%) in June, 2021, and then again to 52.2% (95% CI: 47.4%-57.0%) in February, 2022. Key reasons included not having enough vaccine-related information (50.6%) and concerns over vaccine safety (32.0%). Hesitant groups included Christians, urban dwellers, opposition political party voters, females, individuals who completed higher education, individuals who reported receiving COVID-19 information from internet sources, and individuals who expressed uncertainty about commonly-circulated COVID-19 misinformation beliefs. Conclusion: hesitancy rates among unvaccinated individuals in Ghana continues to rise. However, vaccine awareness strategies are sensitive to subpopulation characteristics. Many are reachable through targeted communication strategies, to which campaigns must focus on resolving vaccine-related concerns to ensure high vaccine uptake across Ghana.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ghana , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sociodemographic Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication , Vaccination
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247832


High rates of psychological distress among COVID-19 survivors and stigmatisation have been reported in both early and late convalescence. This study aimed to compare the severity of psychological distress and to determine the associations among sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, stigma, and psychological distress among COVID-19 survivors across two different cohorts at two different time points. Data were collected cross-sectionally in two groups at one month and six months post-hospitalisation among COVID-19 patient from three hospitals in Malaysia. This study assessed psychological distress and the level of stigma using the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) stigma scale, respectively. At one month after discharge, significantly lower psychological distress was found among retirees (B = -2.207, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = -4.139 to -0.068, p = 0.034), those who received up to primary education (B = -2.474, 95% CI = -4.500 to -0.521, p = 0.014), and those who had an income of more than RM 10,000 per month (B = -1.576, 95% CI = -2.714 to -0.505, p = 0.006). Moreover, those with a history of psychiatric illness [one month: (B = 6.363, 95% CI = 2.599 to 9.676, p = 0.002), six months: (B = 2.887, CI = 0.469-6.437, p = 0.038)] and sought counselling services [one month: (B = 1.737, 95% CI = 0.385 to 3.117, p = 0.016), six months: (B = 1.480, CI = 0.173-2.618, p = 0.032)] had a significantly higher severity of psychological distress at one month and six months after discharge from the hospital. The perceived stigma of being infected with COVID-19 contributed to greater severity of psychological distress. (B = 0.197, CI = 0.089-0.300, p = 0.002). Different factors may affect psychological distress at different periods of convalescence after a COVID-19 infection. A persistent stigma contributed to psychological distress later in the convalescence period.

COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Convalescence , Malaysia , Sociodemographic Factors , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Survivors/psychology
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210203, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2245231


ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the prevalence of overweight among teachers in Minas Gerais during the Covid-19 pandemic and to review relevant gender associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional and analytical study, websurvey type, carried out with 15,641 teachers of public Basic Education in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data collection took place from August to September 2020 with the use of a digital form. The dependent variable was overweight, calculated by the body mass index using the teachers' self-reported weight and height. Poisson regression was used, with robust variance. Results Among the participating teachers, 52.4% were overweight. When stratified by gender, 51.1% women and 58.2% men were considered overweight, with a significant difference between them (p<0.001). There was a higher prevalence of overweight among women in the age group of 30 to 59 years (PR=1.39) and in women 60 years or older (PR=1.45) living in the metropolitan region of the state (PR=1.06) who had children (PR=1.19), who were not exercising (PR=1.09) and with a worse dietary pattern during the pandemic (PR=1.12), much afraid of Covid-19 (PR=1.04) and with anxiety and/or depression during the pandemic (PR=1.14). Among men, there was a higher prevalence of overweight among those individuals aged 30 to 59 years (PR=1.19), who lived with a spouse (PR=1.15) working more than 40 hours per week (PR=1.12) and those with the worst dietary pattern during the pandemic (PR=1.10). Conclusion The results showed a 52.4% prevalence of overweight teachers and different associated factors between the genders.

RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a prevalência de excesso de peso entre professores de Minas Gerais durante a pandemia de Covid-19 e analisar os fatores associados segundo o sexo. Métodos Estudo transversal e analítico, do tipo websurvey, realizado com 15.641 professores da educação básica pública de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu de agosto a setembro de 2020, via formulário digital. A variável dependente foi o excesso de peso, calculado pelo índice de massa corporal através do peso e altura autorreferidos pelos professores. Utilizou-se a Regressão de Poisson, com variância robusta. Resultados Entre os professores participantes, 52,4% estavam com excesso de peso. Quando estratificado por sexo, 51,1% das mulheres e 58,2% dos homens estavam com excesso de peso, apresentando diferença significativa entre eles (p<0,001). Houve maior prevalência de excesso de peso entre as mulheres de 30 a 59 anos (RP=1,39) e 60 anos ou mais (RP=1,45), da região metropolitana do Estado (RP=1,06), com filhos (RP=1,19), que não estavam praticando exercício físico durante a pandemia (RP=1,09), com pior padrão alimentar durante a pandemia (RP=1,12), com muito medo da Covid-19 (RP=1,04) e com ansiedade e/ou depressão durante a pandemia (RP=1,14). Entre os homens, houve maior prevalência de excesso de peso entre aqueles de 30 a 59 anos (RP=1,19), que viviam com cônjuge (RP=1,15), que trabalhavam mais de 40 horas semanais (RP=1,12) e aqueles com pior padrão alimentar durante a pandemia (RP=1,10). Conclusão Os resultados evidenciaram que 52,4% dos professores respondentes estavam com excesso de peso, tendo sido encontrados diferentes fatores associados entre os sexos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Overweight/etiology , School Teachers/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Women/psychology , Brazil/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sociodemographic Factors , Men/psychology
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0279442, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243061


BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of evidence on the relationship between COVID-19 and metabolic conditions among the general U.S. population. We examined the prevalence and association of metabolic conditions with health and sociodemographic factors before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2019 (N = 5,359) and 2020 (N = 3,830) Health Information National Trends Surveys on adults to compare observations before (2019) and during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted weighted descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses to assess the study objective. RESULTS: During the pandemic, compared to pre-pandemic, the prevalence of diabetes (18.10% vs. 17.28%) has increased, while the prevalence of hypertension (36.38% vs. 36.36%) and obesity (34.68% vs. 34.18%) has remained similar. In general, the prevalence of metabolic conditions was higher during the pandemic (56.09%) compared to pre-pandemic (54.96%). Compared to never smokers, former smokers had higher odds of metabolic conditions (AOR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.87 and AOR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.25) before and during the pandemic, respectively. People with mild anxiety/depression symptoms (before: AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.19 and during: AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.38) had higher odds of metabolic conditions relative to those with no anxiety/depression symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study found increased odds of metabolic conditions among certain subgroups of US adults during the pandemic. We recommend further studies and proper allocation of public health resources to address these conditions.

COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Sociodemographic Factors , Depression/epidemiology
Cad Saude Publica ; 39(1): e00294721, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232272


This study aimed to analyze the effect of sociodemographic characteristics on COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in Ecuador from March 1 to December 31, 2020. This retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data from publicly accessible registries of the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC). Data underwent a competing risk analysis with estimates of the cumulative incidence function (CIF). The effect of covariates on CIFs was estimated using the Fine-Gray model and results were expressed as adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios (SHR). The analysis included 30,991 confirmed COVID-19 patients with a mean age of 56.57±18.53 years; 60.7% (n = 18,816) were men and 39.3% (n = 12,175) were women. Being of advanced age, especially older than or equal to 75 years (SHR = 17.97; 95%CI: 13.08-24.69), being a man (SHR = 1.29; 95%CI: 1.22-1.36), living in rural areas (SHR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.10-1.26), and receiving care in a public health center (SHR = 1.64; 95%CI: 1.51-1.78) were factors that increased the incidence of death from COVID-19, while living at an elevation higher than 2,500 meters above sea level (SHR = 0.69; 95%CI: 0.66-0.73) decreased this incidence. Since the incidence of death for individuals living in rural areas and who received medical care from the public sector was higher, income and poverty are important factors in the final outcome of this disease.

COVID-19 , Sociodemographic Factors , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Longitudinal Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Brazil , Survival Analysis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e220061, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197515


ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of food insecurity among beneficiary and non-beneficiary university students of financial aid and associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with a probabilistic sample of 100 university students, was conducted at a federal university located on the coastal city of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. The data made it possible to address sociodemographic aspects, food security and food quality markers. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact association test and Mann-Whitney comparisons of means were used to investigate the prevalence of food insecurity between groups and associations with covariables at 5%. Results: The results revealed significant differences between groups. Receiving financial aid was associated with more vulnerability to facing food insecurity: 94% have some level of food insecurity (p=0.001); non-white skin color (p=0.019); overseeing one's own income (p=0.001); the amount of money available to stay at the university (p=0.030). According to food quality markers, both groups often consumed ultra-processed foods (unhealthy quality marker). In contrast, most (92.3%) were concerned with consuming healthy foods. Conclusion: The pre-Covid-19 scenario reveals that despite receiving financial aid, a large part of students faced food insecurity in the three months prior to the study. Therefore, food insecurity should be recognized as a public health concern among university students, and adequate resources should be made available to avoid the occurrence of dropouts and assist in breaking the intergenerational cycle of social exclusion and the human right to food.

RESUMO: Objetivo : Estimar a prevalência de Insegurança Alimentar entre estudantes universitários que recebem ou não Auxílio Permanência Estudantil e fatores associados. Métodos: Estudo transversal exploratório, conduzido com amostra probabilística de 100 estudantes de uma universidade federal brasileira, situada no litoral paulista, na região sudeste do Brasil. Os dados coletados permitiram abordar aspectos sociodemográficos, de segurança alimentar e marcadores de qualidade alimentar. Conduziu-se análises descritivas, teste de associação Exato de Fisher e comparação de médias Mann-Whitney, para descrever a prevalência de insegurança alimentar entre bolsistas e não bolsistas e fatores associados a 5%. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que o grupo de estudantes bolsistas é mais vulnerável e significativamente associado ao enfrentamento da insegurança alimentar - 94% dos bolsistas em algum nível de insegurança alimentar (p=0.001), à não ser branco (p=0.019), ao grau de escolaridade dos pais (p=0.001), a ser o principal responsável pela própria renda (p=0.001) e ao valor disponível para se manter na universidade (p=0.030). Ambos os grupos consomem alimentos ultraprocessados com frequência, por outro lado, a maioria deles (92,3%) se preocupa em consumir alimentos saudáveis. Conclusão: O cenário pré Covid-19, revela que mesmo recebendo o auxílio, a maioria dos universitários enfrentou insegurança alimentar nos 3 meses anteriores à pesquisa. Portanto, a insegurança alimentar deve ser reconhecida como um problema de saúde pública entre universitários, ganhar espaço na agenda pública brasileira e recursos suficientes para evitar a ocorrência da evasão escolar, promovendo a quebra do ciclo intergeracional de exclusão social e o direito humano à alimentação.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Fellowships and Scholarships , Food Insecurity , COVID-19 , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sociodemographic Factors
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(4): 82-88, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203745


OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of depression and the sociodemographic factors associated with depression in Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic METHODS. This study is part of the COVID-19 Mental Health International Study to collect data on the impact of the pandemic on mental health through an online survey. People who were aged ≥18 years, able to read Malay or English, had access to the internet, and consented to participate were asked to complete a pro forma questionnaire to collect their sociodemographic data. The presence of distress and depression was assessed using the English or Malay version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. RESULTS: Of 963 participants, 451 (46.8%) had depression and 512 (53.2%) had no depression who were either normal (n = 169, 17.5%) or had distress (n = 343, 35.6%). Participants had higher odds of having depression when living with two people (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.896, p = 0.001), three people (AOR = 2.622, p < 0.001) or four people (AOR = 3.135, p < 0.001). Participants with three children had higher odds of having depression (AOR = 2.084, p = 0.008), whereas having only one child was a protective factor for depression (AOR = 0.481, p = 0.01). Participants had higher odds of having depression when self-employed (AOR = 3.825, p = 0.003), retired (AOR = 4.526, p = 0.001), being housekeeper (AOR = 7.478, p = 0.004), not working by choice (AOR = 5.511, p < 0.001), or unemployed (AOR = 3.883, p = 0.009). Participants had higher odds of depression when living in a small town (AOR = 3.193, p < 0.001) or rural area (AOR = 3.467, p < 0.001). Participants with no chronic medical illness had lower odds of having depression (AOR = 0.589, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: In Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic, people who are living with two, three, or four people, having three children, living in a small town or rural areas, and having unstable income have higher odds of having depression. Urgent intervention for those at risk of depression is recommended.

COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Malaysia/epidemiology , Mental Health , Sociodemographic Factors
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e40958, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162817


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 symptom-monitoring apps provide direct feedback to users about the suspected risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and advice on how to proceed to prevent the spread of the virus. We have developed the CoronaCheck mobile health (mHealth) platform, the first free app that provides easy access to valid information about the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in English and German. Previous studies have suggested that the clinical characteristics of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 vary by age, gender, and viral variant; however, potential differences between countries have not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the users of the CoronaCheck mHealth platform and to determine country-specific and sociodemographic associations of COVID-19-related symptoms and previous contacts with individuals infected with COVID-19. METHODS: Between April 8, 2020, and February 3, 2022, data on sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms, and reports of previous close contacts with individuals infected with COVID-19 were collected from CoronaCheck users in different countries. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine whether self-reports of COVID-19-related symptoms and recent contact with a person infected with COVID-19 differed between countries (Germany, India, South Africa), gender identities, age groups, education, and calendar year. RESULTS: Most app users (N=23,179) were from Germany (n=8116, 35.0%), India (n=6622, 28.6%), and South Africa (n=3705, 16.0%). Most data were collected in 2020 (n=19,723, 85.1%). In addition, 64% (n=14,842) of the users were male, 52.1% (n=12,077) were ≥30 years old, and 38.6% (n=8953) had an education level of more than 11 years of schooling. Headache, muscle pain, fever, loss of smell, loss of taste, and previous contacts with individuals infected with COVID-19 were reported more frequently by users in India (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] 1.3-8.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.2) and South Africa (aORs 1.1-2.6, 95% CI 1.0-3.0) than those in Germany. Cough, general weakness, sore throat, and shortness of breath were more frequently reported in India (aORs 1.3-2.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.9) compared to Germany. Gender-diverse users reported symptoms and contacts with confirmed COVID-19 cases more often compared to male users. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of self-reported COVID-19-related symptoms and awareness of a previous contact with individuals infected with COVID-19 seemed to differ between India, South Africa, and Germany, as well as by gender identity in these countries. Viral symptom-collecting apps, such as the CoronaCheck mHealth platform, may be promising tools for pandemics to support appropriate assessments. Future mHealth research on country-specific differences during a pandemic should aim to recruit representative samples.

COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sociodemographic Factors , Gender Identity
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162601


OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of food expense insufficiency in Japan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors associated with food expense insufficiency. DESIGN: Food expense insufficiency before and after the pandemic was assessed. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the association between food expense insufficiency and socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. SETTING: A large-scale, cross-sectional online questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: From August to September 2020, 25,482 participants aged 15-79 years completed the questionnaire (JACSIS 2020 study; Group 1). In October 2020, 917 single parents were surveyed for oversampling purposes. There were 179 single parents in Group 1 and a total of 1096 single parents in Group 2. RESULTS: Group 1 and Group 2 had 747 (2.9%) and 55 (5.0%) participants, respectively, who experienced food expense insufficiency for the first time after April 2020. Young age, part-time employment, being a single parent (in Group 1), and the number of people in the household (five or more in Group 1 and child/children alone in Group 2) were significantly associated with food expense insufficiency. As being a single parent was significantly associated with food expense insufficiency in Group 1 (AOR [95% CI] = 7.23 [5.40-9.68]), we further examined it in Group 2. Single parents who exhibited multiple factors (young age, part-time employment, living only with child/children) were likely to experience food expense insufficiency (15.3-15.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Triggered by the pandemic, a small percentage of individuals experienced food expense insufficiency. We identified that factors such as young age, part-time employment, and being a single parent were significantly associated with food expense insufficiency, and discovered that a multiplicity of these factors further increased the risk. Our findings suggest an urgent need to support individuals with a potentially high risk of food expense insufficiency.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Employment , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(3): 262-272, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2144036


RESUMEN: Introducción: a finales del año 2019, la comunidad global era sorprendida con la aparición de un brote de coronavirus en China. Se plantea que la exposición crónica a factores de riesgo psicosocial durante varios meses y de manera constante, podrían desencadenar el síndrome de burnout en el personal de salud que atiende pacientes con COVID-19. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia y severidad del síndrome de burnout en personal de salud que labora en el Hospital II Goyeneche del Ministerio de Salud en Arequipa en el contexto durante la pandemia. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo transeccional, en el que se registraron las características sociodemográficas de 147 trabajadores de salud del Hospital II Goyeneche un hospital del Ministerio de Salud y se aplicó el Inventario de Burnout de Maslach. Resultados: el 70,7% del personal de salud del Hospital II Goyeneche de Arequipa presenta síndrome de burnout, y de este porcentaje, la mayoría tiene preocupación por atender pacientes con COVID-19, no se siente capacitado para ello, le preocupa no contar con Equipos de Protección Personal y desconoce los protocolos de seguridad. Conclusión: existe una asociación significativa entre la presencia de síndrome de burnout y la atención de pacientes con COVID-19.

ABSTRACT Introduction: At the end of 2019, the global community was surprised by the new outbreak of coronavirus in China. We argued that the chronic exposure to psychosocial risk factors during four months, could precipitate the burnout syndrome among the healthcare workers who attend patients with COVID-19. Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of burnout syndrome in healthcare personnel who working Goyeneche Hospital from Ministry of Health Hospital from Arequipa City along the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: Descriptive transectional study, in which there were registered the sociodemographic characteristics of 147 healthcare workers in Goyeneche Hospital and there was applied the Burnout Maslach Inventory. Results: The 70.7% of the Goyeneche Hospital health care personnel presents burnout syndrome, and major part of the percentage have concerns about the attention of patients with COVID-19, also they don't feel trained enough for this, they also are concern because don´t have the Personal protective equipment and they don't know the safety attention protocols. Conclusion: There is a significant association among the burnout syndrome punctuation and the attention of patients with COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Peru , Pandemics , Sociodemographic Factors , Hospitals, Public
Front Public Health ; 10: 993662, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142335


Previous studies have evaluated comorbidities and sociodemographic factors individually or by type but not comprehensively. This study aims to analyze the influence of a wide variety of factors in a single study to better understand the big picture of their effects on case-fatalities. This cross-sectional study used county-level comorbidities, social determinants of health such as income and race, measures of preventive healthcare, age, education level, average household size, population density, and political voting patterns were all evaluated on a national and regional basis. Analysis was performed through Generalized Additive Models and adjusted by the COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index (CCVI). Effect estimates of COVID-19 fatality rates for risk factors such as comorbidities, sociodemographic factors and determinant of health. Factors associated with reducing COVID-19 fatality rates were mostly sociodemographic factors such as age, education and income, and preventive health measures. Obesity, minimal leisurely activity, binge drinking, and higher rates of individuals taking high blood pressure medication were associated with increased case fatality rate in a county. Political leaning influenced case case-fatality rates. Regional trends showed contrasting effects where larger household size was protective in the Midwest, yet harmful in Northeast. Notably, higher rates of respiratory comorbidities such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis were associated with reduced case-fatality rates in the Northeast. Increased rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) within counties were often the strongest predictor of increased case-fatality rates for several regions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the full context when evaluating contributing factors to case-fatality rates. The spectrum of factors identified in this study must be analyzed in the context of one another and not in isolation.

COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sociodemographic Factors , Comorbidity , Risk Factors
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099495


The present study aims to analyze the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its sociodemographic-associated factors in Peruvian adults. Data was extracted from a nation-wide representative survey in which depression symptoms were measured with the PHQ-9 and sociodemographic information was extracted from household data. Depression severity rates were estimated for each symptom, and responses were modeled through the Rating Scale Model to obtain a depression measure used as dependent variable on a Generalized Mixed Linear Model. The most frequent depression symptoms were emotional, such as discouragement, sad mood, hopelessness, and lack of pleasure when doing activities. Our model showed that, after controlling the effects of all the variables considered, the most relevant predictors were gender, education level, physiographic region, age, marital status, and number of coresidents. Higher depression levels were found in women, people who did not complete higher education, participants living in the Highlands, older adults, single participants, and people living alone. Thus, interventions to promote or prevent depression severity during similar situations as the pandemic should focus on specific sociodemographic groups and their particular needs.

COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Peru/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology