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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10534, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908276

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine whether early public health interventions in 2020 mitigated the association of sociodemographic and clinical risk factors with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We conducted a population-based cohort study of all adults in Ontario, Canada who underwent testing for SARS-CoV-2 through December 31, 2020. The outcome was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were determined for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors before and after the first-wave peak of the pandemic to assess for changes in effect sizes. Among 3,167,753 community-dwelling individuals, 142,814 (4.5%) tested positive. The association between age and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk varied over time (P-interaction < 0.0001). Prior to the first-wave peak, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased with age whereas this association reversed thereafter. Risk factors that persisted included male sex, residing in lower income neighborhoods, residing in more racially/ethnically diverse communities, immigration to Canada, hypertension, and diabetes. While there was a reduction in infection rates after mid-April 2020, there was less impact in regions with higher racial/ethnic diversity. Immediately following the initial peak, individuals living in the most racially/ethnically diverse communities with 2, 3, or ≥ 4 risk factors had ORs of 1.89, 3.07, and 4.73-fold higher for SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to lower risk individuals in their community (all P < 0.0001). In the latter half of 2020, this disparity persisted with corresponding ORs of 1.66, 2.48, and 3.70-fold higher, respectively. In the least racially/ethnically diverse communities, there was little/no gradient in infection rates across risk strata. Further efforts are necessary to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the highest risk individuals residing in the most racially/ethnically diverse communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884189

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the mental health of most of the world's population. The authors of this study decided to identify differences in the intensity of anxiety, aggression and alcohol consumption within the study population. The study was conducted via an Internet survey. It uses Polish adaptations of international scales to assess anxiety (GAD-7), aggression (Buss and Perry Aggression Scale) and alcohol consumption (AUDIT test). A total of 538 people were examined. The surveyed group of respondents does not reflect the structure of Polish society. The group of surveyed women scored higher than men in terms of anxiety, as well as anger and hostility. The examined men were characterized by higher results of alcohol consumption and physical aggression. People between 18 and 49 years of age consumed significantly more alcohol than people aged 50 and over. People aged 18-29 obtained statistically significantly higher scores in generalized aggression and hostility. The relationships between the studied parameters do not differ significantly from those presented in other studies. People under the age of 50 are the group most exposed to the harmful effects of alcohol. Women between the ages of 30 and 49 are most vulnerable to the negative mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need for further research studies in which the studied group will obtain a greater degree of compliance with the structure of Polish society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aggression/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Vaccine ; 40(27): 3727-3731, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878403

ABSTRACT

Despite wide availability, only 50.2% of the United States (US) adult population and 50.3% of adult Arkansans were vaccinated for influenza during the 2020-2021 influenza season. The proportion of the population vaccinated for influenza varies by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, rural/urban residence, and income. However, measures of healthcare access have not been adequately investigated as predictors of influenza vaccination. Using a large, statewide random sample, this study examined 5-year influenza vaccination among Arkansans by sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, rural/urban residence), general vaccine hesitancy, and healthcare access (having a primary care provider, having health insurance, forgoing health care due to cost, and frequency of doctor checkups). Older age, being female, being Hispanic, having a bachelor's degree or higher, having a primary care provider, visiting a doctor for a checkup in the past two years, and lack of hesitancy towards vaccines were significant predictors of receiving influenza vaccination.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Sociodemographic Factors , United States , Vaccination
4.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3324, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1875885

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the working and health conditions of physical education teachers in public basic education in the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional study, carried out from August to September 2020, via digital form and had the support of the Minas Gerais State Department of Education. The instrument presented variables related to the sociodemographic profile, work and health conditions during the pandemic. The prevalences of the variables were presented. 1,016 physical education teachers participated in the study. Of these, 61.4% were female, 65.8% aged 21 to 40 years and 15.3% worked in the countryside. In relation to working conditions during the pandemic, 99% performed remote activities, 35.7% were dissatisfied with their work, 37% worked much more than they used to and 81.2% presented the interest of students/parents in classes as a difficulty. As for health conditions during the pandemic, 10.3% increased their consumption of alcoholic beverages, 26.1% did not practice physical exercise, 56.5% had increased body weight and 37.8% reported a lot of fear of COVID-19. Physical education teachers of basic education in the state of Minas Gerais were significantly affected by the pandemic, so it is important to implement support strategies.


RESUMO Este estudo objetivou descrever as condições de trabalho e saúde dos professores de educação física da educação básica pública do estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Estudo transversal, realizado de agosto a setembro de 2020, via formulário digital e contou com o apoio da Secretaria de Estado de Educação de Minas Gerais. O instrumento apresentou variáveis referentes ao perfil sociodemográfico, condições de trabalho e saúde durante a pandemia. Foram apresentadas as prevalências das variáveis. Participaram do estudo 1.016 professores de educação física. Destes, 61,4% eram mulheres, 65,8% com idade de 21 a 40 anos e 15,3% trabalhavam na zona rural. Em relação às condições de trabalho durante a pandemia, 99% realizaram atividades remotas, 35,7% estavam insatisfeitos com o trabalho, 37% trabalharam muito mais que costumavam e 81,2% apresentaram como dificuldade o interesse dos alunos/pais pelas aulas. Quanto às condições de saúde durante a pandemia, 10,3% aumentaram o consumo de bebidas alcóolicas, 26,1% não praticaram exercício físico, 56,5% tiveram aumento de peso corporal e 37,8% relataram muito medo da COVID-19. Os professores de educação física da educação básica do estado de Minas Gerais foram significativamente afetados pela pandemia, portanto é importante implementação de estratégias de apoio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Physical Education and Training/methods , Coronavirus , Faculty/education , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Students , Working Conditions , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Exercise , Weight Gain , Health Status , Epidemiology/education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Health/education , Education, Primary and Secondary , Fear/psychology , Teleworking/trends , Sociodemographic Factors , Life Style
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 994, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited and inconsistent literature examining the relationship between food worry and mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the association between food worry and mental health among community dwelling Canadian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Adults age 16 years and older completed an anonymous online questionnaire between April 1, 2020 and November 30 2020. Measures of pre-pandemic and current food worry, depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-2), and sociodemographic variables were included. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the association between food worry and symptoms of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: In total, 1605 participants were included in analyses. Worry about affording food was reported by 320 (14.78%) participants. In models adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, compared with people without food worry, participants who had food worry were 2.07 times more likely to report anxiety symptoms (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.43 - 2.98, p < .001) and were 1.9 times more likely to report depressive symptoms (aOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.39-2.57, p < .0001). Lower income, lower education, and pre-existing mental health conditions were significant predictors of symptoms of depression. Female gender, younger age, lower education, lower income, and pre-existing mental health condition were significant predictors of anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the relationship between food worry and poor mental health. Policy supports such as improved income supports, clinical implications such as screening for food worry in primary care, referral to emergency food programs and support with meal planning may help mitigate mental health symptoms during the current pandemic, during future societal recovery from this pandemic and during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Food Insecurity , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sociodemographic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
South Med J ; 115(5): 340-346, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818770

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the relationship between sociodemographic factors, chronic conditions, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fears and stressors, and the perception of risk from COVID-19 and the use of health protective behaviors among Arkansans during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data collected from an online survey, administered in Arkansas between July and August 2020 (n = 1205), were used to estimate regressions. The data analysis was completed in April 2021. RESULTS: Wearing a face mask was the most commonly reported behavior (97.4%), followed by handwashing (97.2%). Protective behaviors increased with higher levels of fear (ß = 0.030, P < 0.001), more stressors (ß = 0.057, P = 0.002), and age (ß = 0.006, P = 0.030). Female (ß = 0.510, P < 0.001) and Black (ß = 0.268, P = 0.039) respondents reported engaging in more protective behaviors than males or other races/ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: In future pandemic planning, there will be a need to create messaging and interventions to increase health protective behaviors directed at young adults, men, and those with lower education levels. Providers will need to address fears related to COVID-19 and help their patients to manage those fears and anxieties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sociodemographic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e58, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740383

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 serosurvey provides a better estimation of people who have developed antibody against the infection. But limited information on such serosurveys in rural areas poses many hurdles to understand the epidemiology of the virus and to implement proper control strategies. This study was carried out in the rural catchment area of Model Rural Health Research Unit in Odisha, India during March-April 2021, the initial phase of COVID vaccination. A total of 60 village clusters from four study blocks were identified using probability proportionate to size sampling. From each cluster, 60 households and one eligible participant from each household (60 per cluster) were selected for the collection of blood sample and socio-demographic data. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody was tested using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence after adjusting for test performance was 54.21% with an infection to case ratio of 96.89 along with 4.25% partial and 6.79% full immunisation coverage. Highest seroprevalence was observed in the age group of 19-44 years and females had both higher seroprevalence as well as vaccine coverage. People of other backward caste also had higher seropositivity than other caste categories. The study emphasises on continuing surveillance for COVID-19 cases and prioritizing COVID-19 vaccination for susceptible groups for better disease management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cluster Analysis , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , India/epidemiology , Luminescence , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sociodemographic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2143151, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669321

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in US children has been limited by the lack of large, multicenter studies with granular data. Objective: To examine the characteristics, changes over time, outcomes, and severity risk factors of children with SARS-CoV-2 within the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of encounters with end dates before September 24, 2021, was conducted at 56 N3C facilities throughout the US. Participants included children younger than 19 years at initial SARS-CoV-2 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Case incidence and severity over time, demographic and comorbidity severity risk factors, vital sign and laboratory trajectories, clinical outcomes, and acute COVID-19 vs multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and Delta vs pre-Delta variant differences for children with SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 1 068 410 children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 167 262 test results (15.6%) were positive (82 882 [49.6%] girls; median age, 11.9 [IQR, 6.0-16.1] years). Among the 10 245 children (6.1%) who were hospitalized, 1423 (13.9%) met the criteria for severe disease: mechanical ventilation (796 [7.8%]), vasopressor-inotropic support (868 [8.5%]), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (42 [0.4%]), or death (131 [1.3%]). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.56), Black/African American race (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.47), obesity (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41), and several pediatric complex chronic condition (PCCC) subcategories were associated with higher severity disease. Vital signs and many laboratory test values from the day of admission were predictive of peak disease severity. Variables associated with increased odds for MIS-C vs acute COVID-19 included male sex (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.33-1.90), Black/African American race (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17-1.77), younger than 12 years (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.51-2.18), obesity (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.40-2.22), and not having a pediatric complex chronic condition (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80). The children with MIS-C had a more inflammatory laboratory profile and severe clinical phenotype, with higher rates of invasive ventilation (117 of 707 [16.5%] vs 514 of 8241 [6.2%]; P < .001) and need for vasoactive-inotropic support (191 of 707 [27.0%] vs 426 of 8241 [5.2%]; P < .001) compared with those who had acute COVID-19. Comparing children during the Delta vs pre-Delta eras, there was no significant change in hospitalization rate (1738 [6.0%] vs 8507 [6.2%]; P = .18) and lower odds for severe disease (179 [10.3%] vs 1242 [14.6%]) (decreased by a factor of 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.79; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US children with SARS-CoV-2, there were observed differences in demographic characteristics, preexisting comorbidities, and initial vital sign and laboratory values between severity subgroups. Taken together, these results suggest that early identification of children likely to progress to severe disease could be achieved using readily available data elements from the day of admission. Further work is needed to translate this knowledge into improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sociodemographic Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , United States/epidemiology , Vital Signs
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2126-2132, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653289

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), mortality, and screening in the older population of East Azerbaijan Province. We conducted a population-based registry study from Death Registration System in the elderly population (N = 433 445) from the outbreak that emerged up to May 30, 2021 (before vaccination). We analyzed CFR and mortality rates due to COVID-19 as well as the case findings and characteristics in the elderly population. Logistic regression analysis was carried out for the association between COVID-19 mortality and effective factors. During the study, the province had 18 079 confirmed cases and 4390 deaths. The male to female CFR risk ratio was 3.2. The overall CFR and mortality rates were 24% and 1%, respectively. CFR and mortality ranged from 9.56% to 0.37% in the 60-64 age group to 70% and 2.6% in the age group ≥85 years, respectively. We found a significant trend in CFR and mortality of COVID-19 with advanced age. Male sex, advanced age, marital status, and living alone were associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 fatality. COVID-19 mortality measures were higher in the older population of this province. Advanced treatment supports and interventions are needed to reduce mortality rates of COVID-19 in the elderly population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Registries , Risk Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
10.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(3): 383-391, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Several observational studies have presented conflicting results on the association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) and the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine this association. METHODS: In July 2021, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for articles investigating the relationship between the two main acid suppressants and COVID-19. Studies showing the effect estimates as hazard ratio (HR) for severe outcomes or incidence of COVID-19 were evaluated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 15 retrospective cohort studies with 18,109 COVID-19 cases were included in the current meta-analysis. PPI use was significantly associated with severe outcomes of COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.95) but not with the incidence of COVID-19, whereas H2RA use was significantly associated with decreased incidence (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97). For subgroup analyses of PPIs, increased severe outcomes of COVID-19 were observed in < 60 years, active use, in-hospital use, and Asians. For subgroup analyses of H2RAs, decreased severe outcomes of COVID-19 were observed in > 60 years, while in-hospital use and use in Asia were associated with higher disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Close observation can be considered for COVID-19 patients who use PPIs to prevent severe outcomes. However, caution should be taken because of substantial heterogeneity and plausible protopathic bias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Histamine H2 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
12.
J R Soc Med ; 115(1): 22-30, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between multimorbidity among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and their subsequent risk of mortality. We also explored the interaction between the presence of multimorbidity and the requirement for an individual to shield due to the presence of specific conditions and its association with mortality. DESIGN: We created a cohort of patients hospitalised in Scotland due to COVID-19 during the first wave (between 28 February 2020 and 22 September 2020) of the pandemic. We identified the level of multimorbidity for the patient on admission and used logistic regression to analyse the association between multimorbidity and risk of mortality among patients hospitalised with COVID-19. SETTING: Scotland, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Patients hospitalised due to COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality as recorded on National Records of Scotland death certificate and being coded for COVID-19 on the death certificate or death within 28 days of a positive COVID-19 test. RESULTS: Almost 58% of patients admitted to the hospital due to COVID-19 had multimorbidity. Adjusting for confounding factors of age, sex, social class and presence in the shielding group, multimorbidity was significantly associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.48, 95%CI 1.26-1.75). The presence of multimorbidity and presence in the shielding patients list were independently associated with mortality but there was no multiplicative effect of having both (adjusted odds ratio 0.91, 95%CI 0.64-1.29). CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity is an independent risk factor of mortality among individuals who were hospitalised due to COVID-19. Individuals with multimorbidity could be prioritised when making preventive policies, for example, by expanding shielding advice to this group and prioritising them for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Sociodemographic Factors
13.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 58(1): 54-60, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352497

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between nurses' fear levels and their insomnia, influencing sociodemographic factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study utilized cross-sectional methods and the data were collected between July 15 and August 15, 2020. In the data collection, "Socio-demographic question form," "Covid-19 Fear Scale," and "Bergen Insomnia Scale" tools were used. Descriptive statistics, numbers, percentages, independent samples t test, analysis of variance test, and correlation were used on the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0 package program in evaluating the research data. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Batman University. FINDINGS: A positive correlation was found between COVID-19 Fear Scale and the Bergen Insomnia Scale (r = .392; p = .001). The relationship between COVID-19 Fear and Bergen Insomnia Scale score averages and nurses' educational status, income level, shift working status, the status of their relatives being diagnosed with COVID-19, the state of being satisfied with the management of the pandemic process by the Ministry of Health, the situation of having resources in the settings where they work, the status of being in quarantine was statistically significant (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The relationship between the nurses' fear levels of COVID-19 and their insomnia levels was moderate. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study are important in terms of understanding the nurses' fear and insomnia during the pandemic and provide data support for the proper interventions. Also, nurses working in Turkey may call for more attention and support from policymakers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Turkey/epidemiology
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