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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140668

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the global COVID-19 pandemic. Limited studies have been performed on various types of disinfectants utilized to control the spread of this highly contagious virus. This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 using compressed sodium chloride (CSC) surface. A real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was used to evaluate the effectiveness of CSC on the disintegration of viral RNA in a time dependent manner. The effects of CSC on viral infectivity were determined using a TCID50 assay of a surrogate virus, hCoV-229E, in MRC-5 cell culture. The results demonstrated that CSC achieved a 2 to 3- log10 reduction of viral genomic RNA for a laboratory strain of hCoV-229E, and clinical samples of hCoV-229E and hCoV-OC43. A 3 to 4-log10 reduction was observed for SARS-CoV-2 (RdRp and E gene) suggesting that a CSC surface could effectively disintegrate the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. CSC was observed to have a 6 log10 inactivation of infectious hCoV-229E using cell culture after 5 minutes of exposure compared to the control, indicating good disinfection efficacy of a CSC surface against virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Pandemics
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17041, 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062270

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, wearing face masks in public spaces became mandatory in most countries. The risk of self-contamination when handling face masks, which was one of the earliest concerns, can be mitigated by adding antiviral coatings to the masks. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral effectiveness of sodium chloride deposited on a fabric suitable for the manufacturing of reusable cloth masks using techniques adapted to the home environment. We tested eight coating conditions, involving both spraying and dipping methods and three salt dilutions. Influenza A H3N2 virus particles were incubated directly on the salt-coated materials, collected, and added to human 3D airway epithelial cultures. Live virus replication in the epithelia was quantified over time in collected apical washes. Relative to the non-coated material, salt deposits at or above 4.3 mg/cm2 markedly reduced viral replication. However, even for larger quantities of salt, the effectiveness of the coating remained dependent on the crystal size and distribution, which in turn depended on the coating technique. These findings confirm the suitability of salt coating as antiviral protection on cloth masks, but also emphasize that particular attention should be paid to the coating protocol when developing consumer solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Masks , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11546, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic motivated research on antiviral filtration used in personal protective equipment and HVAC systems. In this research, three coating compositions of NaCl, Tween 20 surfactant, and NaCl-Tween 20 were examined on polypropylene spun-bond filters. The pressure drop, coverage, and crystal size of the coating methods and compositions were measured. Also, in vitro plaque assays of the Phi6 Bacteriophage on Pseudomonas syringae as a simulation of an enveloped respiratory virus was performed to investigate the antiviral properties of the coating. NaCl and NaCl-Tween 20 increased the pressure drop in the range of 40-50 Pa for a loading of 5 mg/cm2. Tween 20 has shown an impact on the pressure drop as low as 10 Pa and made the filter surface more hydrophilic which kept the virus droplets on the surface. The NaCl-Tween 20 coated samples could inactivate 108 plaque forming units (PFU) of virus in two hours of incubation. Tween 20 coated filters with loading as low as 0.2 mg/cm2 reduced the activity of 108 PFU of virus from 109 to 102 PFU/mL after 2 h of incubation. NaCl-coated samples with a salt loading of 15 mg/cm2 could not have antiviral properties higher than reducing the viral activity from 109 to 105 PFU/mL in 4 h of incubation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride , Surface-Active Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins , Polysorbates/chemistry , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
4.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917645

ABSTRACT

In addition to the α, ß, and γ subunits of ENaC, human salt-sensing taste receptor cells (TRCs) also express the δ-subunit. At present, it is not clear if the expression and function of the ENaC δ-subunit in human salt-sensing TRCs is also modulated by the ENaC regulatory hormones and intracellular signaling effectors known to modulate salt responses in rodent TRCs. Here, we used molecular techniques to demonstrate that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1), the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are expressed in δ-ENaC-positive cultured adult human fungiform (HBO) taste cells. Our results suggest that RAAS components function in a complex with ENaC and TRPV1 to modulate salt sensing and thus salt intake in humans. Early, but often prolonged, symptoms of COVID-19 infection are the loss of taste, smell, and chemesthesis. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contains two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 contains a receptor-binding domain, which is responsible for recognizing and binding to the ACE2 receptor, a component of RAAS. Our results show that the binding of a mutated S1 protein to ACE2 decreases ACE2 expression in HBO cells. We hypothesize that changes in ACE2 receptor expression can alter the balance between the two major RAAS pathways, ACE1/Ang II/AT1R and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MASR1, leading to changes in ENaC expression and responses to NaCl in salt-sensing human fungiform taste cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , Adult , Animals , Cell Line , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Mice , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics , Taste Buds/metabolism
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720847

ABSTRACT

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Subject(s)
Air Filters/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/microbiology , Membranes, Artificial , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Aerosols , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallization , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
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