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1.
Nanoscale ; 14(23): 8291-8305, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873563

ABSTRACT

The envelope (E) protein encoded in the genome of an RNA virus is crucial for the replication, budding and pathophysiology of the virus. In the light of the ongoing pandemic, we explored similarities/differences between SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 E protein ion channels in terms of their selectivity. Further, we also examined the impact of variation of the bath concentration and introduction of potential and concentration gradients across the channel on the binding ratios of sodium and chloride ions for the SARS-CoV-2 E protein. Ion transport is described through the fourth-order Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Bikerman (4PNPBik) model which generalizes the traditional model by including ionic interactions between ions and their surrounding medium and non-ionic interactions between particles due to their finite size. Governing equations are solved numerically using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The mathematical model has been validated by comparing analytical and experimental ion activity. The SARS-CoV-1 E protein ion channel is found to be more permeable to cationic ions, while the SARS-CoV-2 E protein has similar selectivity for both cationic and anionic species. For SARS-CoV-2, an increase in the bath concentration results in an increase in the binding ratio for sodium ions. Furthermore, the chloride binding ratio increases as the concentration gradient increases. A potential gradient has a minimal effect on the binding ratio. The SARS-CoV-2 E protein was found to support higher ionic currents than the SARS-CoV-1 E protein. Furthermore, the ionic current increased with increasing bath concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Chlorides , Humans , Ion Channels , Ion Transport , Sodium
2.
Lancet ; 399(10333): 1391-1400, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dietary restriction of sodium has been suggested to prevent fluid overload and adverse outcomes for patients with heart failure. We designed the Study of Dietary Intervention under 100 mmol in Heart Failure (SODIUM-HF) to test whether or not a reduction in dietary sodium reduces the incidence of future clinical events. METHODS: SODIUM-HF is an international, open-label, randomised, controlled trial that enrolled patients at 26 sites in six countries (Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and New Zealand). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class 2-3), and receiving optimally tolerated guideline-directed medical treatment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1), using a standard number generator and varying block sizes of two, four, or six, stratified by site, to either usual care according to local guidelines or a low sodium diet of less than 100 mmol (ie, <1500 mg/day). The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular-related admission to hospital, cardiovascular-related emergency department visit, or all-cause death within 12 months in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (ie, all randomly assigned patients). Safety was assessed in the ITT population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02012179, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between March 24, 2014, and Dec 9, 2020, 806 patients were randomly assigned to a low sodium diet (n=397) or usual care (n=409). Median age was 67 years (IQR 58-74) and 268 (33%) were women and 538 (66%) were men. Between baseline and 12 months, the median sodium intake decreased from 2286 mg/day (IQR 1653-3005) to 1658 mg/day (1301-2189) in the low sodium group and from 2119 mg/day (1673-2804) to 2073 mg/day (1541-2900) in the usual care group. By 12 months, events comprising the primary outcome had occurred in 60 (15%) of 397 patients in the low sodium diet group and 70 (17%) of 409 in the usual care group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·89 [95% CI 0·63-1·26]; p=0·53). All-cause death occurred in 22 (6%) patients in the low sodium diet group and 17 (4%) in the usual care group (HR 1·38 [0·73-2·60]; p=0·32), cardiovascular-related hospitalisation occurred in 40 (10%) patients in the low sodium diet group and 51 (12%) patients in the usual care group (HR 0·82 [0·54-1·24]; p=0·36), and cardiovascular-related emergency department visits occurred in 17 (4%) patients in the low sodium diet group and 15 (4%) patients in the usual care group (HR 1·21 [0·60-2·41]; p=0·60). No safety events related to the study treatment were reported in either group. INTERPRETATION: In ambulatory patients with heart failure, a dietary intervention to reduce sodium intake did not reduce clinical events. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the University Hospital Foundation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and Health Research Council of New Zealand.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sodium, Dietary , Aged , Canada , Female , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Sodium , Treatment Outcome
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5980, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788316

ABSTRACT

The burdens and trends of gastric cancer are poorly understood, especially in high-prevalence countries. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, we analyzed the incidence, death, and possible risk factors of gastric cancer in five Asian countries, in relation to year, age, sex, and sociodemographic index. The annual percentage change was calculated to estimate the trends in age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized death rate (ASDR). The highest ASIR per 100,000 person-years in 2019 was in Mongolia [44 (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 34 to 55)], while the lowest was in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) [23 (95% UI, 19 to 29)]. The highest ASDR per 100,000 person-years was in Mongolia [46 (95% UI, 37 to 57)], while the lowest was in Japan [14 (95% UI, 12 to 15)]. Despite the increase in the absolute number of cases and deaths from 1990 to 2019, the ASIRs and ASDRs in all five countries decreased with time and improved sociodemographic index but increased with age. Smoking and a high-sodium diet were two possible risk factors for gastric cancer. In 2019, the proportion of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking was highest in Japan [23% (95% UI, 19 to 28%)], and the proportions attributable to a high-sodium diet were highest in China [8.8% (95% UI, 0.21 to 33%)], DPRK, and the Republic of Korea. There are substantial variations in the incidence and death of gastric cancer in the five studied Asian countries. This study may be crucial in helping policymakers to make better decisions and allocate appropriate resources.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Sodium , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742544

ABSTRACT

Dyspnea, shortness of breath, and chest pain are frequent symptoms of post-COVID syndrome (PCS). These symptoms are unrelated to organ damage in most patients after mild acute COVID infection. Hyperventilation has been identified as a cause of exercise-induced dyspnea in PCS. Since there is a broad overlap in symptomatology with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), causes for dyspnea and potential consequences can be deduced by a stringent application of assumptions made for ME/CFS in our recent review papers. One of the first stimuli of respiration in exercise is caused by metabolic feedback via skeletal muscle afferents. Hyperventilation in PCS, which occurs early on during exercise, can arise from a combined disturbance of a poor skeletal muscle energetic situation and autonomic dysfunction (overshooting respiratory response), both found in ME/CFS. The exaggerated respiratory response aggravating dyspnea does not only limit the ability to exercise but further impairs the muscular energetic situation: one of the buffering mechanisms to respiratory alkalosis is a proton shift from intracellular to extracellular space via the sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 1 (NHE1), thereby loading cells with sodium. This adds to two other sodium loading mechanisms already operative, namely glycolytic metabolism (intracellular acidosis) and impaired Na+/K+ATPase activity. High intracellular sodium has unfavorable effects on mitochondrial calcium and metabolism via sodium-calcium-exchangers (NCX). Mitochondrial calcium overload by high intracellular sodium reversing the transport mode of NCX to import calcium is a key driver for fatigue and chronification. Prevention of hyperventilation has a therapeutic potential by keeping intracellular sodium below the threshold where calcium overload occurs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Sodium
5.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 40(5): 350-355, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735678

ABSTRACT

This study examined the quality and healthfulness of articles and recipes on food blogs to inform nurses, other health professionals, and patients using these as resources. Recipes from 50 blogs on Feedspot.com were analyzed for nutrient content and congruency of nutrition information. Of the 178 recipes, 5.6% were low calorie, 7.3% were low in total fat, 15.2% were low sodium, and 89.3% had ≤100 kcal of total sugar. Snack recipes contained significantly less mean sodium (P = .001), and 21% of blogs provided nutrition tips with incongruent or mixed congruency recommendations. Nurses, other health professionals, and consumers should evaluate cooking blogs carefully when using them for nutrition and recipe advice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cooking , Humans , Meals , Nutritive Value , Sodium
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 212: 114646, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699455

ABSTRACT

SBECD (Captisol®) with an average degree of substitution of 6.5 sulfobutylether functional groups (SBE = 6.5), is a solubility enhancer for remdesivir (RDV) and a major component in Veklury, which was approved by FDA for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 over 12 years old and weighing over 40 kg who require hospitalization. SBECD is cleared mainly by renal filtration, thus, potential accumulation of SBECD in the human body is a concern for patients dosed with Veklury with compromised renal function. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for specific, accurate, and precise determination of SBECD concentrations in human plasma. In this method, the hexa-substituted species, SBE6, was selected for SBECD quantification, and the mass transition from its dicharged molecular ion [(M-2H)/2]2-, Molecular (parent) Ion (Q1)/Molecular (parent) Ion (Q3) of m/z 974.7/974.7, was selected for quantitative analysis of SBECD. Captisol-G (SBE-γ-CD, SBE = 3) was chosen as the internal standard. With 25 µL of formic-acid-treated sample and with a calibration range of 10.0-1000 µg/mL, the method was validated with respect to pre-established criteria based on regulatory guidelines and was applied to determine SBECD levels in plasma samples collected from pediatric patients during RDV clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , beta-Cyclodextrins , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Chromatography, Liquid , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 283-287, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611428

ABSTRACT

We studied laboratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 against the background of chronic pathologies (cardiovascular pathologies, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus, and cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statins). A decrease in pH and a shift in the electrolyte balance of blood plasma were revealed in all studied groups and were most pronounced in patients with cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statin. It was found that low pH promotes destruction of lipid components of the erythrocyte membranes in patients with chronic pathologies, which was seen from a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity and significant hyponatrenemia. In patients with cardiovascular pathologies and allergy to statins, erythrocyte membranes were most sensitive to a decrease in pH, while erythrocyte membranes of obese patients showed the greatest resistance to low pH and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Drug Hypersensitivity/virology , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Hyponatremia/virology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology
9.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 17, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are among the new-generation oral antihyperglycemic agents that have been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. With the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and rise of cases in the third wave, diagnosis of life-threatening euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis may easily be overlooked or missed. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 37-year-old Malay gentleman with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus on empagliflozin, who presented to our hospital with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 infection and diabetic ketoacidosis. He developed severe rebound euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to the continuous usage of empagliflozin for glycemic control alongside intravenous insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing and managing euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, including withholding treatment of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors during the acute management of diabetic ketoacidosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
10.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211067349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Disorders of serum sodium (SNa) are common in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and may reflect underlying disease severity. However, the association of SNa with patient-reported outcomes is not clear. METHODS: The Brigham and Women's Hospital COVID-19 Registry is a prospective cohort study of consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 809). We examined the associations of SNa (continuous and tertiles) on admission with: (1) patient symptoms obtained from detailed chart review; and (2) in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Covariates included demographic data and comorbidities. RESULTS: Mean age was 60 years, 48% were male, and 35% had diabetes. The most frequent symptoms were cough (64%), fever (60%), and shortness of breath (56%). In adjusted models, higher SNa (per mmol/L) was associated with lower odds of GI symptoms (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-0.99), higher odds of confusion (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04-1.13), in-hospital mortality (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.11), and ICU admission (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05-1.13). The highest sodium tertile (compared with the middle tertile) showed similar associations, in addition to lower odds of either anosmia or ageusia (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.12-0.74). CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, hypernatremia was associated with higher odds of confusion and in-hospital mortality. These findings may aid providers in identifying high-risk patients who warrant closer attention, thereby furthering patient-centered approaches to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597191

ABSTRACT

In the United States, food pantries increasingly serve as regular food sources for low income households experiencing high rates of chronic disease, including hypertension. Sodium consumption is a modifiable risk factor for hypertension, so pantry customers would benefit from access to low-sodium foods. Pantry customers often experience difficulty acquiring healthy foods, however; little is known about pantry foods' sodium content specifically. This study assesses the sodium content of pantry foods and lessons learned from an adaptable intervention to support pantries in adopting policies and environmental changes to make healthy, lower-sodium foods appealing and accessible. We conducted sodium assessments of food at 13 food pantries, tracked implementation of intervention strategies, and interviewed 10 pantry directors. More than half of food items in 11 categories met sodium standards for foods to be chosen "often". Pantry directors reported valuing the intervention approach and implemented six of nine behavioral economics strategies, especially those targeting the visibility and convenience of foods, along with layout changes and expanded customer choice. One pantry adopted an agency-specific nutrition policy and 12 adopted a coalition-level policy. Results can inform intervention efforts to make available healthy options appealing and easy to select while also improving the customer experience in food pantries.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance , Food , Food Supply , Nutrition Policy , Sodium
12.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(5): 657-661, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585374

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: : 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a naturally synthesized amino acid present in most plants as well as animals, and it is routinely consumed by humans. This brief report sought to describe the potential of 5-ALA and sodium-ferrous citrate (5-ALA/SFC) to ameliorate the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AREAS COVERED: : Studies have shown that 5-ALA is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), then to heme. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPIX has antiviral effects against several viruses, including Zika virus, dengue virus, and influenza A virus. The anti-inflammatory effects of 5-ALA have also been reported in humans. Preliminary in vitro and clinical studies have shown that the combination of 5-ALA/SFC could reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated insults. The SARS-CoV-2 genome contains guanine-quadruplex sequences, and the administration of 5-ALA/SFC can lead to the generation of porphyrins that have the ability to bind to guanine-quadruplexes and reduce the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, 5-ALA is a metabolic precursor of heme, which is a potent inducer of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1, the levels of which are decreased in patients with severe COVID-19. Oral administration of 5-ALA/SFC induced heme oxygenase-1 in the peripheral blood of uninfected healthy individuals. EXPERT OPINION: : Based on the available information, it appears likely that 5-ALA/SFC has therapeutic value in clinically controlling SARS-CoV-2-mediated insults in COVID-19 patients. Multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed for determining the long-term clinical utility of 5-ALA/SFC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Aminolevulinic Acid/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Citric Acid , Ferrous Compounds , Heme , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27435, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570139

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This retrospective study was to investigate the association between clinical characteristics and computerized tomography (CT) findings in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The clinical data of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Spearman correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation. Totally 209 consecutive COVID-19 patients were eligible for the study, with the mean age of 47.53 ±â€Š13.52 years. At onset of the disease, the most common symptoms were fever (85.65%) and cough (61.24%). The CT features of COVID-19 included pulmonary, bronchial, and pleural changes, with the significant pulmonary presentation of ground-glass opacification (93.30%), consolidation (48.80%), ground-glass opacification plus a reticular pattern (54.07%), telangiectasia (84.21%), and pulmonary fibrotic streaks (49.76%). Spearman analysis showed that the CT findings had significantly inverse associations with the platelets, lymphocyte counts, and sodium levels, but were positively related to the age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase, α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels (P < .05). In conclusion, the severity of lung abnormalities on CT in COVID-19 patients is inversely associated with the platelets, lymphocyte count, and sodium levels, whereas positively with the age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Age Factors , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lung , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/blood
14.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 491, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome (NTIS) can be detected in many critical illnesses. Recently, we demonstrated that this condition is frequently observed in COVID-19 patients too and it is correlated with the severity the disease. However, the exact mechanism through which thyroid hormones influence the course of COVID-19, as well as that of many other critical illnesses, is not clear yet and treatment with T4, T3 or a combination of both is still controversial. Aim of this study was to analyze body composition in COVID-19 patients in search of possible correlation with the thyroid function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report here our experience performed in 74 critically ill COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of our University Hospital in Rome. In these patients, we evaluated the thyroid hormone function and body composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) during the acute phase of the disease at admission in the ICU. To examine the effects of thyroid function on BIA parameters we analyzed also 96 outpatients, affected by thyroid diseases in different functional conditions. We demonstrated that COVID-19 patients with low FT3 serum values exhibited increased values of the Total Body Water/Free Fat Mass (TBW/FFM) ratio. Patients with the lowest FT3 serum values had also the highest level of TBW/FFM ratio. This ratio is an indicator of the fraction of FFM as water and represents one of the best-known body-composition constants in mammals. We found an inverse correlation between FT3 serum values and this constant. Reduced FT3 serum values in COVID-19 patients were correlated with the increase in the total body water (TBW), the extracellular water (ECW) and the sodium/potassium exchangeable ratio (Nae:Ke), and with the reduction of the intracellular water (ICW). No specific correlation was observed in thyroid patients at different functional conditions between any BIA parameters and FT3 serum values, except for the patient with myxedema, that showed a picture similar to that seen in COVID-19 patients with NTIS. Since the Na+/K+ pump is a well-known T3 target, we measured the mRNA expression levels of the two genes coding for the two major isoforms of this pump. We demonstrated that COVID-19 patients with NTIS had lower levels of mRNA of both genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)s obtained from our patients during the acute phase of the disease. In addition, we retrieved data from transcriptome analysis, performed on human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM)s treated with T3 and we demonstrated that in these cells T3 is able to stimulate the expression of these two genes in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we demonstrated that measurement of BIA parameters is a useful method to analyze water and salt retention in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in ICU and, in particular, in those that develop NTIS. Our results indicate that NTIS has peculiar similarities with myxedema seen in severe hypothyroid patients, albeit it occurs more rapidly. The Na+/K+ pump is a possible target of T3 action, involved in the pathogenesis of the anasarcatic condition observed in our COVID-19 patients with NTIS. Finally, measurement of BIA parameters may represent good endpoints to evaluate the benefit of future clinical interventional trials, based on the administration of T3 in patients with NTIS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Animals , Gene Expression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium , Triiodothyronine
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449267

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mild respiratory symptoms are the most common manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, but new signs are constantly being discovered as it spreads. Disorders of sodium balance are increasingly described in patients with SARS-CoV-2. We report, here, the cases of two patients presented with COVID-19 and in whom we discovered sodium disorders. The first patient is a 74-year-old man who presented with fatal hypernatremia. The second patient is a 66-years-old man presented with COVID-19 and euvolemic hyponatremia attributed to syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This hyponatremia persisted long after the respiratory signs disappeared. Sodium balance disorders are increasingly described in the literature; special attention should be paid to the electrolyte status of COVID-19 patients. Pathophysiological mechanisms associating SARS-CoV-2 with these disorders are being studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypernatremia/virology , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/virology , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Sodium/blood
18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(34): 18461-18474, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373454

ABSTRACT

Subcellular and organellar mechanisms have manifested a prominent importance for a broad variety of processes that maintain cellular life at its most basic level. Mammalian two-pore channels (TPCs) appear to be cornerstones of these processes in endo-lysosomes by controlling delicate ion-concentrations in their interiors. With evolutionary remarkable architecture and one-of-a-kind selectivity filter, TPCs are an extremely attractive topic per se. In the light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, hTPC2 emerges to be more than attractive. As a key regulator of the endocytosis pathway, it is potentially essential for diverse viral infections in humans, as demonstrated. Here, by means of multiscale molecular simulations, we propose a model of sodium transport from the lumen to the cytosol where the central cavity works as a reservoir. Since the inhibition of hTPC2 is proven to stop SARS-CoV2 in vitro, shedding light on the hTPC2 function and mechanism is the first step towards the selection of potential inhibiting candidates.


Subject(s)
Ion Channel Gating , Ligand-Gated Ion Channels/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , COVID-19 , Ligand-Gated Ion Channels/metabolism , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325732

ABSTRACT

Dietary factors in the etiology of COVID-19 are understudied. High dietary sodium intake leading to sodium toxicity is associated with comorbid conditions of COVID-19 such as hypertension, kidney disease, stroke, pneumonia, obesity, diabetes, hepatic disease, cardiac arrhythmias, thrombosis, migraine, tinnitus, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, and polycystic ovary syndrome. This article synthesizes evidence from epidemiology, pathophysiology, immunology, and virology literature linking sodium toxicological mechanisms to COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sodium toxicity is a modifiable disease determinant that impairs the mucociliary clearance of virion aggregates in nasal sinuses of the mucosal immune system, which may lead to SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral sepsis. In addition, sodium toxicity causes pulmonary edema associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome, as well as inflammatory immune responses and other symptoms of COVID-19 such as fever and nasal sinus congestion. Consequently, sodium toxicity potentially mediates the association of COVID-19 pathophysiology with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sodium dietary intake also increases in the winter, when sodium losses through sweating are reduced, correlating with influenza-like illness outbreaks. Increased SARS-CoV-2 infections in lower socioeconomic classes and among people in government institutions are linked to the consumption of foods highly processed with sodium. Interventions to reduce COVID-19 morbidity and mortality through reduced-sodium diets should be explored further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium
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