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2.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007767, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The expense of clinical trials mandates new strategies to efficiently generate evidence and test novel therapies. In this context, we designed a decentralized, patient-centered randomized clinical trial leveraging mobile technologies, rather than in-person site visits, to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of canagliflozin for the treatment of heart failure, regardless of ejection fraction or diabetes status, on the reduction of heart failure symptoms. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred patients will be enrolled with a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, stratified by reduced (≤40%) or preserved (>40%) ejection fraction and randomized 1:1 to 100 mg daily of canagliflozin or matching placebo. The primary outcome will be the 12-week change in the total symptom score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be daily step count and other scales of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. RESULTS: The trial is currently enrolling, even in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: CHIEF-HF (Canagliflozin: Impact on Health Status, Quality of Life and Functional Status in Heart Failure) is deploying a novel model of conducting a decentralized, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial for a new indication for canagliflozin to improve the symptoms of patients with heart failure. It can model a new method for more cost-effectively testing the efficacy of treatments using mobile technologies with patient-reported outcomes as the primary clinical end point of the trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04252287.


Subject(s)
Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Actigraphy/instrumentation , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Fitness Trackers , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Mobile Applications , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
4.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 131(5): 260-267, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276753

ABSTRACT

The growing amount of evidence suggests the existence of a bidirectional relation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as these two conditions exacerbate each other, causing a significant healthcare and socioeconomic burden. The alterations in innate and adaptive cellular immunity, adipose tissue, alveolar and endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation, the propensity to an increased viral load, and chronic diabetic complications are all associated with glucometabolic perturbations of T2DM patients that predispose them to severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection negatively impacts glucose homeostasis due to its effects on insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, further aggravating the preexisting glucometabolic perturbations in individuals with T2DM. Thus, the most effective ways are urgently needed for countering these glucometabolic disturbances occurring during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients. The novel classes of antidiabetic medications (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) are considered candidate drugs for this purpose. This review article summarizes current knowledge regarding glucometabolic disturbances during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients and the potential ways to tackle them using novel antidiabetic medications. Recent observational data suggest that preadmission use of GLP-1 RAs and SGLT-2is are associated with decreased patient mortality, while DPP-4is is associated with increased in-hospital mortality of T2DM patients with COVID-19. Although these results provide further evidence for the widespread use of these two classes of medications in this COVID-19 era, dedicated randomized controlled trials analyzing the effects of in-hospital use of novel antidiabetic agents in T2DM patients with COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Glucose
5.
Endocrine ; 80(1): 64-70, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary aim was to assess the safety of SGLT2-i in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) in a real-life scenario during Ramadan by finding the frequency and severity of hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events, dehydration, and Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Secondary aim was to assess changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight and creatinine levels. METHODS: This prospective, observational, controlled cohort study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March 15 to June 30, 2021. Participants were over 21 years of age, on stable doses of SGLT2-I, which was started at least 2 months before Ramadan. Endpoint assessments were done 1 month before and within 6 weeks after Ramadan. RESULTS: Of 102 participants enrolled, 82 completed the study. Most (52%) were males, with mean age 52.2 ± 9.5 years and average duration of T2D 11.2 ± 6.5 years. 63% were on Empagliflozin (mean dose; 14.8 ± 7.2 mg/day) whereas 37% were on Dapagliflozin (mean dose; 8.2 ± 2.7 mg/day). Six (7.3%) documented symptoms of hypoglycemia. However, no episode of severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, dehydration, DKA, hospitalization or discontinuation of SGLT2i was reported. HbA1c changes were (7.7 ± 1.2% from 7.9 ± 2.3%, p 0.34), weight (78.4 ± 12.9 kgs from 78.9 ± 13.3, p 0.23) and eGFR (87.8 ± 27.9 from 94.3 ± 37.6, p < 0.001). The reasons of study participants drop outs were: six did not keep any fasts; four discontinued study participation for personal reasons; three were out of city and missed post Ramadan follow-up, two protocol violation and five could not be contacted for post-Ramadan follow up during the third wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Results showed the safety of SGLT2i agents during Ramadan in the Pakistani population recommending it as a treatment option in adults with T2D, without any additional adverse events.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypoglycemia , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Dehydration/chemically induced , Dehydration/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pakistan , Prospective Studies , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
6.
J Diabetes Complications ; 37(4): 108436, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) are indices used to assess arterial stiffness. We aim to compare the effect of empagliflozin, liraglutide and their sequential combination on arterial stiffness indices in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This was a randomized single blind study evaluating the effect of empagliflozin vs liraglutide in adult patients with T2D. Patients were randomized to liraglutide titrated gradually to 1.8 mg or empagliflozin 25 mg in 1:1 ratio. Three months later empagliflozin was added to the liraglutide group, and liraglutide was added to the empagliflozin group. Patients were assessed with non-invasive tests for arterial stiffness (i.e., carotid-femoral PWV and AIx of aortic pressure) at baseline, 3-month and 9-month visits (final visit was extended for 3 months from the initial design due to Covid 19 pandemic). The primary outcome was the between-group difference of PWV change (ΔPWV) and ΔAIx at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included the between-group difference of ΔPWV and ΔAIx at 9 months, as well as the ΔPWV and ΔAIx between baseline and 9-month visit when total study population was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients with T2D (30 started liraglutide; 32 empagliflozin, mean age 63 years, 25 % with established cardiovascular disease) participated in the study. We failed to show any significant between-group differences of ΔPWV and ΔΑΙx at 3 and 9 months, as well as between-group difference of ΔPWV and ΔAIx for the total study population between baseline and 9-month visit. In contrast, systemic vascular resistance and lipoprotein(a) levels improved, showing better results with liraglutide than empagliflozin. Favorable effects were also observed on body weight, body mass index, body and visceral fat, blood pressure, HbA1c, and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION: No evidence of a favorable change in arterial stiffness indices was seen with empagliflozin or liraglutide or their combination in this study. Well-designed powerful studies are needed to address any potential effects on arterial stiffness in selected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Vascular Stiffness , Humans , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Liraglutide/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Single-Blind Method , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology
7.
Clin Ther ; 45(4): e115-e126, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259419

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It has been reported that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) have a role in modulation of inflammation associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the effect of these drug classes on COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: Using a COVID-19 linkable administrative database, we selected patients aged ≥40 years with at least 2 prescriptions of DPP-4i, GLP-1 RA, or SGLT-2i or any other antihyperglycemic drug and a diagnosis of COVID-19 from February 15, 2020, to March 15, 2021. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were used to calculate the association between treatments and all-cause and in-hospital mortality and COVID-19-related hospitalization. A sensitivity analysis was performed by using inverse probability treatment weighting. FINDINGS: Overall, 32,853 subjects were included in the analysis. Multivariable models showed a reduction of the risk for COVID-19 outcomes for users of DPP-4i, GLP-1 RA, and SGLT-2i compared with nonusers, although statistical significance was reached only in DPP-4i users for total mortality (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97). The sensitivity analysis confirmed the main results reaching a significant reduction for hospital admission in GLP-1 RA users and in-hospital mortality in SGLT-2i users compared with nonusers. IMPLICATIONS: This study found a beneficial effect in the risk reduction of COVID-19 total mortality in DPP-4i users compared with nonusers. A positive trend was also observed in users of GLP-1 RA and SGLT-2i compared with nonusers. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the effect of these drug classes as potential therapy for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/therapeutic use , Glucose , Sodium/therapeutic use
8.
J Diabetes ; 15(2): 86-96, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are more likely to suffer COVID-19 complications. Using noninsulin antihyperglycemic medications (AGMs) during COVID-19 infection has proved challenging. In this study, we evaluate different noninsulin AGMs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane on 24 January 2022. We used the following keywords (COVID-19) AND (diabetes mellitus) AND (antihyperglycemic agent). The inclusion criteria were studies reporting one or more of the outcomes. We excluded non-English articles, case reports, and literature reviews. Study outcomes were mortality, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: The use of metformin rather than other glucose-lowering medications was associated with statistically significant lower mortality (risk ratio [RR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 0.77, p < .001). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) use was associated with statistically significantly higher hospitalization risk (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.68, p < .001) and higher risk of ICU admissions and/or mechanical ventilation vs nonusers (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.48, p < .02). There was a statistically significant decrease in hospitalization for SGLT-2i users vs nonusers (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84-0.95, p < .001). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) use was associated with a statistically significant decrease in mortality (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 073, p < 0.001), ICU admission, and/or mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, p < .001), and hospitalization (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.98, p = .04). CONCLUSIONS: AGM use was not associated with increased mortality. However, metformin and GLP-1RA use reduced mortality risk statistically significantly. DPP-4i use was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hospitalization and admission to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Metformin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
9.
Hypertens Res ; 46(3): 638-645, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185805

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of hypertension is multifactorial and highly complex. Basic research plays critical roles in elucidating the complex pathogenesis of hypertension and developing its treatment. This review covers recent topics in basic research related to hypertension in the following six parts: brain/autonomic nervous system, kidney, vascular system, potential treatments, extracellular vesicles, and gut microbiota. The brain receives afferent nerve inputs from peripheral organs, including the heart, kidneys, and adipose tissue, and humoral inputs from circulating factors such as proinflammatory cytokines and leptin, which are involved in the regulation of central sympathetic outflow. In the kidneys, changes in Wnt/ß-catenin signaling have been reported in several hypertensive models. New findings on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the kidneys have also been reported. Sirtuin 6, which participates in various cellular functions, including DNA repair, has been shown to have protective effects on the vascular system. Skin water conservation, mediated by skin vasoconstriction and the accumulation of osmolytes such as sodium, has been found to contribute to hypertension. Studies of rivaroxaban and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors as drug repositioning candidates have been performed. Extracellular vesicles have been shown to be involved in novel diagnostic approaches and treatments for hypertension as well as other diseases. In gut microbiota studies, interactions between microbiota and antihypertensive drugs and potential pathophysiology linking microbiota and COVID-19 have been reported. It can be seen that inter-organ communication has received particular attention from these recent research topics. To truly understand the pathogenesis of hypertension and to develop treatments for conquering hypertension, interresearcher communication and collaboration should be further facilitated. This mini-review focuses on recent topics on basic research in hypertension from the several points of view. The recent topics indicate that inter-organ communication has received particular attention. Interresearcher communication and collaboration should also be further facilitated to truly understand the complex pathogenesis of hypertension and to develop the treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , COVID-19/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Sodium
10.
Am Fam Physician ; 106(1): 61-69, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156674

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes the top 20 research studies of 2021 identified as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) that did not address the COVID-19 pandemic. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists prevent adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and also reduce all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Most older adults (mean age, 75 years) with prediabetes do not progress to diabetes. Among patients in this age group with type 2 diabetes treated with medication, an A1C level of less than 7% is associated with increased risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia, especially when using a sulfonylurea or insulin. For patients with chronic low back pain, exercise, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, duloxetine, and opioids were shown to be more effective than control in achieving a 30% reduction in pain, but self-discontinuation of duloxetine and opioids was common. There is no clinically important difference between muscle relaxants and placebo in the treatment of nonspecific low back pain. In patients with chronic pain, low- to moderate-quality evidence supports exercise, yoga, massage, and mindfulness-based stress reduction. For acute musculoskeletal pain, acetaminophen, 1,000 mg, plus ibuprofen, 400 mg, without an opioid is a good option. Regarding screening for colorectal cancer, trial evidence supports performing fecal immunochemical testing every other year. For chronic constipation, evidence supports polyethylene glycol, senna, fiber supplements, magnesium-based products, and fruit-based products. The following abdominal symptoms carry a greater than 3% risk of cancer or inflammatory bowel disease: dysphagia or change in bowel habits in men; rectal bleeding in women; and abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, or dyspepsia in men and women older than 60 years. For secondary prevention in those with established arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 81 mg of aspirin daily appears to be effective. The Framingham Risk Score and the Pooled Cohort Equations both overestimate the risk of cardiovascular events. Over 12 years, no association between egg consumption and cardiovascular events was demonstrated. Gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetine, and venlafaxine provide clinically meaningful improvements in chronic neuropathic pain. In patients with moderate to severe depression, initial titration above the minimum starting dose of antidepressants in the first eight weeks of treatment is not more likely to increase response. In adults with iron deficiency anemia, adding vitamin C to oral iron has no effect. In children with pharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis, or acute otitis media, providing education combined with a take-and-hold antibiotic prescription results in 1 in 4 of those children eventually taking an antibiotic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Low Back Pain , Physicians, Primary Care , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Aged , Analgesics, Opioid , Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19/complications , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physicians, Primary Care/education
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 195: 110205, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149622

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of using sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) before hospital admission on Covid-19 outcomes in diabetic patients. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using specific keywords until October 24th, 2022 on 4 databases: Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. All articles regarding SGLT-2i in diabetic patients with Covid-19 were included in the study. Outcomes in this study were calculated using random-effect models to generate pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that pre-admission use of SGLT-2i was associated with reduced mortality (OR 0.69; 95 %CI: 0.56 - 0.87, p = 0.001, I2 = 91 %) and severity of Covid-19 (OR 0.88; 95 %CI: 0.80 - 0.97, p = 0.008, I2 = 13 %). This benefit of SGLT-2i on Covid-19 mortality was not significantly affected by patient's factors such as age (p = 0.2335), sex (p = 0.2742), hypertension (p = 0.2165), heart failure (p = 0.1616), HbA1c levels (p = 0.4924), metformin use (p = 0.6617), duration of diabetes (p = 0.7233), and BMI (p = 0.1797). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SGLT-2i as glucose lowering treatment in patients with diabetes has a positive effect on Covid-19 outcomes, therefore can be considered as an antidiabetic drug of choice, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. Short Title: SGLT-2i in diabetes and Covid-19. REGISTRATION DETAILS: CRD42022369784.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071511

ABSTRACT

Caloric restriction promotes longevity in multiple animal models. Compounds modulating nutrient-sensing pathways have been suggested to reproduce part of the beneficial effect of caloric restriction on aging. However, none of the commonly studied caloric restriction mimetics actually produce a decrease in calories. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a class of drugs which lower glucose by promoting its elimination through urine, thus inducing a net loss of calories. This effect promotes a metabolic shift at the systemic level, fostering ketones and fatty acids utilization as glucose-alternative substrates, and is accompanied by a modulation of major nutrient-sensing pathways held to drive aging, e.g., mTOR and the inflammasome, overall resembling major features of caloric restriction. In addition, preliminary experimental data suggest that SGLT-2i might also have intrinsic activities independent of their systemic effects, such as the inhibition of cellular senescence. Consistently, evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies have also suggested a marked ability of SGLT-2i to ameliorate low-grade inflammation in humans, a relevant driver of aging commonly referred to as inflammaging. Considering also the amount of data from clinical trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses suggesting a tangible effect on age-related outcomes, such as cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, kidney disease, and all-cause mortality also in patients without diabetes, here we propose a framework where at least part of the benefit provided by SGLT-2i is mediated by their ability to blunt the drivers of aging. To support this postulate, we synthesize available data relative to the effect of this class on: 1- animal models of healthspan and lifespan; 2- selected molecular pillars of aging in preclinical models; 3- biomarkers of aging and especially inflammaging in humans; and 4- COVID-19-related outcomes. The burden of evidence might prompt the design of studies testing the potential employment of this class as anti-aging drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Animals , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes , Drug Repositioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Aging , Glucose/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Sodium , Ketones/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids/therapeutic use
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e063046, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Scottish Diabetes Research Network (SDRN)-diabetes research platform was established to combine disparate electronic health record data into research-ready linked datasets for diabetes research in Scotland. The resultant cohort, 'The SDRN-National Diabetes Dataset (SDRN-NDS)', has many uses, for example, understanding healthcare burden and socioeconomic trends in disease incidence and prevalence, observational pharmacoepidemiology studies and building prediction tools to support clinical decision making. PARTICIPANTS: We estimate that >99% of those diagnosed with diabetes nationwide are captured into the research platform. Between 2006 and mid-2020, the cohort comprised 472 648 people alive with diabetes at any point in whom there were 4 million person-years of follow-up. Of the cohort, 88.1% had type 2 diabetes, 8.8% type 1 diabetes and 3.1% had other types (eg, secondary diabetes). Data are captured from all key clinical encounters for diabetes-related care, including diabetes clinic, primary care and podiatry and comprise clinical history and measurements with linkage to blood results, microbiology, prescribed and dispensed drug and devices, retinopathy screening, outpatient, day case and inpatient episodes, birth outcomes, cancer registry, renal registry and causes of death. FINDINGS TO DATE: There have been >50 publications using the SDRN-NDS. Examples of recent key findings include analysis of the incidence and relative risks for COVID-19 infection, drug safety of insulin glargine and SGLT2 inhibitors, life expectancy estimates, evaluation of the impact of flash monitors on glycaemic control and diabetic ketoacidosis and time trend analysis showing that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a major cause of death under age 50 years. The findings have been used to guide national diabetes strategy and influence national and international guidelines. FUTURE PLANS: The comprehensive SDRN-NDS will continue to be used in future studies of diabetes epidemiology in the Scottish population. It will continue to be updated at least annually, with new data sources linked as they become available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Insulin Glargine , Middle Aged , Naphthalenesulfonates , Scotland/epidemiology
15.
JAMA ; 328(9): 861-871, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058978

ABSTRACT

Importance: Novel therapies for type 2 diabetes can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease progression. The equitability of these agents' prescription across racial and ethnic groups has not been well-evaluated. Objective: To investigate differences in the prescription of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) among adult patients with type 2 diabetes by racial and ethnic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the US Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. The sample included adult patients with type 2 diabetes and at least 2 primary care clinic visits from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020. Exposures: Self-identified race and self-identified ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were prevalent SGLT2i or GLP-1 RA prescription, defined as any active prescription during the study period. Results: Among 1 197 914 patients (mean age, 68 years; 96% men; 1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2% Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander, 20% Black or African American, 71% White, and 7% of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity), 10.7% and 7.7% were prescribed an SGLT2i or a GLP-1 RA, respectively. Prescription rates for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA, respectively, were 11% and 8.4% among American Indian or Alaska Native patients; 11.8% and 8% among Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander patients; 8.8% and 6.1% among Black or African American patients; and 11.3% and 8.2% among White patients, respectively. Prescription rates for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA, respectively, were 11% and 7.1% among Hispanic or Latino patients and 10.7% and 7.8% among non-Hispanic or Latino patients. After accounting for patient- and system-level factors, all racial groups had significantly lower odds of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA prescription compared with White patients. Black patients had the lowest odds of prescription compared with White patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.71-0.74] for SGLT2i and 0.64 [95% CI, 0.63-0.66] for GLP-1 RA). Patients of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity had significantly lower odds of prescription (0.90 [95% CI, 0.88-0.93] for SGLT2i and 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85-0.91] for GLP-1 RA) compared with non-Hispanic or Latino patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with type 2 diabetes in the Veterans Health Administration system during 2019 and 2020, prescription rates of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA medications were low, and individuals of several different racial groups and those of Hispanic ethnicity had statistically significantly lower odds of receiving prescriptions for these medications compared with individuals of White race and non-Hispanic ethnicity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these differences in rates of prescribing and the potential relationship with differences in clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Healthcare Disparities , Prescriptions , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Veterans Health , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Professional Practice/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , Veterans Health/ethnology , Veterans Health/statistics & numerical data
16.
N Engl J Med ; 387(12): 1089-1098, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death among patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in patients with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction remains less certain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6263 patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or matching placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (which was defined as either an unplanned hospitalization for heart failure or an urgent visit for heart failure) or cardiovascular death, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: Over a median of 2.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 512 of 3131 patients (16.4%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 610 of 3132 patients (19.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.92; P<0.001). Worsening heart failure occurred in 368 patients (11.8%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 455 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91); cardiovascular death occurred in 231 patients (7.4%) and 261 patients (8.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05). Total events and symptom burden were lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. Results were similar among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% or more and those with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 60%, and results were similar in prespecified subgroups, including patients with or without diabetes. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DELIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03619213.).


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006132

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease development. We aimed at determining the effect of two different sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on ambulatory arterial stiffness in individuals with T2DM. Materials and Methods: In this single-center, single-arm, prospective study performed from January 2020 to August 2021, we planned to enroll adult subjects with T2DM and stable antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatment, assigned either to empagliflozin or dapagliflozin for 6 months. All eligible subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. We set as the primary efficacy outcome the change in ambulatory pulse wave velocity (PWV) from baseline to week 24. Results: We finally enrolled 46 diabetic subjects, with a mean age of 62.89 (8.53) years and mean T2DM duration of 9.72 (6.37) years. Thirty patients received dapagliflozin, while sixteen patients received empagliflozin. Due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures during the study, the mean follow-up period extended from 6 months to 9.98 (3.27) months. Regarding the prespecified primary efficacy outcome, we found that the SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment did not have a significant effect on PWV (p = 0.65). Prior history of cardiovascular disease did not significantly affect the observed effects. Other indices of arterial stiffness, such as augmentation index and central pulse pressure, were not significantly affected, neither by empagliflozin nor by dapagliflozin. Conclusions: SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment with empagliflozin or dapagliflozin in subjects with T2DM failed to improve ambulatory PWV over a mean follow-up of 10 months. Registration number: ISRCTN88851713.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Symporters , Vascular Stiffness , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Benzhydryl Compounds , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucose , Glucosides , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Symporters/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Drugs R D ; 22(4): 257-262, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000155

ABSTRACT

On 4 September, 2020, the US National Institutes of Health launched a new clinical trial, "A Multicenter, Adaptive, Randomized Controlled Platform Trial of the Safety and Efficacy of Antithrombotic and Additional Strategies in Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19." This open-label, placebo-controlled, multicenter, adaptive platform study was designed to evaluate therapeutic options for patients hospitalized with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19. A variety of drugs and drug classes were selected, including heparin, the monoclonal antibody crizanlizumab, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and purinergic signaling receptor Y12 inhibitors. These medications have been widely used in the treatment of other conditions, from sick cell disease to type 2 diabetes mellitus and some forms of cardiovascular disease, but their inclusion in a study of COVID-19 was somewhat unexpected. This article examines the rationale behind the use of these disparate agents in the treatment and prevention of adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and explores how these strategies may be utilized in the future to address the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(11): 2071-2080, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985768

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are now seen as an integral part of therapy in type 2 diabetes to control not only blood glucose but to improve cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an uncommon but serious complication of type 2 diabetes, which has a high case fatality rate. The absolute risk of DKA in large, prospective randomized clinical trials in people with type 2 diabetes using SGLT2 inhibitors has been low, although the relative risk is higher in those assigned to SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo. In those without diabetes but prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors for heart failure or chronic kidney disease, the risk of DKA is similar to placebo. Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of DKA have also been reported in cases of COVID-19 hospitalizations. Consensus guidelines have recommended that SGLT2 inhibitors should be avoided in cases of serious illness and suggest they are not recommended for routine in-hospital use. However, recent data suggest potential beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in the setting of acute illness with COVID-19 with no increase in adverse events and low rates of DKA, which were non-severe. Given the low rates of DKA in cardiovascular outcome trials and in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for SGLT2 inhibitors not being re-initiated following discharge and their cardiovascular and kidney benefits, we believe the practice of routine 'sick day' guidance should be re-examined based on current evidence with a call for further research in this area. Furthermore, high-quality trials of initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people admitted to hospital with cardiovascular disease or kidney disease, and trials of continuation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people, with careful monitoring of DKA should be conducted. These should be further supplemented with large observational studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Acute Disease , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Policy , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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