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1.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007767, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The expense of clinical trials mandates new strategies to efficiently generate evidence and test novel therapies. In this context, we designed a decentralized, patient-centered randomized clinical trial leveraging mobile technologies, rather than in-person site visits, to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of canagliflozin for the treatment of heart failure, regardless of ejection fraction or diabetes status, on the reduction of heart failure symptoms. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred patients will be enrolled with a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, stratified by reduced (≤40%) or preserved (>40%) ejection fraction and randomized 1:1 to 100 mg daily of canagliflozin or matching placebo. The primary outcome will be the 12-week change in the total symptom score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be daily step count and other scales of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. RESULTS: The trial is currently enrolling, even in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: CHIEF-HF (Canagliflozin: Impact on Health Status, Quality of Life and Functional Status in Heart Failure) is deploying a novel model of conducting a decentralized, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial for a new indication for canagliflozin to improve the symptoms of patients with heart failure. It can model a new method for more cost-effectively testing the efficacy of treatments using mobile technologies with patient-reported outcomes as the primary clinical end point of the trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04252287.


Subject(s)
Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Actigraphy/instrumentation , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Fitness Trackers , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Mobile Applications , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
2.
N Engl J Med ; 387(12): 1089-1098, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death among patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in patients with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction remains less certain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6263 patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or matching placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (which was defined as either an unplanned hospitalization for heart failure or an urgent visit for heart failure) or cardiovascular death, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: Over a median of 2.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 512 of 3131 patients (16.4%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 610 of 3132 patients (19.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.92; P<0.001). Worsening heart failure occurred in 368 patients (11.8%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 455 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91); cardiovascular death occurred in 231 patients (7.4%) and 261 patients (8.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05). Total events and symptom burden were lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. Results were similar among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% or more and those with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 60%, and results were similar in prespecified subgroups, including patients with or without diabetes. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DELIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03619213.).


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006132

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease development. We aimed at determining the effect of two different sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on ambulatory arterial stiffness in individuals with T2DM. Materials and Methods: In this single-center, single-arm, prospective study performed from January 2020 to August 2021, we planned to enroll adult subjects with T2DM and stable antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatment, assigned either to empagliflozin or dapagliflozin for 6 months. All eligible subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. We set as the primary efficacy outcome the change in ambulatory pulse wave velocity (PWV) from baseline to week 24. Results: We finally enrolled 46 diabetic subjects, with a mean age of 62.89 (8.53) years and mean T2DM duration of 9.72 (6.37) years. Thirty patients received dapagliflozin, while sixteen patients received empagliflozin. Due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures during the study, the mean follow-up period extended from 6 months to 9.98 (3.27) months. Regarding the prespecified primary efficacy outcome, we found that the SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment did not have a significant effect on PWV (p = 0.65). Prior history of cardiovascular disease did not significantly affect the observed effects. Other indices of arterial stiffness, such as augmentation index and central pulse pressure, were not significantly affected, neither by empagliflozin nor by dapagliflozin. Conclusions: SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment with empagliflozin or dapagliflozin in subjects with T2DM failed to improve ambulatory PWV over a mean follow-up of 10 months. Registration number: ISRCTN88851713.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Symporters , Vascular Stiffness , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Benzhydryl Compounds , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucose , Glucosides , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Symporters/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Drugs ; 82(9): 949-955, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885512

ABSTRACT

The management of hyperglycemia in patients admitted to hospital is mainly based on insulin therapy. However, the positive and rapid effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on cardiorenal outcomes raises the possibility that they might confer benefits to hospitalized patients. In recent, well designed, randomized trials (SOLOIST-WHF and EMPULSE) recruiting inpatients with heart failure (HF), SGLT2i demonstrated the potential to improve survival and quality of life and reduce the number of HF events, time to first HF event, hospitalizations, and urgent visits for HF compared with placebo. They were also well tolerated, whereas incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was low. In EMBODY, empagliflozin was shown to be protective against the deleterious effects of cardiac injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In DARE-19, the administration of dapagliflozin to inpatients with cardiometabolic risk factors and COVID-19 was based on the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory properties of SGLT2i could alleviate organ damage. Although the findings did not reach statistical significance, the efficacy and safety profiles of the drug were encouraging. These promising findings in the field of cardiometabolic medicine set the stage for future research to explore whether the benefits of gliflozins can expand to inpatients with non-cardiometabolic disorders, including sepsis, cirrhotic ascites, and malignancies. The concept of inpatient use of SGLT2i has evolved greatly over the past few years. The latest evidence suggests that SGLT2i may be effective and safe in the hospital setting, provided patients are carefully selected and closely monitored. Real-world data will prove whether present hope about inpatient use of gliflozins will transform into future confidence.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 17, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are among the new-generation oral antihyperglycemic agents that have been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. With the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and rise of cases in the third wave, diagnosis of life-threatening euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis may easily be overlooked or missed. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 37-year-old Malay gentleman with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus on empagliflozin, who presented to our hospital with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 infection and diabetic ketoacidosis. He developed severe rebound euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to the continuous usage of empagliflozin for glycemic control alongside intravenous insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing and managing euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, including withholding treatment of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors during the acute management of diabetic ketoacidosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
7.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 78(1): e12-e19, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232234

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies indicate that diabetes is the second most common comorbidity in COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, exerts direct cardioprotective and nephroprotective effects. DARE-19 (Dapagliflozin in Respiratory Failure in Patients With COVID-19), an ongoing clinical trial, is designed to investigate the impact of dapagliflozin on COVID-19 progression. This article discusses the potential favorable impact of dapagliflozin on COVID-19 and its complications.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Disease Progression , Glucosides/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(3): 764-767, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137159

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a new class of glucose-lowering agents which have changed the landscape of diabetes therapy, due to their remarkable cardiorenal protective properties. The attack of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on the heart and kidneys shares similarities with diabetes; therefore, the notion that SGLT2i might have a role in the future management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based on a solid pathophysiological hypothesis. SGLT2i have been proved to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, ameliorate oxidative stress and reduce sympathetic activity, thus resulting in downregulation of both systemic and adipose tissue inflammation. On the other hand, they have been linked to an increased risk of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of SGLT2i in COVID-19 are still debatable and remain to be clarified by ongoing randomized trials, to assess whether the benefits of treatment with these drugs outweigh the potential risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Risk Assessment , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007048, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We sought to elucidate the effect of empagliflozin as an add-on therapy on decongestion and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS: The study was terminated early due to COVID-19 pandemic. We enrolled 59 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either empagliflozin add-on (n=30) or conventional glucose-lowering therapy (n=29). We performed laboratory tests at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after randomization. Percent change in plasma volume between admission and subsequent time points was calculated using the Strauss formula. RESULTS: There were no significant baseline differences in left ventricular ejection fraction and serum NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hematocrit, or serum creatinine levels between the 2 groups. Seven days after randomization, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.040), and hemoconcentration (≥3% absolute increase in hematocrit) was more frequently observed in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.020). The decrease in percent change in plasma volume between baseline and subsequent time points was significantly larger in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group 7 days after randomization (P=0.017). The incidence of worsening renal function (an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis, empagliflozin achieved effective decongestion without an increased risk of worsening renal function as an add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes with acute decompensated heart failure. Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm; Unique identifier: UMIN000026315.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Kidney/drug effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Glucosides/adverse effects , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Japan , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1211-1221, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092871

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a major advance in the fields of diabetology, nephrology, and cardiology. The cardiovascular and renal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors are likely largely independent of their glycaemic effects, and this understanding is central to the use of these agents in the high-risk population of people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. There are a number of potential safety issues associated with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors. These include the rare but serious risks of diabetic ketoacidosis and necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. The data regarding a possibly increased risk of lower limb amputation and fracture with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy are conflicting. This article aims to explore the potential safety issues associated with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, with a particular focus on the safety of these drugs in people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. We discuss strategies that clinicians can implement to minimise the risk of adverse effects including diabetic ketoacidosis and volume depletion. Risk mitigation strategies with respect to SGLT2 inhibitor-associated diabetic ketoacidosis are of particular importance during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/chemically induced , Hypovolemia/chemically induced , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Fournier Gangrene/chemically induced , Fractures, Bone/chemically induced , Humans , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Patient Education as Topic , Perineum , Reproductive Tract Infections/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract Infections/chemically induced
12.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(2): 229-240, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-861954

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent comorbidities identified in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This article aims to discuss the pharmacotherapeutic considerations for the management of diabetes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: We discussed various aspects of pharmacotherapeutic management in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: (i) susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 among individuals with diabetes, (ii) glycemic goals for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and concurrent diabetes, (iii) pharmacological treatment considerations for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and concurrent diabetes. EXPERT OPINION: The glycemic goals in patients with COVID-19 and concurrent type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are to avoid disruption of stable metabolic state, maintain optimal glycemic control, and prevent adverse glycemic events. Patients with T1DM require insulin therapy at all times to prevent ketosis. The management strategies for patients with T2DM include temporary discontinuation of certain oral antidiabetic agents and consideration for insulin therapy. Patients with T2DM who are relatively stable and able to eat regularly may continue with oral antidiabetic agents if glycemic control is satisfactory. Hyperglycemia may develop in patients with systemic corticosteroid treatment and should be managed upon accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Deprescriptions , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/adverse effects , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Disease Susceptibility , Glycemic Control , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Incretins/adverse effects , Incretins/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use , Monitoring, Physiologic , Patient Care Planning , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thiazolidinediones/adverse effects , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(1): 263-269, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802778

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are widely prescribed in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2 inhibitor prescription is associated with COVID-19, when compared with an active comparator. We performed a propensity-score-matched cohort study with active comparators and a negative control outcome in a large UK-based primary care dataset. Participants prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors (n = 9948) and a comparator group prescribed dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (n = 14 917) were followed up from January 30 to July 27, 2020. The primary outcome was confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19. The incidence rate of COVID-19 was 19.7/1000 person-years among users of SGLT2 inhibitors and 24.7/1000 person-years among propensity-score-matched users of DPP-4 inhibitors. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.29), and there was no evidence of residual confounding in the negative control analysis. We did not observe an increased risk of COVID-19 in primary care amongst those prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors compared to DPP-4 inhibitors, suggesting that clinicians may safely use these agents in the everyday care of people with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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