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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

Objective: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Design and methods: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. Results: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. Conclusions: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449267

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mild respiratory symptoms are the most common manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, but new signs are constantly being discovered as it spreads. Disorders of sodium balance are increasingly described in patients with SARS-CoV-2. We report, here, the cases of two patients presented with COVID-19 and in whom we discovered sodium disorders. The first patient is a 74-year-old man who presented with fatal hypernatremia. The second patient is a 66-years-old man presented with COVID-19 and euvolemic hyponatremia attributed to syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This hyponatremia persisted long after the respiratory signs disappeared. Sodium balance disorders are increasingly described in the literature; special attention should be paid to the electrolyte status of COVID-19 patients. Pathophysiological mechanisms associating SARS-CoV-2 with these disorders are being studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypernatremia/virology , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/virology , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Sodium/blood
3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108955, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309207

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To create and compare survival models from admission laboratory indices in people hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with and without diabetes. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of patients with COVID-19 with or without diabetes admitted to Sheffield Teaching Hospitals from 29 February to 01 May 2020. Predictive variables for in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 were explored using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Out of 505 patients, 156 (30.8%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) of which 143 (91.7%) had type 2 diabetes. There were significantly higher in-hospital COVID-19 deaths in those with DM [DM COVID-19 deaths 54 (34.6%) vs. non-DM COVID-19 deaths 88 (25.2%): P < 0.05]. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APPT) > 24 s without anticoagulants (HR 6.38, 95% CI: 1.07-37.87: P = 0.04), APTT > 24 s with anticoagulants (HR 24.01, 95% CI: 3.63-159.01: P < 0.001), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio > 8 (HR 6.18, 95% CI: 2.36-16.16: P < 0.001), and sodium > 136 mmol/L (HR 3.27, 95% CI: 1.12-9.56: P = 0.03) at admission, were only associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality for those with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: At admission, elevated APTT with or without anticoagulants, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and serum sodium are unique factors that predict in-hospital COVID-19 mortality in patients with diabetes compared to those without. This novel finding may lead to research into haematological and biochemical mechanisms to understand why those with diabetes are more susceptible to poor outcomes when infected with Covid-19, and contribute to identification of those most at risk when admitted to hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sodium/blood , United Kingdom , Young Adult
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e930135, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of 2020, varied presentations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported. The present report is of a case of hyponatremia and encephalopathy due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as the main presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 55-year-old woman. CASE REPORT A 55-year-old woman with type II diabetes mellitus presented with confusion and slurring of speech, with a temperature of 38.5°C, heart rate of 120 bpm, blood pressure of 159/81 mmHg, and oxygen saturation of 98% on room air. She did not have edema on examination. Laboratory testing showed a low sodium level of 116 mEq/L (reference range, 135-145 mEq/L) with urine osmolarity of 364 mOsm/kg, urinary sodium of 69 mEq/L, urinary potassium of 15.6 mEq/L, and serum osmolarity of 251 mOsm/kg. The patient had normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and cortisol levels. A chest X-ray should no pulmonary infiltrates nor did a lumbar puncture reveal signs of infection. A real-time SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction assay was positive for COVID-19. Brain imaging with computed tomography was negative for acute infarct, intracranial hemorrhage, and mass effect. Based on findings from laboratory testing and physical examination, a diagnosis of SIADH was made. The patient was treated with 3% hypertonic saline, followed by salt tablets and fluid restriction, with improvement in her clinical symptoms and serum sodium level. CONCLUSIONS The present report is of a rare but previously reported association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Encephalopathy and hyponatremia associated with SIADH without pneumonia or other symptoms of infection should be an indication for testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/virology , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Sodium/blood , Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use
5.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 2324709621999954, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123641

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a global pandemic. Apart from the mild features of the disease, long-term complications involve many systems including both endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Myocarditis, secondary to COVID-19, has become a well-known complication of the disease. However, endocrine complications are generally not common, particularly isolated pituitary abnormalities. There is one other report of diabetes insipidus developing as a late sequela of COVID-19. In this article, we report a case of a young male who presented with features of myocarditis but developed diabetes insipidus on day 7 of admission as a long-term complication after recovery from COVID-19 infection. His laboratory test results at the time of developing the complication revealed a high serum sodium level and low urine osmolality. The patient recovered on administration of desmopressin and was discharged after 16 days of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Insipidus/etiology , Myocarditis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Osmolar Concentration , Sodium/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Urine/chemistry
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(6): 1637-1648, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099909

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Dysnatremia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with bacterial pneumonia. There is paucity of data about the incidence and prognostic impact of abnormal sodium concentration in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to examine the association of serum sodium during hospitalization with key clinical outcomes, including mortality, need for advanced respiratory support and acute kidney injury (AKI), and to explore the role of serum sodium as a marker of inflammatory response in COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective longitudinal cohort study, including all adult patients who presented with COVID-19 to 2 hospitals in London over an 8-week period, evaluated the association of dysnatremia (serum sodium < 135 or > 145 mmol/L, hyponatremia, and hypernatremia, respectively) at several time points with inpatient mortality, need for advanced ventilatory support, and AKI. RESULTS: The study included 488 patients (median age, 68 years). At presentation, 24.6% of patients were hyponatremic, mainly due to hypovolemia, and 5.3% hypernatremic. Hypernatremia 2 days after admission and exposure to hypernatremia at any time point during hospitalization were associated with a 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.08-5.05; P = .0014) and 3.05-fold (95% CI, 1.69-5.49; P < .0001) increased risk of death, respectively, compared to normonatremia. Hyponatremia at admission was linked with a 2.18-fold increase in the likelihood of needing ventilatory support (95% CI, 1.34-3.45, P = .0011). Hyponatremia was not a risk factor for in-hospital mortality, except for the subgroup of patients with hypovolemic hyponatremia. Sodium values were not associated with the risk for AKI and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Abnormal sodium levels during hospitalization are risk factors for poor prognosis, with hypernatremia and hyponatremia being associated with a greater risk of death and respiratory failure, respectively. Serum sodium values could be used for risk stratification in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Sodium/blood , Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypernatremia/etiology , Hypernatremia/mortality , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/mortality , Incidence , Length of Stay , London/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
8.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(10): 4530-4537, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better define the clinical distinctions between the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We compared three groups of patients: group 1, cases from our national historic KD database (KD-HIS), before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; group 2, patients with KD admitted to an intensive care unit (KD-ICU) from both our original cohort and the literature, before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; and group 3, patients with PIMS from the literature. RESULTS: KD-HIS included 425 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 2.8 years (s.d. 2.4)], KD-ICU 176 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 3.5 years (s.d. 3.1)] and PIMS 404 patients [male:female ratio 1.4, mean age 8.8 years (s.d. 3.7)]. As compared with KD-HIS patients, KD-ICU and PIMS patients had a higher proportion of cardiac failure, digestive and neurological signs. KD-ICU and PIMS patients also had a lower frequency of typical KD-mucocutaneous signs, lower platelet count, higher CRP and lower sodium level. As compared with KD-HIS and KD-ICU patients, PIMS patients were older and more frequently had myocarditis; they also had fewer coronary abnormalities and lower sodium levels. Unresponsiveness to IVIG was more frequent in KD-ICU than KD-HIS and PIMS patients. CONCLUSION: On clinical grounds, KD-HIS, KD-ICU and PIMS might belong to a common spectrum of non-specific pathogen-triggered hyperinflammatory states. The causes of increasing inflammation severity within the three entities and the different effects on the heart remain to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Female , France , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Myocarditis/blood , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Phenotype , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Sodium/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
9.
J Pediatr ; 229: 54-60.e2, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Black children with Kawasaki disease exhibit disparities in prevalence, sequelae, and response to intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment. STUDY DESIGN: International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify children with Kawasaki disease admitted to a tertiary center in the southeastern US. Subjects diagnosed and treated according to American Heart Association criteria were included. Demographic, laboratory, clinical, and echocardiographic data from the electronic medical record (2000-2015) were compared between Blacks and Whites. RESULTS: Data from 369 subjects (52% Whites and 48% Blacks) were included in our analysis. No significant differences related to timely admission, IVIG treatment, or coronary artery (CA) abnormalities during hospitalization were observed. Blacks showed lower IVIG response rates than Whites for patients administered IVIG within 10 days of fever onset (86.6% vs 95.6%; P = .007). Blacks received more ancillary drugs (9.6% vs 2.6%; P = .003), and endured longer hospitalizations (mean, 5 ± 3.9 days vs 3.4 ± 2.2 days; P = .001). Blacks presented with higher C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lower hemoglobin, albumin, and sodium levels. Blacks had a higher proportion of persistent CA abnormalities than Whites at second follow-up echocardiogram (14.5% vs 6.3%; P = .03), and at third follow-up echocardiogram (21.2% vs 6.9%; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with White children, Black children with Kawasaki disease had higher IVIG refractory prevalence, more severe inflammation, more ancillary treatments, and longer hospitalizations. Despite no racial differences in time to diagnosis or initial treatment, there was greater CA abnormality persistence among Black children at follow-up.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Health Status Disparities , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/ethnology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin , Sodium/blood , Southeastern United States/epidemiology
10.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(8): 611-618, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780149

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a very fast-spreading infectious disease. Severe forms are marked by a high mortality rate. The objective of this study is to identify routine biomarkers that can serve as early predictors of the disease progression. This is a prospective, single-center, cohort study involving 330 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients who were admitted at the University Hospital of Blida, Algeria in the period between the 27th of March and 22nd of April 2020. The ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive performance of biomarkers, assessed at admission, in the early warning of progression toward severity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent risk for each marker. After an average follow-up period of 13.9 ± 3.5 days, 143 patients (43.3%) were classified as severe cases. Six biological abnormalities were identified as potential risk markers independently related to the severity: elevated urea nitrogen (>8.0 mmol/L, OR = 9.3 [2.7-31.7], p < .00001), elevated CRP (>42mg/L, OR = 7.5 [2.4-23.3], p = .001), decreased natremia (<133. 6 mmol/L, OR = 6.0 [2.0-17.4], p = .001), decreased albumin (<33.5 g/L, OR = 5.2 [1.7-16.6], p = .003), elevated LDH (>367 IU/L, OR = 4.9 [1.7-14.2], p = .003) and elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>7.99, OR = 4.2, [1.4-12.2], p = .009). These easy-to-measure, time-saving and very low-cost parameters have been shown to be effective in the early prediction of the COVID-19 severity. Their use at the early admission stage can improve the risk stratification and management of medical care resources in order to reduce the mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Aged , Algeria , Blood Urea Nitrogen , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood
11.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(8): 628-636, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no drugs that have been proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Because of its broad antiviral activity, interferon (IFN) should be evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially while COVID-19-specific therapies are still under development. METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China, from January 19 to February 19, 2020 were enrolled in a retrospective study. The patients were separated into an IFN group and a control group according to whether they received initial IFN-α2b inhalation treatment after admission. Propensity-score matching was used to balance the confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 104 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 68 in the IFN group and 36 in the control group, were enrolled. Less hypertension (27.9% vs. 55.6%, P=0.006), dyspnea (8.8% vs. 25.0%, P=0.025), or diarrhea (4.4% vs. 19.4%, P=0.030) was observed in the IFN group. Lower levels of albumin and C-reactive protein and higher level of sodium were observed in the IFN group. Glucocorticoid dosage was lower in the IFN group (median, 40 vs. 80 mg/d, P=0.025). Compared to the control group, fewer patients in the IFN group were ventilated (13.2% vs. 33.3%, P=0.015) and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (16.2% vs. 44.4%, P=0.002). There were also fewer critical patients in the IFN group (7.4% vs. 25.0%, P=0.017) upon admission. Although complications during admission process were comparable between groups, the discharge rate (85.3% vs. 66.7%, P=0.027) was higher and the hospitalization time (16 vs. 21 d, P=0.015) was shorter in the IFN group. When other confounding factors were not considered, virus shedding time (10 vs. 13 d, P=0.014) was also shorter in the IFN group. However, when the influence of other factors was eliminated using propensity score matching, virus shedding time was not significantly shorter than that of the control group (12 vs. 15 d, P=0.206). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b spray inhalation did not shorten virus shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Albumins/analysis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium/blood
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(15)2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670811

ABSTRACT

Hyponatremia is one of the most common water-electrolyte imbalances in the human organism. A serum sodium concentration threshold of less than 135 mmol/L is diagnostic for hyponatremia. The disorder is usually secondary to various diseases, including infections. Our review aims to summarize the diagnostic value and impact of hyponatremia on the prognosis, length of the hospitalization, and mortality among patients with active infection. The scientific literature regarding hyponatremia was reviewed using PubMed, ClinicalKey, and Web of Science databases. Studies published between 2011 and 2020 were screened and eligible studies were selected according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and specific inclusion criteria. The most common infections that were associated with hyponatremia were viral and bacterial infections, including COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The etiology varied according to the infection site, setting and patient cohort it concerned. In several studies, hyponatremia was associated with prolonged hospitalization, worse outcomes, and higher mortality rates. Hyponatremia can also play a diagnostic role in differentiating pathogens that cause a certain infection type, as it was observed in community-acquired pneumonia. Although many mechanisms leading to hyponatremia have already been described, it is impossible with any certainty to ascribe the etiology of hyponatremia to any of them.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hyponatremia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium/blood
14.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 57(3): 262-265, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As electrolyte imbalance may not only impact patient care, but provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to analyse all early data reported on electrolytes in COVID-19 patients with and without severe form. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline (PubMed interface), Scopus and Web of Science was performed for articles comparing electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium) between COVID-19 patients with and without severe disease. A pooled analysis was performed to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Five studies with a total sample size of 1415 COVID-19 patients. Sodium was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI: -1.33 to -0.50 mmol/L]). Similarly, potassium was also significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease (WMD: -0.12 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07 mmol/L], I2=33%). For chloride, no statistical differences were observed between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (WMD: 0.30 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.41 to 1.01 mmol/L]). For calcium, a statistically significant lower concentration was noted in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.20 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.25 to -0.20 mmol/L]). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis confirms that COVID-19 severity is associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Electrolytes/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Calcium/blood , Chlorides/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Potassium/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium/blood , Water-Electrolyte Balance
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