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1.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785840

ABSTRACT

The simultaneous effects of three continuous factors: solvent concentration (50-100%), treated times (25-85 min), treated temperatures (25-55 °C), and two categorical factors: type of solvents (methanol or ethanol) and ultrasonic frequency (28 kHz or 40 kHz) on ultrasonic-assisted extraction yield from waste orange peels were evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with a wavelength of 500 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 was employed to rapidly identify the orange extracts. The significant polynomial regression models on crude extraction, sediments after evaporation, and precipitation yield were established (p < 0.05). Results revealed that solvent concentration affected crude extraction and precipitation yield linearly (p < 0.01). The optimal and practical ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for increasing the precipitation yield were using 61.42% methanol with 85 min at 55 °C under 40 kHz ultrasonic frequency. The spectra of extracts showed a similar fingerprint of hesperidin.


Subject(s)
Citrus sinensis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Methanol , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry
2.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 35(6): 721-729, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549468

ABSTRACT

We systematically tested the Autodock4 docking program for absolute binding free energy predictions using the host-guest systems from the recent SAMPL6, SAMPL7 and SAMPL8 challenges. We found that Autodock4 behaves surprisingly well, outperforming in many instances expensive molecular dynamics or quantum chemistry techniques, with an extremely favorable benefit-cost ratio. Some interesting features of Autodock4 predictions are revealed, yielding valuable hints on the overall reliability of docking screening campaigns in drug discovery projects.


Subject(s)
Proteins/chemistry , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Software , Solvents/chemistry , Thermodynamics
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(11): 3341-3348, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453704

ABSTRACT

Paper has been widely employed as cheap material for the development of a great number of sensors such as pregnancy tests, strips to measure blood sugar, and COVID-19 rapid tests. The need for new low-cost analytical devices is growing, and consequently the use of these platforms will be extended to different assays, both for the final consumer and within laboratories. This work describes a paper-based electrochemical sensing platform that uses a paper disc conveniently modified with recognition molecules and a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) to achieve the detection of gluten in a deep eutectic solvent (DES). This is the first method coupling a paper biosensor based on aptamers and antibodies with the DES ethaline. Ethaline proved to be an excellent extraction medium allowing the determination of very low gluten concentrations. The biosensor is appropriate for the determination of gluten with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 mg L-1 of sample; it can detect gluten extracted in DES with a dynamic range between 0.2 and 20 mg L-1 and an intra-assay coefficient of 10.69%. This approach can be of great interest for highly gluten-sensitive people, who suffer from ingestion of gluten quantities well below the legal limit, which is 20 parts per million in foods labeled gluten-free and for which highly sensitive devices are essential.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Antibodies , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Glutens , Humans , Limit of Detection , Solvents/chemistry
4.
J Comput Chem ; 42(26): 1832-1860, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321692

ABSTRACT

An adaptive finite element solver for the numerical calculation of the electrostatic coupling between molecules in a solvent environment is developed and tested. At the heart of the solver is a goal-oriented a posteriori error estimate for the electrostatic coupling, derived and implemented in the present work, that gives rise to an orders of magnitude improved precision and a shorter computational time as compared to standard finite difference solvers. The accuracy of the new solver ARGOS is evaluated by numerical experiments on a series of problems with analytically known solutions. In addition, the solver is used to calculate electrostatic couplings between two chromophores, linked to polyproline helices of different lengths and between the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the ACE2 receptor. All the calculations are repeated by using the well-known finite difference solvers MEAD and APBS, revealing the advantages of the present finite element solver.


Subject(s)
Finite Element Analysis , Static Electricity , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Solvents/chemistry , Solvents/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288957

ABSTRACT

In the current work, a simple, economical, accurate, and precise HPLC method with UV detection was developed to quantify Favipiravir (FVIR) in spiked human plasma using acyclovir (ACVR) as an internal standard in the COVID-19 pandemic time. Both FVIR and ACVR were well separated and resolved on the C18 column using the mobile phase blend of methanol:acetonitrile:20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) in an isocratic mode flow rate of 1 mL/min with a proportion of 30:10:60 %, v/v/v. The detector wavelength was set at 242 nm. Maximum recovery of FVIR and ACVR from plasma was obtained with dichloromethane (DCM) as extracting solvent. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 3.1-60.0 µg/mL with regression coefficient (r2) = 0.9976. However, with acceptable r2, the calibration data's heteroscedasticity was observed, which was further reduced using weighted linear regression with weighting factor 1/x. Finally, the method was validated concerning sensitivity, accuracy (Inter and Intraday's % RE and RSD were 0.28, 0.65 and 1.00, 0.12 respectively), precision, recovery (89.99%, 89.09%, and 90.81% for LQC, MQC, and HQC, respectively), stability (% RSD for 30-day were 3.04 and 1.71 for LQC and HQC, respectively at -20 °C), and carry-over US-FDA guidance for Bioanalytical Method Validation for researchers in the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Furthermore, there was no significant difference for selectivity when evaluated at LLOQ concentration of 3 µg/mL of FVIR and relative to the blank.


Subject(s)
Amides/analysis , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/blood , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Liquid-Liquid Extraction/methods , Pyrazines/analysis , Pyrazines/blood , Acyclovir/analysis , Acyclovir/blood , COVID-19/blood , Calibration , Drug Stability , Freezing , Humans , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Solvents/chemistry
6.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 59(2): 140-147, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939550

ABSTRACT

Two chromatographic methods were validated for the determination of the widely prescribed analgesic and antipyretic drug combination of paracetamol (PC) (recently integrated into the supportive treatment of COVID-19), propyphenazone (PZ) and caffeine (CF) in the presence of two PC impurities, namely 4-aminophenol and 4-nitrophenol. A "dual-mode" gradient high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed, where the separation was achieved via "dual-mode" gradient by changing both the ternary mobile phase composition (acetonitrile: methanol: water) and the flow rate. This enables a good resolution within a relatively shorter analysis time. The analysis was realized using Zorbax Eclipse XDB column C18, 5 µm (250 × 4.6 mm) and the UV detector was set at 220 nm. The other method is a thin-layer chromatography densitometry method, where the separation was achieved using a mobile phase composed of chloroform: toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: acetic acid (6: 6: 1: 2: 0.1, by volume). Densitometric detection was performed at 220 nm on silica gel 60 F254 plates. The developed methods were fully validated as per the ICH guidelines and proved to be accurate, robust, specific and suitable for application as purity indicating methods for routine analysis of PC in pure form or in pharmaceuticals with PZ and CF in quality control laboratories.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/analysis , Antipyrine/analogs & derivatives , Caffeine/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Aminophenols/analysis , Antipyrine/analysis , Codeine/analysis , Densitometry/methods , Drug Combinations , Drug Contamination , Limit of Detection , Meprobamate/analysis , Nitrophenols/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Solvents/chemistry , Tablets/analysis
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