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1.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 35(2): 147-154, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230051

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of public health significance. Its geographic distribution includes 128 countries worldwide, affecting 390 million people every year causing significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults everywhere. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past, severe dengue affected mostly adults in the Americas; this scenario has changed and now cases of dengue, severe dengue, and dengue deaths have increased in children under 15 years in Brazil and in Colombia. Dengue and COVID-19 co-infections have been reported in South America, with increased hospitalization. A dengue vaccine for 9-year-old children and older children and adults who have serological evidence of previous dengue has been licensed in many countries; a different dengue vaccine trial for 4-16-year-old children has demonstrated decrease in clinical dengue and decrease in dengue hospitalizations. SUMMARY: There is no specific treatment of dengue, and a changing climate, insecticide resistance and urban expansion have permitted the vector's spread, making the vector control almost impossible. The hope for dengue control relies on vaccine development; there is important research on this area with one vaccine already licensed and another one showing promising results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Vaccines , Dengue , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Public Health , South America/epidemiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1525, 2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221857

ABSTRACT

A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks of dengue has recently been reported, and climate change is likely to extend the geographical spread of the disease. In this context, this paper shows how a neural network approach can incorporate dengue and COVID-19 data as well as external factors (such as social behaviour or climate variables), to develop predictive models that could improve our knowledge and provide useful tools for health policy makers. Through the use of neural networks with different social and natural parameters, in this paper we define a Correlation Model through which we show that the number of cases of COVID-19 and dengue have very similar trends. We then illustrate the relevance of our model by extending it to a Long short-term memory model (LSTM) that incorporates both diseases, and using this to estimate dengue infections via COVID-19 data in countries that lack sufficient dengue data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asia, Southeastern , South America/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
3.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(4, jul-ago): 342-343, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204870
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115978

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to analyze the lifestyles of adults from Spanish-speaking countries in South America during the COVID-19 pandemic using a cross-sectional, analytical, and multicenter study. The target population was composed of people aged 18 and older who resided in South America during the pandemic; the final sample comprised 16,811 participants who were predominantly female, with ages ranging from 18 to 79 years. The results showed that approximately six out of ten respondents did not engage in any physical activity; only one in four respondents indicated that their diet was sufficient and balanced; and most washed their hands frequently and showered every day. Regarding the type of isolation, half reported that it was voluntary and the rest mandatory or restricted. Regarding mobility, six out of ten surveyed leave their residence on a weekly basis. Regarding the use of personal protective equipment, the majority used masks and a smaller proportion used gloves. In conclusion, the majority of respondents did not perform any physical activity; moreover, one in four reported having a sufficient balanced diet. We therefore recommend an improvement of public policies to promote better lifestyles in South America, in particular the reorientation of the health system to prevent similar situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , South America/epidemiology , Life Style
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275255, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To understand provider perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic on priorities of severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) care across hospitals in South America. METHODS: Site principal investigators (PIs) from 17 hospitals in South America enrolled in the PEGASUS-Argentina randomized controlled trial completed questionnaires regarding order of tasks performed in the care of a typical pediatric patient with severe TBI before (2019) and during (2021) the COVID-19 pandemic. Acute care processes were examined by quintiles to identify early, mid, and late actions and were categorized and compared. Associations of hospital volume and subspecialty resource availability with prioritization of key process actions were examined. FINDING: Site PIs from 15 and 16 hospitals completed the surveys in 2019 and 2021, respectively, including 14 who completed both. Action category order was stable between 2019 and 2021 and were ranked in priorities as: initial encounter, primary survey, interventions and invasive monitors, diagnostics, medications, staff communication, then disposition (in 2019) or nutrition (in 2021). There was variation in specific action order between hospitals at both timepoints, with only a few initial encounter and disposition actions limited to a single quintile. There was no reported association between hospital volume or subspecialty resource availability with prioritization of key process actions. INTERPRETATION: Despite novel healthcare challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, providers in South America perceived maintaining standard severe pediatric TBI care consistent with BTF guidelines. There was large variability in specific action order between individual hospitals reported.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , South America/epidemiology
6.
Glob Health Epidemiol Genom ; 2022: 8551576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950442

ABSTRACT

Since the zoonotic event from which SARS-CoV-2 started infecting humans late in 2019, the virus has caused more than 5 million deaths and has infected over 500 million people around the world. The pandemic has had a severe impact on social and economic activities, with greater repercussions in low-income countries. South America, with almost 5% of the world's population, has reckoned with almost a fifth of the total people infected and more than 26% (>1/4) of the deceased. Fortunately, the full genome structure and sequence of SARS-CoV-2 have been rapidly obtained and studied thanks to all the scientific efforts and data sharing around the world. Such molecular analysis of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics showed that rates of mutation, similar to other members of the Coronaviridae family, along with natural selection forces, could result in the emergence of new variants; few of them might be of high consequence. However, this is a serious threat to controlling the pandemic and, of course, enduring the process of returning to normalization with the implicit monetary cost of such a contingency. The lack of updated knowledge in South America justifies the need to develop a structured genomic surveillance program of current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The modeling of the molecular events and microevolution of the virus will contribute to making better decisions on public health management of the pandemic and developing accurate treatments and more efficient vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South America/epidemiology
7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884385

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the tools that provide genomic information on circulating variants. Given the recent emergence of the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, this tool has provided data about this lineage's genomic and epidemiological characteristics. However, in South America, this variant's arrival and genomic diversity are scarcely known. Therefore, this study determined the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 21,615 Omicron genomes available in public databases. We found that in South America, BA.1 (n = 15,449, 71%) and BA.1.1 (n = 6257, 29%) are the dominant sublineages, with several mutations that favor transmission and antibody evasion. In addition, these lineages showed cryptic transmission arriving on the continent in late September 2021. This event may have contributed to the dispersal of Omicron sublineages and the acquisition of new mutations. Considering the genomic and epidemiological characteristics of these lineages, especially those with a high number of mutations in their genome, it is important to conduct studies and surveillance on the dynamics of these lineages to identify the mechanisms of mutation acquisition and their impact on public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South America/epidemiology
8.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860798

ABSTRACT

Latin American countries (LAC), with their culturally and ethnically diverse populations, form a region that is difficult to define and to understand. The region's health systems are deeply fragmented, which poses great challenges to overall equity levels in health. This is also one of the fastest ageing regions in the world, with increasing demands as well for acute and long-term care (LTC). Demographic and epidemiological transitions across the region are heterogeneous. In this context, health systems are in general, largely unprepared to face the challenge of promoting healthy ageing. This unpreparedness has been magnified by the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Here, we analyse the burden of disease in the older population and identify priorities to improve the care and quality of life for people living in LAC. Besides an adequately prepared workforce, we must remediate disparities and inequities; develop and implement integrated care; achieve patient-centred care and further develop palliative and end-of-life care; simultaneously, we must develop the structure and financing of LTC services and strengthen the role of public health making healthy ageing an essential component.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Long-Term Care , South America/epidemiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1748, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671626

ABSTRACT

African horse sickness is a vector-borne, non-contagious and highly infectious disease of equines caused by African horse sickness viruses (AHSv) that mainly affect horses. The occurrence of the disease causes huge economic impacts because of its high fatality rate, trade ban and disease control costs. In the planning of vectors and vector-borne diseases like AHS, the application of Ecological niche models (ENM) used an enormous contribution in precisely delineating the suitable habitats of the vector. We developed an ENM to delineate the global suitability of AHSv based on retrospective outbreak data records from 2005 to 2019. The model was developed in an R software program using the Biomod2 package with an Ensemble modeling technique. Predictive environmental variables like mean diurnal range, mean precipitation of driest month(mm), precipitation seasonality (cv), mean annual maximum temperature (oc), mean annual minimum temperature (oc), mean precipitation of warmest quarter(mm), mean precipitation of coldest quarter (mm), mean annual precipitation (mm), solar radiation (kj /day), elevation/altitude (m), wind speed (m/s) were used to develop the model. From these variables, solar radiation, mean maximum temperature, average annual precipitation, altitude and precipitation seasonality contributed 36.83%, 17.1%, 14.34%, 7.61%, and 6.4%, respectively. The model depicted the sub-Sahara African continent as the most suitable area for the virus. Mainly Senegal, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and Malawi are African countries identified as highly suitable countries for the virus. Besides, OIE-listed disease-free countries like India, Australia, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia have been found suitable for the virus. This model can be used as an epidemiological tool in planning control and surveillance of diseases nationally or internationally.


Subject(s)
African Horse Sickness Virus , African Horse Sickness , Ecosystem , Models, Statistical , Africa/epidemiology , African Horse Sickness/epidemiology , African Horse Sickness/transmission , Animals , Ceratopogonidae/virology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Horses , India/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/virology , Software , South Africa/epidemiology , South America/epidemiology , Temperature , Vector Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Vector Borne Diseases/transmission , Vector Borne Diseases/veterinary
11.
Pediatr Neurol ; 128: 33-44, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to characterize the frequency, early impact, and risk factors for neurological manifestations in hospitalized children with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional study of neurological manifestations in children aged <18 years hospitalized with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2-related condition between January 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for neurological manifestations was performed. RESULTS: Of 1493 children, 1278 (86%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 and 215 (14%) with MIS-C. Overall, 44% of the cohort (40% acute SARS-CoV-2 and 66% MIS-C) had at least one neurological manifestation. The most common neurological findings in children with acute SARS-CoV-2 and MIS-C diagnosis were headache (16% and 47%) and acute encephalopathy (15% and 22%), both P < 0.05. Children with neurological manifestations were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) care (51% vs 22%), P < 0.001. In multivariable logistic regression, children with neurological manifestations were older (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.13) and more likely to have MIS-C versus acute SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24), pre-existing neurological and metabolic conditions (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.15; and OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.66, respectively), and pharyngeal (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.64) or abdominal pain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.00); all P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, 44% of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related conditions experienced neurological manifestations, which were associated with ICU admission and pre-existing neurological condition. Posthospital assessment for, and support of, functional impairment and neuroprotective strategies are vitally needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Pathog Glob Health ; 116(4): 236-243, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585287

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is considered one of the greatest threats to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. Lack of trust in vaccine benefits, along with concerns about side effects of the newly developed COVID-19 vaccine, might significantly contribute to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The objective of this study was to determine the level of vaccine hesitancy among communities in particular their belief in vaccination benefits and perceived risks of new vaccines. An online cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 countries in Asia, Africa, and South America from February to May 2021. Seven items from the WHO SAGE Vaccine Hesitancy Scale were used to measure a construct of belief in vaccination benefit, and one item measured perceived riskiness of new vaccines. A logistic regression was used to determine which sociodemographic factors were associated with both vaccine hesitancy constructs. A total of 1,832 respondents were included in the final analysis of which 36.2% (range 5.6-52.2%) and 77.6% (range 38.3-91.2%) of them were classified as vaccine hesitant in terms of beliefs in vaccination benefits and concerns about new vaccines, respectively. Respondents from Pakistan had the highest vaccine hesitancy while those from Chile had the lowest. Being females, Muslim, having a non-healthcare-related job and not receiving a flu vaccination during the past 12 months were associated with poor beliefs of vaccination benefits. Those who were living in rural areas, Muslim, and those who did not received a flu vaccination during the past 12 months had relatively higher beliefs that new vaccines are riskier. High prevalence of vaccine hesitancy in some countries during the COVID-19 pandemic might hamper COVID-19 vaccination programs worldwide. Programs should be developed to promote vaccination in those sociodemographic groups with relatively high vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Africa , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
13.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
15.
Arch Virol ; 166(12): 3357-3371, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449968

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 caused a global public health crisis with significant mortality rates and a large socioeconomic burden. The rapid spread of this new virus has led to the appearance of new variants, making the characterization and monitoring of genetic diversity necessary to understand the population dynamics and evolution of the virus. Here, a population-genetics-based study was performed starting with South American genome sequences available in the GISAID database to investigate the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 on this continent and the evolutionary mechanisms that modulate it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Demography , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South America/epidemiology
16.
Virus Res ; 305: 198551, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440397

ABSTRACT

Samples from complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated during the first wave (December 2019-July 2020) of the global COVID-19 pandemic from 21 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East and America) around the world, were analyzed using the phylogenetic method with molecular clock dating. Results showed that the first cases of COVID-19 in the human population appeared in the period between July and November 2019 in China. The spread of the virus into other countries of the world began in the autumn of 2019. In mid-February 2020, the virus appeared in all the countries we analyzed. During this time, the global population of SARS-CoV-2 was characterized by low levels of the genetic polymorphism, making it difficult to accurately assess the pathways of infection. The rate of evolution of the coding region of the SARS-CoV-2 genome equal to 7.3 × 10-4 (5.95 × 10-4-8.68 × 10-4) nucleotide substitutions per site per year is comparable to those of other human RNA viruses (Measles morbillivirus, Rubella virus, Enterovirus C). SARS-CoV-2 was separated from its known close relative, the bat coronavirus RaTG13 of the genus Betacoronavirus, approximately 15-43 years ago (the end of the 20th century).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Genomics/methods , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South America/epidemiology
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 197-204, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370369

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had different waves within the same country. The spread rate and severity showed different properties within the COVID-19 different waves. The present work aims to compare the spread and the severity of the different waves using the available data of confirmed COVID-19 cases and death cases. Real-data sets collected from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science were used to perform a comparative study between COVID-19 different waves in 12 countries with the highest total performed tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 detection in the world (Italy, Brazil, Japan, Germany, Spain, India, USA, UAE, Poland, Colombia, Turkey, and Switzerland). The total number of confirmed cases and death cases in different waves of COVID-19 were compared to that of the previous one for equivalent periods. The total number of death cases in each wave was presented as a percentage of the total number of confirmed cases for the same periods. In all the selected 12 countries, Wave 2 had a much higher number of confirmed cases than that in Wave 1. However, the death cases increase was not comparable with that of the confirmed cases to the extent that some countries had lower death cases than in Wave 1, UAE, and Spain. The death cases as a percentage of the total number of confirmed cases in Wave 1 were much higher than that in Wave 2. Some countries have had Waves 3 and 4. Waves 3 and 4 have had lower confirmed cases than Wave 2, however, the death cases were variable in different countries. The death cases in Waves 3 and 4 were similar to or higher than Wave 2 in most countries. Wave 2 of COVID-19 had a much higher spread rate but much lower severity resulting in a lower death rate in Wave 2 compared with that of the first wave. Waves 3 and 4 have had lower confirmed cases than Wave 2; that could be due to the presence of appropriate treatment and vaccination. However, that was not reflected in the death cases, which were similar to or higher than Wave 2 in most countries. Further studies are needed to explain these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Mutation , Severity of Illness Index , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009417, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315881

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF), an arboviral disease, affects an estimated 200,000 people and causes 30,000 deaths per year and recently has caused major epidemics in Africa and South America. Timely and accurate diagnosis of YF is critical for managing outbreaks and implementing vaccination campaigns. A YF immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody-capture (MAC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, the YF MAC-HD, was successfully introduced starting in 2018 to laboratories in Africa and South America. The YF MAC-HD kit can be performed in 3.5 hours, test up to 24 samples, and includes all reagents necessary to perform the test, except for water used to dilute wash buffer. In 2018 and 2019, a total of 56 laboratory personnel from 39 countries in Africa and South America were trained to use the kit during workshops, followed by take-home YF IgM proficiency testing (PT) exercises. Participants received either a 10- or 20-sample YF PT panel and performed testing using the YF MAC-HD kit. All countries obtained 90% or higher correct results. These results verified the technical viability and transferability of YF MAC-HD kit use for laboratories in YF-endemic countries.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Yellow Fever/diagnosis , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Laboratories , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , South America/epidemiology
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 25-27, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206806

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, science needs data to generate helpful evidence, and researchers assume this responsibility despite the risk of potential bias. This is the response to the comment made by Pedro Romero, who argued that our manuscript did not use reassembling and mapping strategies for corroborating mutations, and lacked bootstrap support in the phylogenetic analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , South America/epidemiology
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