Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.998
Filter
1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199635

ABSTRACT

Objectives: With the application of a systems thinking lens, we aimed to assess the national COVID-19 response across health systems components in Switzerland, Spain, Iran, and Pakistan. Methods: We conducted four case studies on the policy response of national health systems to the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Selected countries include different health system typologies. We collected data prospectively for the period of January-July 2020 on 17 measures of the COVID-19 response recommended by the WHO that encompassed all health systems domains (governance, financing, health workforce, information, medicine and technology and service delivery). We further monitored contextual factors influencing their adoption or deployment. Results: The policies enacted coincided with a decrease in the COVID-19 transmission. However, there was inadequate communication and a perception that the measures were adverse to the economy, weakening political support for their continuation and leading to a rapid resurgence in transmission. Conclusion: Social pressure, religious beliefs, governance structure and level of administrative decentralization or global economic sanctions played a major role in how countries' health systems could respond to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Spain , Switzerland/epidemiology
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(1): e30006, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A description of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection comparing the first and second waves could help adapt health services to manage this highly transmissible infection. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the epidemiology of individuals with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the characteristics of patients with a positive test comparing the first and second waves in Catalonia, Spain. METHODS: This study had 2 stages. First, we analyzed daily updated data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals from Girona (Catalonia). Second, we compared 2 retrospective cohorts of patients with a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2. The severity of patients with a positive test was defined by their admission to hospital, admission to intermediate respiratory care, admission to the intensive care unit, or death. The first wave was from March 1, 2020, to June 24, 2020, and the second wave was from June 25, 2020, to December 8, 2020. RESULTS: The numbers of tests and cases were lower in the first wave than in the second wave (26,096 tests and 3140 cases in the first wave versus 140,332 tests and 11,800 cases in the second wave), but the percentage of positive results was higher in the first wave than in the second wave (12.0% versus 8.4%). Among individuals with a positive diagnostic test, 818 needed hospitalization in the first wave and 680 in the second; however, the percentage of hospitalized individuals was higher in the first wave than in the second wave (26.1% versus 5.8%). The group that was not admitted to hospital included older people and those with a higher percentage of comorbidities in the first wave, whereas the characteristics of the groups admitted to hospital were more alike. CONCLUSIONS: Screening systems for SARS-CoV-2 infection were scarce during the first wave, but were more adequate during the second wave, reflecting the usefulness of surveillance systems to detect a high number of asymptomatic infected individuals and their contacts, to help control this pandemic. The characteristics of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first and second waves differed substantially; individuals in the first wave were older and had a worse health condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E375-E382, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145533

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic was declared on March 11th, 2020. By the end of January, the first imported cases were detected in Spain and, by March, the number of cases was growing exponentially, causing the implementation of a national lockdown. Madrid has been one of the most affected regions in terms of both cases and deaths. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemic curve and the epidemiological features and outcomes of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in La Paz University Hospital, a tertiary hospital located in Madrid. Methods: We included confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases admitted to our centre from February 26th to June 1st, 2020. We studied trends in hospitalization and ICU admissions using joinpoint regression analysis. Results: A sample of 2970 patients was obtained. Median age was 70 years old (IQR 55-82) and 54.8% of them were male. ICU admission rate was 8.7% with a mortality rate of 45.7%. Global CFR was 21.8%. Median time from symptom onset to death was 14 days (IQR 9-22). Conclusions: We detected an admissions peak on March 21st followed by a descending trend, matching national and regional data. Age and sex distribution were comparable to further series nationally and in western countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950469, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142320

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, surveillance systems worldwide underestimated mortality in real time due to longer death reporting lags. In Spain, the mortality monitor "MoMo" published downward biased excess mortality estimates daily. I study the correction of such bias using polynomial regressions in data from January to March 2021 for Spain and the Comunitat Valenciana, the region with the highest excess mortality. Methods: This adjustment for real-time statistics consisted of (1) estimating forthcoming revisions with polynomial regressions of past revisions, and (2) multiplying the daily-published excess mortality by these estimated revisions. The accuracy of the corrected estimates compared to the original was measured by contrasting their mean absolute errors (MAE) and root mean square errors (RMSE). Results: Applying quadratic and cubic regressions improved the first communication of cumulative mortality in Spain by 2-3%, on average, and the flow in registered deaths by 20%. However, for the Comunitat Valenciana, those corrections improved the first publications of the cumulative mortality by 36-45%, on average; their second publication, by 23-30%; and the third, by 15-21%. The flow of deaths registered each day improved by 62-63% on their first publication, by 19-36% on the second, and by 12-17% on the third. Conclusion: It is recommended that MoMo's estimates for excess mortality be corrected from the effect of death reporting lags by using polynomial regressions. This holds for the flows in each date and their cumulative sum, as well as national and regional data. These adjustments can be applied by surveillance systems in other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Communication
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e051976, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of different phase-out measures approved by several European governments. DESIGN: This is a longitudinal observational study. SETTINGS: European countries, from 20 February 2020 to 11 May 2020. PARTICIPANTS: All European countries that implemented at least one phase-out measure dictated by governments, during the follow-up period. MAIN OUTCOME: New COVID-19 cases, analysed as daily rate by countries. METHODS: We compared the observed versus the predicted rates of new confirmed cases, hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and deaths by regions in Spain, to assess the accuracy of the proposed generalised estimating equations and hurdle models. Based on these models, we defined and calculated two indices to quantify the impact of the phase-out measures approved in several European countries. RESULTS: After 2-month follow-up, we confirmed the good performance of these models for the prediction of the incidence of new confirmed cases, hospital admission, ICU admission and death in a 7-day window. We found that certain phase-out measures implemented in Italy, Spain and Denmark showed moderate impact in daily new confirmed cases. Due to these different phase-out measures, in Italy, the estimated increment of new confirmed cases per 100 000 inhabitants was 4.61, 95% CI (4.42 to 4.80), in Spain 2.58, 95% CI (2.54 to 2.62) and in Denmark 2.55, 95% CI (2.40 to 2.69). Other significant measures applied in other countries had no impact. CONCLUSION: The two indices proposed can be used to quantify the impact of the phase-out measures and to help other countries to make the best decision. Monitoring these phase-out measures over time can minimise the negative effects on citizens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Hospitalization
7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 150, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129109

ABSTRACT

There is little information on how the COVID-19 lockdown influenced the epidemiology of major osteoporotic fractures (MOF). We analyzed the incidence and mortality of MOF in 2020 compared with 2018-2019 in Catalonia, Spain. The incidence of MOF decreased steeply, and post-fracture mortality increased during the lockdown and throughout 2020. PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) incidence and mortality in Catalonia in 2020 and describe how age, sex, and the prior comorbidity burden influenced the epidemiology of MOF types. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, data on age and sex in people aged ≥ 50 years with a new diagnosis of MOF in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were collected. Average daily rates (ADR) were estimated overall and for five MOF: hip, distal forearm, proximal humerus, vertebrae, and pelvis. Morbidity was assessed using Adjusted Morbidity Groups. ADR in 2020 and the previous years were compared for overall and site-specific MOF in four consecutive time periods: pre-confinement, lockdown, deconfinement, and post-confinement. Thirty-day post-fracture mortality was assessed. COVID-19-related mortality was obtained from the Catalan COVID-19 register. RESULTS: From 2018 to 2020, there were 86,412 MOF. The ADR of MOF initially increased in 2020 before the pandemic, decreased steeply during lockdown, and remained lower in the rest of the year. The decrease was steeper in vertebral, pelvic and arm fractures, and lower in hip fractures. Differences were more pronounced in younger age groups and people with fewer comorbidities. Mortality increased throughout 2020, reaching a 2.5-fold increase during lockdown. Excess mortality was directly associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Mobility restrictions due to COVID-19 were associated with a reduction in MOF incidence in Catalonia, especially in younger people and in non-hip fractures. Post-fracture mortality was higher than in previous years due to the high COVID-19 mortality in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , Osteoporotic Fractures , Aged , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Incidence , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Hip Fractures/epidemiology
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7169, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133431

ABSTRACT

Population-based studies can provide important evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Here we compare rates of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with the background (expected) rates in the general population. In addition, we compare the rates of the same adverse events among persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 with background rates. Primary care and linked hospital data from Catalonia, Spain informed the study, with participants vaccinated with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 (27/12/2020-23/06/2021), COVID-19 cases (01/09/2020-23/06/2021) or present in the database as of 01/01/2017. We included 2,021,366 BNT162b2 (1,327,031 with 2 doses), 592,408 ChAdOx1, 174,556 COVID-19 cases, and 4,573,494 background participants. Standardised incidence ratios for venous thromboembolism were 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.32) and 0.92 (0.81-1.05) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, and 0.92 (0.71-1.18) after first dose ChAdOx1. The standardised incidence ratio for venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 was 10.19 (9.43-11.02). Standardised incidence ratios for arterial thromboembolism were 1.02 (0.95-1.09) and 1.04 (0.97-1.12) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, 1.06 (0.91-1.23) after first-dose ChAdOx1 and 4.13 (3.83-4.45) for COVID-19. Standardised incidence ratios for thrombocytopenia were 1.49 (1.43-1.54) and 1.40 (1.35-1.45) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, 1.28 (1.19-1.38) after first-dose ChAdOx1 and 4.59 (4.41- 4.77) for COVID-19. While rates of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia were generally similar to background rates, the standardised incidence ratio for pulmonary embolism with thrombocytopenia after first-dose BNT162b2 was 1.70 (1.11-2.61). These findings suggest that the safety profiles of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 are similar, with rates of adverse events seen after vaccination typically similar to background rates. Meanwhile, rates of adverse events are much increased for COVID-19 cases further underlining the importance of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
10.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 753-759, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113826

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To analyse if antidiabetic treatment was associated with better COVID-19 outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients, measured by hospital admission and mortality rates as severe outcomes. METHODS: Cohort study including COVID-19 patients registered in the Primary Care electronic records, in March-June 2020, comparing exposed to metformin in monotherapy with exposed to any other antidiabetic. DATA SOURCE: SIDIAP (Information System for Research in Primary Care), which captures clinical information of 5,8 million people from Catalonia, Spain. RESULTS: We included 31,006 diabetic patients infected with COVID-19, 43.7% previously exposed to metformin, 45.5% of them in monotherapy. 16.4% were admitted to hospital and 15.1% died. Users of insulin in monotherapy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.50), combined with metformin (OR 1.38, 1.13-1.69) or IDPP4 alone (OR 1.29, 1.03-1.63) had higher risk of severe outcomes than those in metformin monotherapy. Users of any insulin (OR 1.61, 1.32-1.97) or combined with metformin (OR 1.69, 1.30-2.20) had a higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving metformin monotherapy in our study showed a lower risk of hospitalization and death in comparison to those treated with other frequent antidiabetic agents. We cannot distinguish if better outcomes are related with the antidiabetic therapy or with other factors, such as metabolic control or interventions applied during the hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Spain/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Metformin/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects , Primary Health Care
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Family clusters offer a good opportunity to study viral transmission in a stable setting. We aimed to analyze the specific role of children in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within households. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study, including children with documented acute SARS-CoV-2 infection attending 22 summer-schools in Barcelona, Spain, was performed. Moreover, other patients and families coming from other school-like environments that voluntarily accessed the study were also studied. A longitudinal follow-up (5 weeks) of the family clusters was conducted to determine whether the children considered to be primary cases were able to transmit the virus to other family members. The household reproduction number (Re*) and the secondary attack rate (SAR) were calculated. RESULTS: 1905 children from the summer schools were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 22 (1.15%) tested positive. Moreover, 32 additional children accessed the study voluntarily. Of these, 37 children and their 26 households were studied completely. In half of the cases (13/26), the primary case was considered to be a child and secondary transmission to other members of the household was observed in 3/13, with a SAR of 14.2% and a Re* of 0.46. Conversely, the SAR of adult primary cases was 72.2% including the kids that gave rise to the contact tracing study, and 61.5% without them, and the estimated Re* was 2.6. In 4/13 of the paediatric primary cases (30.0%), nasopharyngeal PCR was persistently positive > 1 week after diagnosis, and 3/4 of these children infected another family member (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Children may not be the main drivers of the infection in household transmission clusters in the study population. A prolonged positive PCR could be associated with higher transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , Child , Spain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Family Characteristics
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277764, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119258

ABSTRACT

The Sentinel Schools project was designed to monitor and evaluate the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Catalonia, gathering evidence for health and education policies to inform the development of health protocols and public health interventions to control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and to identify their determinants among students and staff during February to June in the academic year 2020-2021. We performed two complementary studies, a cross-sectional and a longitudinal component, using a questionnaire to collect nominal data and testing for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We describe the results and perform a univariate and multivariate analysis. The initial crude seroprevalence was 14.8% (95% CI: 13.1-16.5) and 22% (95% CI: 18.3-25.8) for students and staff respectively, and the active infection prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.1-2). The overall incidence for persons at risk was 2.73 per 100 person-month and 2.89 and 2.34 per 100 person-month for students and staff, respectively. Socioeconomic, self-reported knowledge, risk perceptions and contact pattern variables were positively associated with the outcome while sanitary measure compliance was negatively associated, the same significance trend was observed in multivariate analysis. In the longitudinal component, epidemiological close contact with SARS-CoV-2 infection was a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection while the highest socioeconomic status level was protective as was compliance with sanitary measures. The small number of active cases detected in these schools suggests a low transmission among children in school and the efficacy of public health measures implemented, at least in the epidemiological scenario of the study period. The major contribution of this study was to provide results and evidence that help analyze the transmission dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluate the associations between sanitary protocols implemented, and measures to avoid SARS-CoV-2 spread in schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Incidence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spain/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 828, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incubation period of an infectious disease is defined as the elapsed time between the exposure to the pathogen and the onset of symptoms. Although both the mRNA-based and the adenoviral vector-based vaccines have shown to be effective, there have been raising concerns regarding possible decreases in vaccine effectiveness for new variants and variations in the incubation period. METHODS: We conducted a unicentric observational study at the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, using a structured telephone survey performed by trained interviewers to estimate the incubation period of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in a cohort of Spanish hospitalized patients. The distribution of the incubation period was estimated using the generalized odds-rate class of regression models. RESULTS: From 406 surveyed patients, 242 provided adequate information to be included in the analysis. The median incubation period was 2.8 days (95%CI: 2.5-3.1) and no differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were found. Sex and age are neither shown not to be significantly related to the COVID-19 incubation time. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the incubation period is crucial for controlling the spread of an infectious disease: decisions on the duration of the quarantine or on the periods of active monitoring of people who have been at high risk of exposure depend on the length of the incubation period. Furthermore, its probability distribution is a key element for predicting the prevalence and the incidence of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spain/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Vaccination
14.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099555

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a renewed interest in indoor air quality to limit viral spread. In the case of educational spaces, due to the high concentration of people and the fact that most of the existing buildings do not have any mechanical ventilation system, the different administrations have established natural ventilation protocols to guarantee an air quality that reduces risk of contagion by the SARS-CoV-2 virus after the return to the classrooms. Many of the initial protocols established a ventilation pattern that opted for continuous or intermittent ventilation to varying degrees of intensity. This study, carried out on a university campus in Spain, analyses the performance of natural ventilation activated through the information provided by monitoring and visualisation of real-time data. In order to carry out this analysis, a experiment was set up where a preliminary study of ventilation without providing information to the users was carried out, which was then compared with the result of providing live feedback to the occupants of two classrooms and an administration office in different periods of 2020, 2021 and 2022. In the administration office, a CO2-concentration-based method was applied retrospectively to assess the risk of airborne infection. This experience has served as a basis to establish a route for user-informed improvement of air quality in educational spaces in general through low-cost systems that allow a rational use of natural ventilation while helping maintain an adequate compromise between IAQ, comfort and energy consumption, without having to resort to mechanical ventilation systems.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation/methods , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 990277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099268

ABSTRACT

We investigate the effects of school reopening on the evolution of COVID-19 infections during the second wave in Spain studying both regional and age-group variation within an interrupted time-series design. Spain's 17 Autonomous Communities reopened schools at different moments in time during September 2020. We find that in-person school reopening correlates with a burst in infections in almost all those regions. Data from Spanish regions gives a further leverage: in some cases, pre-secondary and secondary education started at different dates. The analysis of those cases does not allow to conclude whether reopening one educational stage had an overall stronger impact than the other. To provide a plausible mechanism connecting school reopening with the burst in contagion, we study the Catalan case in more detail, scrutinizing the interrupted time-series patterns of infections among age-groups and the possible connections between them. The stark and sudden increase in contagion among older children (10-19) just after in-person school reopening appears to drag the evolution of other age-groups according to Granger causality. This might be taken as an indirect indication of household transmission from offspring to parents with important societal implications for the aggregate dynamics of infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Schools , Interrupted Time Series Analysis
17.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 78 Suppl 3: 1-63, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098084

ABSTRACT

It is a plaesaure to announce the celebration of the XXXI Congress of the Spanish Nutrition Society that will be held in Cartagena (Murcia, Spain), from September 15th to 17th, 2022. As is already a tradition in our society, the day before, on September 14th, the IX Meeting of young researchers will take place, aimed at promoting interaction and knowledge exchange among young people working in the field of nutrition and food in Spain. In addition, young reserachers will receive a workshop about how to produce videos of research with high impact in the social media. The congress will offer a scientific and multidisciplinary journey through all aspects related to a personalized diet from children to adults, healthy, safe and sustainable. The connections between lifestyles and chronic non-communicable diseases and especially obesity, will be updated, as well as precision nutrition, incorporating the outstanding advances in nutrigenomics, epigenetics and metabolomic markers. New evidence of healthy effects of bioactive, prebiotic and probiotic components is also contemplated, without forgetting the issue of food allergies and intolerances, which are increasingly prevalent in our society. The circular economy and the new preferences for sustainable and local food pose challenges that will also be addressed at the congress and in the sessions for young researchers. In addition, the problem generated by the dissemination of nutritional information poorly contrasted in the media and social networks will be considered. We encourage you to schedule these dates in your 2022 agenda to attend and participate in our congress, whose program we have designed with great enthusiasm. We would also like to extend the invitation to participate to companies and institutions related to food, which will help us reflect that optimal food is only achieved with the involvement of EVERYONE. We hope that the proposal of this congress will be attractive to you and that we can share enriching experiences in Cartagena, Spain. The program of the congress is available in the URL https://www.xxxicongresosen2022.com/index.asp Yours sincerely, Elvira Larqué Daza, Organizer of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEÑ) Congress 2022, Cartagena, Spain. Salvador Zamora Navarro, Honour member from the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEÑ). María Puy Portillo Baquedano, President of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEÑ).


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutritional Status , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Life Style , Spain
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090157

ABSTRACT

Different analyses show that the design of vaccination policies should especially protect the most vulnerable social groups, since the level of acceptance is determined by the population's knowledge, attitude and concerns about the safety and efficacy of vaccines. The objective of this work will be to detect the most socially vulnerable groups with respect to COVID-19 and to analyze the factors that influence predisposition to vaccination. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) on the Effects and Consequences of Coronavirus (Study 3346 of December 2021). Sociodemographic variables (sex, age, employment status, studies and subjective class identification) were extracted, as well as the answers to the questions indicating the attitude towards vaccination, corresponding to questions 7,8,10 and 11 of the study. The most vulnerable group was lower class women (self-perceived), under 45 years of age with lower educational level, unemployed or performing unpaid work in the home. Most of them are not predisposed to vaccinate only because of the obligation to do so, mainly due to lack of belief in the power and efficacy of vaccines, as well as fear of health risks/collateral side effects. The lower vaccine uptake in this vulnerable population group may be due to a lack of awareness and lower trust in the authorities, as well as the benefits of the vaccine, which could be related to a lack of policy targeting the most socially vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , Social Vulnerability , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/adverse effects
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090147

ABSTRACT

Background: As of 7 January 2022, it is estimated that 5.5 million people worldwide have died from COVID-19. Although the full impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) on healthcare systems worldwide is still unknown, we must consider the socio-economic impact. For instance, it has resulted in an 11% decrease in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in the European Union. We aim to provide valuable information for policymakers by analysing widely available epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators using Spanish data. Methods: Secondary analysis of routinely available data from various official data sources covering the period from 1 March 2020 to 31 March 2021. To measure the impact of COVID-19 in the population, a set of epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were used. The interrelationships between these socioeconomic and epidemiological indicators were analysed using Pearson's correlation. Their behaviour was grouped according to their greater capacity to measure the impact of the pandemic and was compared to identify those that are more appropriate to monitor future health crises (primary outcome) using multivariate analysis of canonical correlation for estimating the correlation between indicators using different units of analysis. Results: Data from different time points were analysed. The excess of mortality was negatively correlated with the number of new companies created during the pandemic. The increase in COVID-19 cases was associated with the rise of unemployed workers. Neither GDP nor per capita debt was related to any epidemiological indicators considered in the annual analysis. The canonical models of socioeconomic and epidemiological indicators of each of the time periods analysed were statistically significant (0.80-0.91 p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, excess mortality, incidence, lethality, and unemployment constituted the best group of indicators to measure the impact of the pandemic. These indicators, widely available, could provide valuable information to policymakers and higher management in future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gross Domestic Product
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL