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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8579640, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822113

ABSTRACT

Speech is one of the major communication tools to share information among people. This exchange method has a complicated construction consisting of not the best imparting of voice but additionally consisting of the transmission of many-speaker unique information. The most important aim of this research is to extract individual features through the speech-dependent health monitoring and management system; through this system, the speech data can be collected from a remote location and can be accessed. The experimental analysis shows that the proposed model has a good efficiency. Consequently, in the last 5 years, many researchers from this domain come in front to explore various aspects of speech which includes speech analysis using mechanical signs, human system interaction, speaker, and speech identification. Speech is a biometric that combines physiological and behavioural characteristics. Especially beneficial for remote attack transactions over telecommunication networks, the medical information of each person is quite a challenge, e.g., like COVID-19 where the medical team has to identify each person in a particular region that how many people got affected by some disease and took a quick measure to get protected from such diseases and what are the safety measure required. Presently, this task is the most challenging one for researchers. Therefore, speech-based mechanisms might be useful for tracking his/her voice quality or throat getting affected. By collecting the database of people matched and comparing with his/her original database, it can be identified in such scenarios. This provides the better management system without touching and maintains a safe distance data that can be gathered and processed for further medical treatment. Many research studies have been done but speech-dependent approach is quite less and it requires more work to provide such a smart system in society, and it may be possible to reduce the chances to come into contact with viral effected people in the future and protect society for the same.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Biometry , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Speech
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 6093613, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807701

ABSTRACT

The use of speech as a biomedical signal for diagnosing COVID-19 is investigated using statistical analysis of speech spectral features and classification algorithms based on machine learning. It is established that spectral features of speech, obtained by computing the short-time Fourier Transform (STFT), get altered in a statistical sense as a result of physiological changes. These spectral features are then used as input features to machine learning-based classification algorithms to classify them as coming from a COVID-19 positive individual or not. Speech samples from healthy as well as "asymptomatic" COVID-19 positive individuals have been used in this study. It is shown that the RMS error of statistical distribution fitting is higher in the case of speech samples of COVID-19 positive speech samples as compared to the speech samples of healthy individuals. Five state-of-the-art machine learning classification algorithms have also been analyzed, and the performance evaluation metrics of these algorithms are also presented. The tuning of machine learning model parameters is done so as to minimize the misclassification of COVID-19 positive individuals as being COVID-19 negative since the cost associated with this misclassification is higher than the opposite misclassification. The best performance in terms of the "recall" metric is observed for the Decision Forest algorithm which gives a recall value of 0.7892.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech , Algorithms , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Machine Learning
3.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(3): 1338-1353, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805686

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 caused a worldwide conversion from in-person therapy to telehealth; however, limited evidence to support the efficacy of remotely delivering standardized tests puts the future of widespread telehealth use at risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability of scoring a speech sound assessment administered in real-world scenarios including two examples of telehealth technology. METHOD: A total of thirty-nine 3- to 8-year-olds were administered the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-Third Edition. Licensed speech-language pathologists (SLPs) concurrently scored children's responses in person and in two telehealth conditions considered typical and enhanced. Mean standard scores and interrater reliability results were compared among the three conditions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the frequency of technology and behavior disruptions during administration and the results of an SLP telehealth perception survey. RESULTS: All scoring conditions were found to be highly correlated, with mean differences revealing no systematic differences of one condition over- or underestimating another. Although response agreement was high (85%-87%), final sounds in words or sounds that are difficult to observe tended to attenuate reliability. Neither child nor technology disruptions affected SLPs' ability to score responses. Despite no significant differences between conditions on scoring reliability, SLP participants reported they continued to prefer in-person over a telehealth speech sound assessment. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the provision of a pediatric speech sound assessment using consumer-grade equipment, as in-person, typical telehealth, and enhanced telehealth scoring conditions produced similar results. However, SLP participants' skeptical attitudes toward remote delivery of standardized tests reveal an ongoing barrier to widespread telehealth use. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19593367.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Disorders , Speech-Language Pathology , Telemedicine , Child , Humans , Phonetics , Reproducibility of Results , Speech
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8153791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794354

ABSTRACT

Twitter's popularity has exploded in the previous few years, making it one of the most widely used social media sites. As a result of this development, the strategies described in this study are now more beneficial. Additionally, there has been an increase in the number of people who express their views in demeaning ways to others. As a result, hate speech has piqued interest in the subject of sentiment analysis, which has developed various algorithms for detecting emotions in social networks using intuitive means. This paper proposes the deep learning model to classify the sentiments in two separate analyses. In the first analysis, the tweets are classified based on the hate speech against the migrants and the women. In the second analysis, the detection is performed using a deep learning model to organise whether the hate speech is performed by a single or a group of users. During the text analysis, word embedding is implemented using the combination of deep learning models such as BiLSTM, CNN, and MLP. These models are integrated with word embedding methods such as inverse glove (global vector), document frequency (TF-IDF), and transformer-based embedding.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Social Media , Algorithms , Female , Hate , Humans , Male , Speech
5.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 329-334, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This introduction presents the LSHSS Forum: Can You See My Screen? Virtual Assessment in Speech and Language. The goals of the forum are to document reliability and validity of assessment results conducted virtually, identify characteristics of measures that are suitable for online assessment, and provide clinical and research guidance for interpreting diagnostic results obtained in virtual settings. METHOD: In this introduction, we provide an overview of the research completed by nine teams, who submitted research articles and notes on a variety of topics pertinent to the theme of telehealth assessments. Of these, seven teams investigated the validity and reliability of 14 different assessment tools, while two teams described training and experience issues. CONCLUSION: The nine studies presented in this forum will provide speech-language pathologists with insight into a range of issues regarding telehealth assessment, including the breadth of suitable assessment tools; practical strategies for assessing children with a diverse range of ages, languages, skills, and abilities; and the unexpected challenges and opportunities of conducting clinical work and research during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Speech-Language Pathology , Speech , Child , Child Language , Humans , Language , Reproducibility of Results , Speech-Language Pathology/methods
6.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 233-236, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This prologue introduces the LSHSS Forum: Speech and Language Tele-Intervention: The Future Is Now. The aims of the forum are (a) to report on the process of moving established in-person interventions to virtual delivery and (b) to provide speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with empirically based guidance on designing and implementing tele-interventions, in order to support academic success for school-age children with speech and language needs. The included articles explore the process, benefits, and challenges of providing intervention in speech, language, and literacy domains in a virtual environment with children. CONCLUSION: Although there are some logistical challenges, established treatments such as those targeting morphosyntax as well as communication partner training can be adapted for successful delivery online. In addition, the forum supports the delivery of an app-based articulation-focused intervention. SLPs report a number of challenges in relation to adapting and delivering interventions through telepractice, and parents express concerns in relation to SLPs' online evaluation of complex speech sound difficulties for children born with cleft lip and palate. Finally, using the principles of Minimal Intervention Needed for Change, a systematic approach to the adaptation of evidence-based interventions for online delivery, is outlined.


Subject(s)
Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Speech-Language Pathology , Child , Humans , Language , Speech
7.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(2): 527-538, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788328

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to implement and track the outcomes of a yearlong, structured mentoring program aimed at enhancing the retention and success of underrepresented graduate and undergraduate students in speech-language pathology. METHOD: Student participants were recruited following an open application process and based on meeting eligibility requirements and committing to program completion. The focus of this program was to provide didactic training on leadership development, culturally responsive practice, and research methods used in speech-language pathology. This program emphasized participant needs assessments and goal-setting, access to one-on-one and group mentoring by peers and professionals, and a culminating experience in which participant teams completed a supervised clinical research project or a community outreach and education project. RESULTS: Forty-six participants in three cohorts completed the yearlong program in three consecutive years. Positive outcomes included program completion, degree completion, student perceptions of program benefit, completion of innovative community-engaged and research projects, and dissemination of scholarly work. CONCLUSION: Our findings from implementing this program and tracking its outcomes have implications for using innovative, equity-minded, and evidence-based strategies for retaining and mentoring minoritized students in speech-language pathology.


Subject(s)
Mentoring , Speech-Language Pathology , Humans , Leadership , Mentors , Speech , Speech-Language Pathology/education , Students
8.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1443-1444, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767283
9.
Neuroimage ; 252: 119044, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756286

ABSTRACT

Multisensory integration enables stimulus representation even when the sensory input in a single modality is weak. In the context of speech, when confronted with a degraded acoustic signal, congruent visual inputs promote comprehension. When this input is masked, speech comprehension consequently becomes more difficult. But it still remains inconclusive which levels of speech processing are affected under which circumstances by occluding the mouth area. To answer this question, we conducted an audiovisual (AV) multi-speaker experiment using naturalistic speech. In half of the trials, the target speaker wore a (surgical) face mask, while we measured the brain activity of normal hearing participants via magnetoencephalography (MEG). We additionally added a distractor speaker in half of the trials in order to create an ecologically difficult listening situation. A decoding model on the clear AV speech was trained and used to reconstruct crucial speech features in each condition. We found significant main effects of face masks on the reconstruction of acoustic features, such as the speech envelope and spectral speech features (i.e. pitch and formant frequencies), while reconstruction of higher level features of speech segmentation (phoneme and word onsets) were especially impaired through masks in difficult listening situations. As we used surgical face masks in our study, which only show mild effects on speech acoustics, we interpret our findings as the result of the missing visual input. Our findings extend previous behavioural results, by demonstrating the complex contextual effects of occluding relevant visual information on speech processing.


Subject(s)
Speech Perception , Speech , Acoustic Stimulation , Acoustics , Humans , Mouth , Visual Perception
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(3): 581-584, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754324

ABSTRACT

Augmentative and Alternative Communication is an aided or unaided means of communication which supports existing communication abilities of an individual or replaces natural speech due to any speech and language disorder. The deficit could be developmental or acquired such as autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties, dysarthria, dyspraxia or due to any acquired neurological condition such as aphasia and other degenerative disorders. Furthermore, it may be due to surgical procedures such as laryngectomy. Alternate means of communication have also been successfully used with COVID-19 patients. These tools may include pictures, symbols, signs or voice output devices. Parents of children with special needs and medical professionals have been reluctant in implementing the approach due to certain misconceptions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence for the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication with a range of disorders in relation to in relation to Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Communication Aids for Disabled , Communication Disorders , Language Therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , COVID-19/complications , Child , Communication , Communication Disorders/etiology , Communication Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Language Therapy/instrumentation , Language Therapy/methods , Pakistan , Speech , Speech Therapy/instrumentation , Speech Therapy/methods
11.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265602, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753202

ABSTRACT

We address a challenging problem of identifying main sources of hate speech on Twitter. On one hand, we carefully annotate a large set of tweets for hate speech, and deploy advanced deep learning to produce high quality hate speech classification models. On the other hand, we create retweet networks, detect communities and monitor their evolution through time. This combined approach is applied to three years of Slovenian Twitter data. We report a number of interesting results. Hate speech is dominated by offensive tweets, related to political and ideological issues. The share of unacceptable tweets is moderately increasing with time, from the initial 20% to 30% by the end of 2020. Unacceptable tweets are retweeted significantly more often than acceptable tweets. About 60% of unacceptable tweets are produced by a single right-wing community of only moderate size. Institutional Twitter accounts and media accounts post significantly less unacceptable tweets than individual accounts. In fact, the main sources of unacceptable tweets are anonymous accounts, and accounts that were suspended or closed during the years 2018-2020.


Subject(s)
Communications Media , Social Media , Hate , Humans , Language , Speech
12.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(2): 409-412, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Smile Train, the largest global cleft nonprofit organization, employs a model of establishing partnerships with treatment centers and medical professionals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Having a presence in over 90 countries throughout its history, the organization provides support for cleft lip and palate repair as well as comprehensive cleft care (CCC) for patients with clefts. With the goal of reducing disparities in access to quality surgical, anesthesia, and medical care, Smile Train strengthens partners with training, education, equipment, and patient support grants. Furthermore, safety and quality protocols have been put in place as guidelines for each partner center, and partnerships with other nongovernmental agencies were created to increase safety in the operating rooms. The founder of Smile Train desired to apply technology wherever possible to build sustainability within the treatment centers and surgeons supporting their own community. Smile Train's model, aimed at increased sustainability, is supplemented by technological advancements to assist in the safety and quality of cleft care services provided in LMIC treatment centers. Examples include centralized online data record keeping for every patient, virtual simulations and training, and mobile applications to enhance care. Recently, Smile Train's focus is expanding CCC with nutrition, oral health, speech, and nursing care programs to improve functional and psychosocial outcomes for patients following their procedure. Despite the challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, Smile Train continues to provide safe, efficacious, and CCC alongside their partners in LMICs further investing tremendous efforts towards the livelihood of children with clefts globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , Speech
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742008

ABSTRACT

Having a large receptive vocabulary benefits speech-in-noise recognition for young children, though this is not always the case for older children or adults. These observations could indicate that effects of receptive vocabulary size on speech-in-noise recognition differ depending on familiarity of the target words, with effects observed only for more recently acquired and less frequent words. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of vocabulary size on open-set speech-in-noise recognition for adults with normal hearing. Targets were words acquired at 4, 9, 12 and 15 years of age, and they were presented at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of -5 and -7 dB. Percent correct scores tended to fall with increasing age of acquisition (AoA), with the caveat that performance at -7 dB SNR was better for words acquired at 9 years of age than earlier- or later-acquired words. Similar results were obtained whether the AoA of the target words was blocked or mixed across trials. Differences in word duration appear to account for nonmonotonic effects of AoA. For all conditions, a positive correlation was observed between recognition and vocabulary size irrespective of target word AoA, indicating that effects of vocabulary size are not limited to recently acquired words. This dataset does not support differential assessment of AoA, lexical frequency, and other stimulus features known to affect lexical access.


Subject(s)
Speech Perception , Vocabulary , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Hearing , Humans , Noise , Speech , Young Adult
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3484, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730308

ABSTRACT

Determining the viral load and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in macroscopic respiratory droplets, bioaerosols, and other bodily fluids and secretions is important for identifying transmission modes, assessing risks and informing public health guidelines. Here we show that viral load of SARS-CoV-2 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in participants' naso-pharyngeal (NP) swabs positively correlated with RNA viral load they emitted in both droplets >10 [Formula: see text] and bioaerosols <10 [Formula: see text] directly captured during the combined expiratory activities of breathing, speaking and coughing using a standardized protocol, although the NP swabs had [Formula: see text] 10[Formula: see text] more RNA on average. By identifying highly-infectious individuals (maximum of 18,000 PFU/mL in NP), we retrieved higher numbers of SARS-CoV-2 RNA gene copies in bioaerosol samples (maximum of 4.8[Formula: see text] gene copies/mL and minimum cycle threshold of 26.2) relative to other studies. However, all attempts to identify infectious virus in size-segregated droplets and bioaerosols were negative by plaque assay (0 of 58). This outcome is partly attributed to the insufficient amount of viral material in each sample (as indicated by SARS-CoV-2 gene copies) or may indicate no infectious virus was present in such samples, although other possible factors are identified.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Cough , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Speech , Viral Load , Humans
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715647

ABSTRACT

The emotional speech recognition method presented in this article was applied to recognize the emotions of students during online exams in distance learning due to COVID-19. The purpose of this method is to recognize emotions in spoken speech through the knowledge base of emotionally charged words, which are stored as a code book. The method analyzes human speech for the presence of emotions. To assess the quality of the method, an experiment was conducted for 420 audio recordings. The accuracy of the proposed method is 79.7% for the Kazakh language. The method can be used for different languages and consists of the following tasks: capturing a signal, detecting speech in it, recognizing speech words in a simplified transcription, determining word boundaries, comparing a simplified transcription with a code book, and constructing a hypothesis about the degree of speech emotionality. In case of the presence of emotions, there occurs complete recognition of words and definitions of emotions in speech. The advantage of this method is the possibility of its widespread use since it is not demanding on computational resources. The described method can be applied when there is a need to recognize positive and negative emotions in a crowd, in public transport, schools, universities, etc. The experiment carried out has shown the effectiveness of this method. The results obtained will make it possible in the future to develop devices that begin to record and recognize a speech signal, for example, in the case of detecting negative emotions in sounding speech and, if necessary, transmitting a message about potential threats or riots.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3206, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713209

ABSTRACT

Understanding speech in background noise is challenging. Wearing face-masks, imposed by the COVID19-pandemics, makes it even harder. We developed a multi-sensory setup, including a sensory substitution device (SSD) that can deliver speech simultaneously through audition and as vibrations on the fingertips. The vibrations correspond to low frequencies extracted from the speech input. We trained two groups of non-native English speakers in understanding distorted speech in noise. After a short session (30-45 min) of repeating sentences, with or without concurrent matching vibrations, we showed comparable mean group improvement of 14-16 dB in Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) in two test conditions, i.e., when the participants were asked to repeat sentences only from hearing and also when matching vibrations on fingertips were present. This is a very strong effect, if one considers that a 10 dB difference corresponds to doubling of the perceived loudness. The number of sentence repetitions needed for both types of training to complete the task was comparable. Meanwhile, the mean group SNR for the audio-tactile training (14.7 ± 8.7) was significantly lower (harder) than for the auditory training (23.9 ± 11.8), which indicates a potential facilitating effect of the added vibrations. In addition, both before and after training most of the participants (70-80%) showed better performance (by mean 4-6 dB) in speech-in-noise understanding when the audio sentences were accompanied with matching vibrations. This is the same magnitude of multisensory benefit that we reported, with no training at all, in our previous study using the same experimental procedures. After training, performance in this test condition was also best in both groups (SRT ~ 2 dB). The least significant effect of both training types was found in the third test condition, i.e. when participants were repeating sentences accompanied with non-matching tactile vibrations and the performance in this condition was also poorest after training. The results indicate that both types of training may remove some level of difficulty in sound perception, which might enable a more proper use of speech inputs delivered via vibrotactile stimulation. We discuss the implications of these novel findings with respect to basic science. In particular, we show that even in adulthood, i.e. long after the classical "critical periods" of development have passed, a new pairing between a certain computation (here, speech processing) and an atypical sensory modality (here, touch) can be established and trained, and that this process can be rapid and intuitive. We further present possible applications of our training program and the SSD for auditory rehabilitation in patients with hearing (and sight) deficits, as well as healthy individuals in suboptimal acoustic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , Adult , Humans , Noise , Speech , Speech Perception/physiology , Touch
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(3): 991-1000, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Test for Rating Emotions in Speech (T-RES) has been developed in order to assess the processing of emotions in spoken language. In this tool, spoken sentences, which are composed of emotional content (anger, happiness, sadness, and neutral) in both semantics and prosody in different combinations, are rated by listeners. To date, English, German, and Hebrew versions have been developed, as well as online versions, iT-RES, to adapt to COVID-19 social restrictions. Since the perception of spoken emotions may be affected by linguistic (and cultural) variables, it is important to compare the acoustic characteristics of the stimuli within and between languages. The goal of the current report was to provide cross-linguistic acoustic validation of the T-RES. METHOD: T-RES sentences in the aforementioned languages were acoustically analyzed in terms of mean F0, F0 range, and speech rate to obtain profiles of acoustic parameters for different emotions. RESULTS: Significant within-language discriminability of prosodic emotions was found, for both mean F0 and speech rate. Similarly, these measures were associated with comparable patterns of prosodic emotions for each of the tested languages and emotional ratings. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the lack of dependence of prosody and semantics within the T-RES stimuli. These findings illustrate the listeners' ability to clearly distinguish between the different prosodic emotions in each language, providing a cross-linguistic validation of the T-RES and iT-RES.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , Acoustics , Emotions , Humans , Language , Linguistics , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech
18.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(1): 30-43, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The impact of stuttering can be significant, and effective treatment is critical. Despite evidence supporting direct treatment approaches for school-age children who stutter, a complex set of barriers can prevent access at school. One potential solution is telepractice. To date, however, there is no published evidence regarding the use of telepractice to deliver the Lidcombe Program within a school setting. METHOD: In this pilot study, a telepractice service was established and the perspectives of the five treating speech-language pathologists (SLPs) were evaluated before, during, and after the trial through focus groups and recorded telesupervision sessions. RESULTS: An inductive and reflexive thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) Understanding and managing technology is critical; (b) logistical considerations can be time-consuming and challenging; (c) preparation and support are essential; and (d) family engagement, acceptance, and independence with telepractice services can be facilitated by external support and coaching. Initially, the SLPs shared feelings of uncertainty, fear, and apprehension. Yet, despite this concern, the SLPs ultimately reported that telepractice can play an important role in their service. CONCLUSIONS: In order to maximize the potential value of telepractice, SLPs require training and support to (a) manage the technology and troubleshoot problems that invariably arise, (b) have the opportunity to watch demonstrations of the technology, and (c) clearly explain the roles, responsibilities, and expectations of the parent engaging in treatment. These findings have particular relevance now, as schools and support services navigate a COVID-safe delivery model for the indefinite future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech-Language Pathology , Stuttering , Telemedicine , Child , Humans , Pathologists , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech , Stuttering/therapy
19.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(1): 181-192, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692514

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to explore how school-based speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') job satisfaction changed because of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We situated job satisfaction within the Conservation Resources (COR) theory. METHOD: We distributed a web-based survey to school-based SLPs throughout the United States. A total of 1,352 SLPs followed the link and 1,069 completed at least 90% of the survey. The survey was composed of four parts: (a) demographic information, (b) obstacles faced during COVID-19 school closures, (c) job satisfaction, and (d) self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was divided into three subscales: decision-making, instructional, and disciplinary. RESULTS: Nearly half (48%, n = 522) of the sample reported a decline in job satisfaction following COVID-19 school closures. Using a binomial logistic regression, we found that time pressures and disciplinary self-efficacy predicted this change in job satisfaction. Individuals who reported higher disciplinary self-efficacy and more pressures on their time were 1.2 times more likely to experience a decline in job satisfaction. Number of obstacles faced, caseload size, years of experience, and the additional two self-efficacy scales were not related to this change. CONCLUSIONS: Job satisfaction is considered a malleable resource within the COR theory. Indeed, we observed a change in this resource due to the rapid shift in service delivery methods, paired with variable levels of support and resources from school districts. Our results have implications for how administration may support SLPs in and out of times of acute crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech-Language Pathology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pathologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Speech , Speech-Language Pathology/education , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(2): 603-608, 2022 Feb.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686195

ABSTRACT

This text seeks to problematize a dominant representation about epidemics, pandemics and major catastrophes, which describes its origin as external, exotic and foreign. In general, both from Hollywood catastrophe cinema, to medical-scientific discourses, and from philosophy to conspiracy theories and hate speech, any threat or evil is placed outside of society itself, there is always another, who prosecutes a moral fault that justifies the need to combat, isolate or eliminate them. We propose to analyse arguments that have circulated around the current coronavirus pandemic, especially those that place the possibility of salvation in isolation and fear, to problematize certain ideas naturalized in discourses that are later translated into political practices or actions.


En este texto se busca problematizar una representación dominante sobre las epidemias, pandemias y grandes catástrofes, que describe su origen como externo, exótico, extranjero y foráneo. En general, tanto desde el cine catástrofe hollywoodense, hasta los discursos médico-científicos, como desde la filosofía hasta las teorías conspirativas y los discursos de odio, se coloca cualquier amenaza o mal afuera de la propia sociedad, siempre existe un "otro", quien posee una falla moral que justifica la necesidad de combatirlos, aislarlos o eliminarlos. Proponemos analizar ciertas argumentaciones que han circulado en torno a la actual pandemia de coronavirus, especialmente aquellas que colocan la posibilidad de salvación en el aislamiento y el miedo, para problematizar ciertas ideas naturalizadas en los discursos que luego se traducen en prácticas o acciones políticas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech , Fear , Hate , Humans , Pandemics
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