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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(24): 2781-2791, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599254

ABSTRACT

Low plasma levels of the signaling lipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are associated with disrupted endothelial cell (EC) barriers, lymphopenia and reduced responsivity to hypoxia. Total S1P levels were also reduced in 23 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the two main S1P carriers, serum albumin (SA) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were dramatically low. Surprisingly, we observed a carrier-changing shift from SA to HDL, which probably prevented an even further drop in S1P levels. Furthermore, intracellular S1P levels in red blood cells (RBCs) were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls due to up-regulation of S1P producing sphingosine kinase 1 and down-regulation of S1P degrading lyase expression. Cell culture experiments supported increased sphingosine kinase activity and unchanged S1P release from RBC stores of COVID-19 patients. These observations suggest adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of the vasculature and immunity as well as prevention of tissue hypoxia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Sphingosine/blood
2.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(24): 2781-2791, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559238

ABSTRACT

Low plasma levels of the signaling lipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are associated with disrupted endothelial cell (EC) barriers, lymphopenia and reduced responsivity to hypoxia. Total S1P levels were also reduced in 23 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the two main S1P carriers, serum albumin (SA) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were dramatically low. Surprisingly, we observed a carrier-changing shift from SA to HDL, which probably prevented an even further drop in S1P levels. Furthermore, intracellular S1P levels in red blood cells (RBCs) were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls due to up-regulation of S1P producing sphingosine kinase 1 and down-regulation of S1P degrading lyase expression. Cell culture experiments supported increased sphingosine kinase activity and unchanged S1P release from RBC stores of COVID-19 patients. These observations suggest adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of the vasculature and immunity as well as prevention of tissue hypoxia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Sphingosine/blood
3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515726

ABSTRACT

Understanding pathways that might impact coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations and disease outcomes is necessary for better disease management and for therapeutic development. Here, we analyzed alterations in sphingolipid (SL) levels upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infection induced elevation of SL levels in both cells and sera of infected mice. A significant increase in glycosphingolipid levels was induced early post SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was essential for viral replication. This elevation could be reversed by treatment with glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors. Levels of sphinganine, sphingosine, GA1, and GM3 were significantly increased in both cells and the murine model upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential involvement of SLs in COVID-19 pathology is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Sphingolipids/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Dioxanes/pharmacology , Gangliosides/blood , Gangliosides/metabolism , Glucosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mice, Transgenic , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sphingolipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Sphingosine/blood , Sphingosine/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14232, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303793

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic exerts a health care emergency around the world. The illness severity is heterogeneous. It is mostly unknown why some individuals who are positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies stay asymptomatic while others show moderate to severe disease symptoms. Reliable biomarkers for early detection of the disease are urgently needed to attenuate the virus's spread and help make early treatment decisions. Bioactive sphingolipids play a crucial role in the regulation of viral infections and pro-inflammatory responses involved in the severity of COVID-19. However, any roles of sphingolipids in COVID-19 development or detection remain unknown. In this study, lipidomics measurement of serum sphingolipids demonstrated that reduced sphingosine levels are highly associated with the development of symptomatic COVID-19 in the majority (99.24%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients compared to asymptomatic counterparts. The majority of asymptomatic individuals (73%) exhibited increased acid ceramidase (AC) in their serum, measured by Western blotting, consistent with elevated sphingosine levels compared to SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative controls. AC protein was also reduced in almost all of the symptomatic patients' serum, linked to reduced sphingosine levels, measured in longitudinal acute or convalescent COVID-19 samples. Thus, reduced sphingosine levels provide a sensitive and selective serologic biomarker for the early identification of asymptomatic versus symptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acid Ceramidase/blood , COVID-19 , Carrier State , Lipid Metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sphingolipids/blood , Sphingosine/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(1): e13424, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024812

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a crucial problem in patient treatment and outcome. The aim of this study is to evaluate circulating level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) along with severity markers, in COVID-19 patients. One hundred eleven COVID-19 patients and forty-seven healthy subjects were included. The severity of COVID-19 was found significantly associated with anemia, lymphocytopenia, and significant increase of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, ferritin, fibrinogen, aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer. Serum S1P level was inversely associated with COVID-19 severity, being significantly correlated with CRP, LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer. The decrease in S1P was strongly associated with the number of erythrocytes, the major source of plasma S1P, and both apolipoprotein M and albumin, the major transporters of blood S1P. Not last, S1P was found to be a relevant predictor of admission to an intensive care unit, and patient's outcome. Circulating S1P emerged as negative biomarker of severity/mortality of COVID-19 patients. Restoring abnormal S1P levels to a normal range may have the potential to be a therapeutic target in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Lysophospholipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sphingosine/blood
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