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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792662

ABSTRACT

Olfactory neurons connect the external environment and the brain, allowing the translocation of materials from the nasal cavity into the brain. The olfactory system is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infections; early in the pandemic declared in 2020, a loss of the sense of smell was found in many infected patients. Attention has also been focused on the role that the olfactory epithelium appears to play in the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the brain. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein (ACE2), which is found on supporting cells in the olfactory epithelium. The intranasal administration of sphingosine has been proposed to prevent the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2. Further, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors appear to facilitate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the brain. The goal of these studies was to characterize S1P receptor expression status in rodent olfactory mucosa. The expression of receptors for a related sphingolipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), was also assessed. The results confirm previous reports of S1P1 and S1P3 receptor expression, as well as LPA receptor 1, in mouse olfactory mucosa; moreover, they extend the previous findings to identify additional S1P and LPA receptor transcripts in rat and mouse olfactory mucosa, as well as in cultured olfactory neurons. These findings may enhance the utility of rodent models in identifying agonists and/or antagonists of S1P and LPA receptors that may block the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses into nasal epithelial cells, and prevent transmission from the nasal cavity into the brain.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Mice , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, Lysophosphatidic Acid/metabolism , Rodentia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Sphingosine/metabolism , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors
2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515726

ABSTRACT

Understanding pathways that might impact coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations and disease outcomes is necessary for better disease management and for therapeutic development. Here, we analyzed alterations in sphingolipid (SL) levels upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infection induced elevation of SL levels in both cells and sera of infected mice. A significant increase in glycosphingolipid levels was induced early post SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was essential for viral replication. This elevation could be reversed by treatment with glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors. Levels of sphinganine, sphingosine, GA1, and GM3 were significantly increased in both cells and the murine model upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential involvement of SLs in COVID-19 pathology is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Sphingolipids/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Dioxanes/pharmacology , Gangliosides/blood , Gangliosides/metabolism , Glucosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mice, Transgenic , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sphingolipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Sphingosine/blood , Sphingosine/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Drugs ; 81(9): 985-1002, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226257

ABSTRACT

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid metabolite that exerts its actions by engaging 5 G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-S1PR5). S1P receptors are involved in several cellular and physiological events, including lymphocyte/hematopoietic cell trafficking. An S1P gradient (low in tissues, high in blood), maintained by synthetic and degradative enzymes, regulates lymphocyte trafficking. Because lymphocytes live long (which is critical for adaptive immunity) and recirculate thousands of times, the S1P-S1PR pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. The S1PR1 modulators lead to receptor internalization, subsequent ubiquitination, and proteasome degradation, which renders lymphocytes incapable of following the S1P gradient and prevents their access to inflammation sites. These drugs might also block lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes by inhibiting transendothelial migration. Targeting S1PRs as a therapeutic strategy was first employed for multiple sclerosis (MS), and four S1P modulators (fingolimod, siponimod, ozanimod, and ponesimod) are currently approved for its treatment. New S1PR modulators are under clinical development for MS, and their uses are being evaluated to treat other immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and psoriasis. A clinical trial in patients with COVID-19 treated with ozanimod is ongoing. Ozanimod and etrasimod have shown promising results in IBD; while in phase 2 clinical trials, ponesimod has shown improvement in 77% of the patients with psoriasis. Cenerimod and amiselimod have been tested in SLE patients. Fingolimod, etrasimod, and IMMH001 have shown efficacy in RA preclinical studies. Concerns relating to S1PR modulators are leukopenia, anemia, transaminase elevation, macular edema, teratogenicity, pulmonary disorders, infections, and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, S1PR modulators exhibit different pharmacokinetics; a well-established first-dose event associated with S1PR modulators can be mitigated by gradual up-titration. In conclusion, S1P modulators represent a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for immune-mediated diseases.


Subject(s)
Immune System Diseases/drug therapy , Immune System Diseases/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Humans , Sphingosine/metabolism
4.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223958

ABSTRACT

Sphingolipids are important structural membrane components and, together with cholesterol, are often organized in lipid rafts, where they act as signaling molecules in many cellular functions. They play crucial roles in regulating pathobiological processes, such as cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. The bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and sphingosine have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several microbes. In contrast to ceramide, which often promotes bacterial and viral infections (for instance, by mediating adhesion and internalization), sphingosine, which is released from ceramide by the activity of ceramidases, kills many bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. In particular, sphingosine is an important natural component of the defense against bacterial pathogens in the respiratory tract. Pathologically reduced sphingosine levels in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells are normalized by inhalation of sphingosine, and coating plastic implants with sphingosine prevents bacterial infections. Pretreatment of cells with exogenous sphingosine also prevents the viral spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from interacting with host cell receptors and inhibits the propagation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in macrophages. Recent examinations reveal that the bactericidal effect of sphingosine might be due to bacterial membrane permeabilization and the subsequent death of the bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/immunology , Mycoses/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Sphingosine/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Cell Wall/drug effects , Ceramides/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Herpesvirus 1, Human/immunology , Humans , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Membrane Microdomains/immunology , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/metabolism , Mycoses/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sphingolipids/metabolism , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Sphingosine/pharmacology , Sphingosine/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207809

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still spreading worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, binds to its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and replicates within the cells of the nasal cavity, then spreads along the airway tracts, causing mild clinical manifestations, and, in a majority of patients, a persisting loss of smell. In some individuals, SARS-CoV-2 reaches and infects several organs, including the lung, leading to severe pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2 induces neurological symptoms, likely contributing to morbidity and mortality through unknown mechanisms. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid with pleiotropic properties and functions in many tissues, including the nervous system. S1P regulates neurogenesis and inflammation and it is implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Notably, Fingolimod (FTY720), a modulator of S1P receptors, has been approved for the treatment of MS and is being tested for COVID-19. Here, we discuss the putative role of S1P on viral infection and in the modulation of inflammation and survival in the stem cell niche of the olfactory epithelium. This could help to design therapeutic strategies based on S1P-mediated signaling to limit or overcome the host-virus interaction, virus propagation and the pathogenesis and complications involving the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Nervous System/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/metabolism , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Sphingosine/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909126

ABSTRACT

The world is currently experiencing the worst health pandemic since the Spanish flu in 1918-the COVID-19 pandemic-caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This pandemic is the world's third wake-up call this century. In 2003 and 2012, the world experienced two major coronavirus outbreaks, SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), causing major respiratory tract infections. At present, there is neither a vaccine nor a cure for COVID-19. The severe COVID-19 symptoms of hyperinflammation, catastrophic damage to the vascular endothelium, thrombotic complications, septic shock, brain damage, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and acute neurological and psychiatric complications are unprecedented. Many COVID-19 deaths result from the aftermath of hyperinflammatory complications, also referred to as the "cytokine storm syndrome", endotheliitus and blood clotting, all with the potential to cause multiorgan dysfunction. The sphingolipid rheostat plays integral roles in viral replication, activation/modulation of the immune response, and importantly in maintaining vasculature integrity, with sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) and its cognate receptors (SIPRs: G-protein-coupled receptors) being key factors in vascular protection against endotheliitus. Hence, modulation of sphingosine kinase (SphK), S1P, and the S1P receptor pathway may provide significant beneficial effects towards counteracting the life-threatening, acute, and chronic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review provides a comprehensive overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease, prospective vaccines, and current treatments. We then discuss the evidence supporting the targeting of SphK/S1P and S1P receptors in the repertoire of COVID-19 therapies to control viral replication and alleviate the known and emerging acute and chronic symptoms of COVID-19. Three clinical trials using FDA-approved sphingolipid-based drugs being repurposed and evaluated to help in alleviating COVID-19 symptoms are discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sphingolipids/pharmacology , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Virus Replication/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingosine/metabolism
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18689, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894418

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 fatality rate is high when compared to the H1N1pdm09 (pandemic Influenza A virus H1N1 subtype) rate, and although both cause an aggravated inflammatory response, the differences in the mechanisms of both pandemic pneumonias need clarification. Thus, our goal was to analyze tissue expression of interleukins 4, 13, (IL-4, IL-13), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), and the number of M2 macrophages (Sphingosine-1) in patients who died by COVID-19, comparing with cases of severe pneumopathy caused by H1N1pdm09, and a control group without lung injury. Six lung biopsy samples of patients who died of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 group) were used and compared with ten lung samples of adults who died from a severe infection of H1N1pdm09 (H1N1 group) and eleven samples of patients who died from different causes without lung injury (CONTROL group). The expression of IL-4, IL-13, TGF-ß, and M2 macrophages score (Sphingosine-1) were identified through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Significantly higher IL-4 tissue expression and Sphingosine-1 in M2 macrophages were observed in the COVID-19 group compared to both the H1N1 and the CONTROL groups. A different mechanism of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1pdm09 infections were observed. IL-4 expression and lung remodeling are phenomena observed in both SARS-CoV-2 and H1N1pdm09. However, SARS-CoV-2 seems to promote lung damage through different mechanisms, such as the scarce participation Th1/Th17 response and the higher participation of the Th2. Understanding and managing the aggravated and ineffective immune response elicited by SARS-CoV-2 merits further clarification to improve treatments propose.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interleukin-13/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-13/genetics , Interleukin-4/genetics , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Sphingosine/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
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