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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(7): e52, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706942

ABSTRACT

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has been reported as rare complication of vaccination. Herein, we report 2 cases of ATM after the administration of an mRNA vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The first one is an 81-year-old man who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. He presented with bilateral hand weakness. Spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high signal intensity from the C1 to C3 vertebrae. The second is a 23-year-old woman who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and experienced tingling in her legs. Spine MRI showed a high signal intensity lesion at the conus medullaris. These patients were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and their symptoms improved slightly. Careful follow-up is needed to identify adverse events after the administration of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Hand/physiopathology , Leg/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/pathology , Spinal Cord/physiopathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327625

ABSTRACT

Anaesthesia for patients with severe lung fibrosis post COVID-19 infection requires special consideration. This is due to its propensity to cause perioperative anaesthetic catastrophe and possibility of cross infection among healthcare workers if not properly managed. This interesting article elaborates in detail the anaesthetic and surgical challenges in a morbidly obese patient who had a severe COVID-19 infection presenting for an elective spine surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Spine/surgery
3.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(4): 592-599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to aggregate neuroradiological findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the brain, head and neck, and spine to identify trends and unique patterns. METHODS: A retrospective review of neuroimaged COVID-19 patients during a 6-week surge in our 8-hospital campus was performed. The brain imaging with reported acute or subacute infarction, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and all neck examinations were reinterpreted by 2 reviewers. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy-one patients met criteria and were reviewed. Acute or subacute infarction was seen in 39 (6%), intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 14 (2%), corpus callosum involvement in 7, and thalamus in 5 patients. In spine and neck studies, lung opacities and adenopathy were seen in 46 and 4 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Infarction followed by intraparenchymal hemorrhage was the most common acute findings in the brain with frequent involvement of the corpus callosum and thalami. In the neck, lung abnormalities were frequently present, and adenopathy was almost always associated with a second pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Head/diagnostic imaging , Head/pathology , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neck/pathology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Spine/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 22(4): 228-231, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Elsberg syndrome is a rare cause of lumbosacral radiculitis with concomitant thoracic and lumbosacral myelitis that can be seen after an acute or reactivated viral infection. After the initial coronavirus surge in New York City, a 68-year-old man developed progressive lower extremity weakness and a defined sensory level at the lower abdomen. He had highly elevated SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies despite an absence of preceding COVID-19 symptoms. Serial electrodiagnostic testing revealed absent lower extremity late responses, with otherwise normal distal sensorimotor conductions. Electromyography revealed active neurogenic changes and reduced motor unit recruitment in the L3-L4 myotomes. Treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin was followed by minimal clinical improvement but re-emergence of the lower extremity late responses on electrodiagnostic testing. We report here, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of suspected COVID-19-associated Elsberg syndrome, which expands the spectrum of neuromuscular manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and sheds light on ways to approach diagnostic and treatment options for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelitis/etiology , Radiculopathy/etiology , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Electrodiagnosis , Electromyography , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myelitis/diagnosis , Neural Conduction , Radiculopathy/diagnosis , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
5.
Mult Scler ; 27(6): 973-976, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223688

ABSTRACT

Neurologic complications are being recognized as important outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pathogenesis is varied and incompletely understood, and may include neuroinvasion, indirect post-infectious neuroinflammation, and cerebrovascular pathologies. We present a case of COVID-19-related encephalomyeloradiculitis with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders that was associated with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. Our case suggests post-infectious autoimmunity as a mechanism in at least a subset of patients with COVID-19-related neurologic disease.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 4/immunology , Autoantibodies/analysis , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalomyelitis/etiology , Radiculopathy/etiology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnostic imaging , Neuromyelitis Optica/etiology , Plasma Exchange , Radiculopathy/diagnostic imaging , Radiculopathy/immunology , Spine/diagnostic imaging
6.
Radiology ; 297(3): E324-E334, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042719

ABSTRACT

Background Neurologic complications in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described, but the understanding of their pathophysiologic causes and neuroanatomical correlates remains limited. Purpose To report on the frequency and type of neuroradiological findings in COVID-19. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, all consecutive adult hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and who underwent neuroimaging at Karolinska University Hospital between March 2 and May 24, 2020, were included. All examinations were systematically re-evaluated by 12 readers. Summary descriptive statistics were calculated. Results A total of 185 patients with COVID-19 (62 years ± 14 [standard deviation]; 138 men) underwent neuroimaging. In total, 222 brain CT, 47 brain MRI, and seven spinal MRI examinations were performed. Intra-axial susceptibility abnormalities were the most common finding (29 of 39; 74%, 95% CI: 58, 87) in patients who underwent brain MRI, often with an ovoid shape suggestive of microvascular pathology and with a predilection for the corpus callosum (23 of 39; 59%; 95% CI: 42, 74) and juxtacortical areas (14 of 39; 36%; 95% CI: 21, 53). Ischemic and macrohemorrhagic manifestations were also observed, but vascular imaging did not demonstrate overt abnormalities. Dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in 19 patients did not reveal consistent asymmetries between hemispheres or regions. Many patients (18 of 41; 44%; 95% CI: 28, 60) had leukoencephalopathy and one patient had a cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum. Other findings included olfactory bulb signal abnormalities (seven of 37; 19%), prominent optic nerve subarachnoid spaces (20 of 36; 56%), and enhancement of the parenchyma (three of 20; 15%), leptomeninges (three of 20; 15%), cranial nerves (two of 20; 10%), and spinal nerves (two of four; 50%). At MRI follow-up, regression of leukoencephalopathy and progressive leptomeningeal enhancement was observed in one patient each, respectively, which is suggestive of dynamic processes. Conclusion Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 had a wide spectrum of vascular and inflammatory involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous system. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine/diagnostic imaging
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713121

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man presented to hospital with bilateral lower limb weakness, urinary retention and constipation. He had been diagnosed with COVID-19 10 days prior. Clinical examination revealed global weakness, increased tone, hyperreflexia and patchy paresthesia in his lower limbs bilaterally. Preliminary blood tests performed revealed a mildly elevated C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate but was otherwise unremarkable. MRI scan of his whole spine demonstrated hyperintense T2 signal centrally from T7 to T10, suggestive of acute transverse myelitis. A lumbar puncture showed elevated protein count but normal glucose and white blood cell count. Serological testing for other viruses was negative. His neurological symptoms improved significantly after treatment with intravenous methylprednisone. This case highlights a potential neurological complication of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnostic imaging , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , COVID-19 , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine/diagnostic imaging
8.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1949-1952, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696241

ABSTRACT

Myalgia is a previously reported symptom in patients with COVID-19 infection; however, the presence of paraspinal myositis has not been previously reported. We report MR imaging findings of the spine obtained in a cohort of 9 patients with COVID-19 infection who presented to our hospital between March 3, 2020 and May 6, 2020. We found that 7 of 9 COVID-19 patients (78%) who underwent MR imaging of the spine had MR imaging evidence of paraspinal myositis, characterized by intramuscular edema and/or enhancement. Five of these 7 patients had a prolonged hospital course (greater than 25 days). Our knowledge of the imaging manifestations of COVID-19 infection is expanding. It is important for clinicians>a to be aware of the relatively high frequency of paraspinal myositis in this small cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myositis/diagnostic imaging , Myositis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(7): 531-533, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-543334

ABSTRACT

Some patients undergoing routine SPECT/CT and PET/CT examinations during the COVID-19 pandemic may incidentally reveal findings of COVID-19-associated pneumonia (C-19AP) on localizing CT. It is critical for nuclear medicine physicians to develop diagnostic skills for timely recognition of typical findings of C-19AP on a localizing CT. Furthermore, it is our responsibility to know the optimal practices for safely isolating and managing such patients while protecting the staff, other patients at the facility, family and/or friend accompanying the patients, and the public in general from risky exposure to COVID-19 sources. We offer several steps following an encounter suspicious of C-19AP.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Management , Humans , Incidental Findings , Pandemics , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/standards , Spine/diagnostic imaging
10.
Radiology ; 296(3): E173-E179, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-240496

ABSTRACT

Background Atypical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being encountered as the pandemic unfolds, leading to non-chest CT scans that may uncover unsuspected pulmonary disease. Purpose To investigate patients with primary nonrespiratory symptoms who underwent CT of the abdomen or pelvis or CT of the cervical spine or neck with unsuspected findings highly suspicious for pulmonary COVID-19. Materials and Methods This retrospective study from March 10, 2020, to April 6, 2020, involved three institutions, two in a region considered a hot spot (area of high prevalence) for COVID-19. Patients without known COVID-19 were included who presented to the emergency department (ED) with primary nonrespiratory (gastrointestinal or neurologic) symptoms, had lung parenchymal findings suspicious for COVID-19 at non-chest CT but not concurrent chest CT, and underwent COVID-19 testing in the ED. Group 1 patients had reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results obtained before CT scan reading (COVID-19 suspected on presentation); group 2 had RT-PCR results obtained after CT scans were read (COVID-19 not suspected). Presentation and imaging findings were compared, and outcomes were evaluated. Descriptive statistics and Fisher exact tests were used for analysis. Results Group 1 comprised 62 patients (31 men, 31 women; mean age, 67 years ±17 [standard deviation]), and group 2 comprised 57 patients (28 men, 29 women; mean age, 63 years ± 16). Cough and fever were more common in group 1 (37 of 62 [60%] and 29 of 62 [47%], respectively) than in group 2 (nine of 57 [16%] and 12 of 57 [21%], respectively), with no significant difference in the remaining symptoms. There were 101 CT scans of the abdomen or pelvis and 18 CT scans of the cervical spine or neck. In group 1, non-chest CT findings provided the initial evidence of COVID-19-related pneumonia in 32 of 62 (52%) patients. In group 2, the evidence was found in 44 of 57 (77%) patients. Overall, the most common CT findings were ground-glass opacity (114 of 119, 96%) and consolidation (47 of 119, 40%). Major interventions (vasopressor medication or intubation) were required for 29 of 119 (24%) patients, and 27 of 119 (23%) died. Patients who underwent CT of the cervical spine or neck had worse outcomes than those who underwent abdominal or pelvic CT (P = .01). Conclusion In a substantial percentage of patients with primary nonrespiratory symptoms who underwent non-chest CT, CT provided evidence of coronavirus disease 2019-related pneumonia. © RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Incidental Findings , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography, Abdominal/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Spine/diagnostic imaging
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