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1.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 32(1): 10, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740441

ABSTRACT

Dyspnoea or breathlessness is a common presenting symptom among patients attending primary care services. This review aimed to determine whether there are clinical tools that can be incorporated into a clinical decision support system for primary care for efficient and accurate diagnosis of causes of chronic dyspnoea. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar for all literature published between 1946 and 2020. Studies that evaluated a clinical algorithm for assessment of chronic dyspnoea in patients of any age group presenting to physicians with chronic dyspnoea were included. We identified 326 abstracts, 55 papers were reviewed, and eight included. A total 2026 patients aged between 20-80 years were included, 60% were women. The duration of dyspnoea was three weeks to 25 years. All studies undertook a stepwise or algorithmic approach to the assessment of dyspnoea. The results indicate that following history taking and physical examination, the first stage should include simply performed tests such as pulse oximetry, spirometry, and electrocardiography. If the patient remains undiagnosed, the second stage includes investigations such as chest x-ray, thyroid function tests, full blood count and NT-proBNP. In the third stage patients are referred for more advanced tests such as echocardiogram and thoracic CT. If dyspnoea remains unexplained, the fourth stage of assessment will require secondary care referral for more advanced diagnostic testing such as exercise tests. Utilising this proposed stepwise approach is expected to ascertain a cause for dyspnoea for 35% of the patients in stage 1, 83% by stage 3 and >90% of patients by stage 4.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Dyspnea , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Spirometry , Young Adult
2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(2): 1033, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723417

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide with over 3 × 106 deaths in 2019. Such an alarming figure becomes frightening when combined with the number of lost lives resulting from COVID-caused respiratory failure. Because COPD exacerbations identified early can commonly be treated at home, early symptom detections may enable a major reduction of COPD patient readmission and associated healthcare costs; this is particularly important during pandemics such as COVID-19 in which healthcare facilities are overwhelmed. The standard adjuncts used to assess lung function (e.g., spirometry, plethysmography, and CT scan) are expensive, time consuming, and cannot be used in remote patient monitoring of an acute exacerbation. In this paper, a wearable multi-modal system for breathing analysis is presented, which can be used in quantifying various airflow obstructions. The wearable multi-modal electroacoustic system employs a body area sensor network with each sensor-node having a multi-modal sensing capability, such as a digital stethoscope, electrocardiogram monitor, thermometer, and goniometer. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the resulting acoustic spectrum is used as a measure of breathing intensity. The results are shown from data collected from over 35 healthy subjects and 3 COPD subjects, demonstrating a positive correlation of SNR values to the health-scale score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Acoustics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry
3.
Anticancer Res ; 42(3): 1623-1628, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The significance of spirometry as preoperative risk assessment for gastrointestinal surgery has been controversial. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, preoperative spirometry was temporarily suspended in our institute. This study was aimed to investigate the necessity of spirometry for gastrointestinal cancer surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared short-term postoperative outcomes between 318 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal or gastric cancer with (Spirometry group; n=272) or without spirometry (Non-spirometry group; n=46). RESULTS: Respiratory functional disorders were detected in 77 (28.3%) patients in the Spirometry group. No significant differences were noted in complications, including pneumonia, or the length of hospital stay between the two groups. An advanced age, male sex, comorbidities with respiratory diseases, and a smoking history significantly correlated with abnormal results in spirometry. CONCLUSION: Preoperative spirometry may be substituted with other clinical factors in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Preoperative Care , Spirometry , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 37, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some COVID-19 survivors present lung function abnormalities during follow-up, particularly reduced carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity (DLCO). To investigate risk factors and underlying pathophysiology, we compared the clinical characteristics and levels of circulating pulmonary epithelial and endothelial markers in COVID-19 survivors with normal or reduced DLCO 6 months after discharge. METHODS: Prospective, observational study. Clinical characteristics during hospitalization, and spirometry, DLCO and plasma levels of epithelial (surfactant protein (SP) A (SP-A), SP-D, Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI)), and endothelial (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble E-selectin and Angiopoietin-2) 6 months after hospital discharge were determined in 215 COVID-19 survivors. RESULTS: DLCO was < 80% ref. in 125 (58%) of patients, who were older, more frequently smokers, had hypertension, suffered more severe COVID-19 during hospitalization and refer persistent dyspnoea 6 months after discharge. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age ≥ 60 years and severity score of the acute episode ≥ 6 were independent risk factors of reduced DLCO 6 months after discharge. Levels of epithelial (SP-A, SP-D and SLPI) and endothelial (sICAM-1 and angiopoietin-2) markers were higher in patients with reduced DLCO, particularly in those with DLCO ≤ 50% ref. Circulating SP-A levels were associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), organizing pneumonia and pulmonary embolisms during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced DLCO is common in COVID-19 survivors 6 months after hospital discharge, especially in those older than 60 years with very severe acute disease. In these individuals, elevated levels of epithelial and endothelial markers suggest persistent lung damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Risk Factors , Smokers , Spirometry , Survivors
5.
Infection ; 50(2): 513-517, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During a follow-up program of patients admitted for COVID-19 at our non-ICU Unit, we found that 37% of them had decreased diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) 3-6 months after discharge. This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the evolution of changes in DLCO and respiratory symptoms at the 1-year follow-up visit. METHODS: Seventeen (mean age 71 years; 8 males) of 19 eligible patients (DLCO < 80% of predicted at the 3-6 months follow-up visit) completed the 1-year follow-up visit. One patient refused to participate and 1 patient had died 3 months earlier from myocardial infarction. The visit included a self-reported structured questionnaire, physical exam, blood tests, ECG, and spirometry with DLCO. RESULTS: Mean DLCO was significantly improved at the 1-year visit (from 64% of predicted at 3-6 months to 74% of predicted at 1 year; P = 0.003). A clinically significant increase in DLCO (10% or greater) was observed in 11 patients (65%) with complete normalization (> 80% of predicted) in 6 (35%); in the other 6 (35%) it remained unchanged. The prevalence of exertional dyspnea (65-35%, P = 0.17), cough (24-18%, P = 1), and fatigue (76-35%, P = 0.04) decreased at the 1-year visit. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DLCO and respiratory symptoms tend to normalize or improve 1 year after hospitalization for COVID-19 in most patients. However, there is also a non-negligible number of patients (about one-third) in whom respiratory changes persist and will need prolonged follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Patient Discharge , Spirometry
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 11, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634109

ABSTRACT

In the last year, many countries adopted a plan to contain hospital infections by Sars-Cov-2 also limiting pulmonary function tests (PFTs), exclusively to indispensable cases. All the recommendations of the major scientific societies regarding the use of PFTs, in particular spirometry, in the Covid era were formulated in the initial period of the pandemic. Currently, the new scientific knowledge about Sars-Cov-2 and the vaccination among healthcare workers, shown new insight to start doing PFTs again to help the investigation and monitoring of patients with respiratory pathology. In this article, we sum up the recommendations of major International Respiratory Societies, and we shared our experience about PFTs in a Pediatric Respiratory Disease Unit during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , Risk Assessment , Societies, Scientific , Triage/methods
7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 57-63, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) programs and people with CF (PwCF) employed various monitoring methods for virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper characterizes experiences with remote monitoring across the U.S. CF community. METHODS: The CF Foundation (CFF) sponsored distribution of home spirometers (April 2020 to May 2021), surveys to PwCF and CF programs (July to September 2020), and a second program survey (April to May 2021). We used mixed methods to explore access, use, and perspectives regarding the use of remote monitoring in future care. RESULTS: By October 2020, 13,345 spirometers had been distributed, and 19,271 spirometers by May 2021. Programs (n=286) estimated proportions of PwCF with home devices increased over seven months: spirometers (30% to 70%), scales (50% to 70%), oximeters (5% to 10%) with higher estimates in adult programs for spirometers and oximeters. PwCF (n=378) had access to scales (89%), followed by oximeters (48%) and spirometers (47%), often using scales and oximeters weekly, and spirometers monthly. Over both surveys, some programs had no method to collect respiratory specimens for cultures associated with telehealth visits (47%, n=132; 41%, n=118). Most programs (81%) had a process for phlebotomy associated with a telehealth visit, primarily through off-site labs. Both PwCF and programs felt future care should advance remote monitoring and recommended improvements for access, training, and data collection systems. CONCLUSIONS: PwCF and programs experienced unprecedented access to remote monitoring and raised its importance for future care. Improvements to current systems may leverage these shared experiences to augment future care models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Equipment and Supplies/supply & distribution , Home Care Services , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Spirometry , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/standards , Humans , Models, Organizational , Needs Assessment , Oximetry/instrumentation , Oximetry/methods , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry/instrumentation , Spirometry/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 7237-7243, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565114

ABSTRACT

Respiratory illnesses are common in the United States and globally; people deal with these illnesses in various forms, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, or infectious respiratory diseases (e.g., coronavirus). The lung function of subjects affected by these illnesses degrades due to infection or inflammation in their respiratory airways. Typically, lung function is assessed using in-clinic medical equipment, and quite recently, via portable spirometry devices. Research has shown that the obstruction and restriction in the respiratory airways affect individuals' voice characteristics. Hence, audio features could play a role in predicting the lung function and severity of the obstruction. In this paper, we go beyond well-known voice audio features and create a hybrid deep learning model using CNN-LSTM to discover spatiotemporal patterns in speech and predict the lung function parameters with accuracy comparable to conventional devices. We validate the performance and generalizability of our method using the data collected from 201 subjects enrolled in two studies internally and in collaboration with a pulmonary hospital. SpeechSpiro measures lung function parameters (e.g., forced vital capacity) with a mean normalized RMSE of 12% and R2 score of up to 76% using 60-second phone audio recordings of individuals reading a passage.Clinical relevance - Speech-based spirometry has the potential to eliminate the need for an additional device to carry out the lung function assessment outside clinical settings; hence, it can enable continuous and mobile track of the individual's condition, healthy or with a respiratory illness, using a smartphone.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Speech , Spirometry
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561072

ABSTRACT

Spirometer measurements can reflect cough strength but might not be routinely available for patients with severe neurological or medical conditions. A digital device that can record and help track abnormal cough sound changes serially in a noninvasive but reliable manner would be beneficial for monitoring such individuals. This report includes two cases of respiratory distress whose cough changes were monitored via assessments performed using recordings made with a digital device. The cough sounds were recorded using an iPad (Apple, Cupertino, CA, USA) through an embedded microphone. Cough sounds were recorded at the bedside, with no additional special equipment. The two patients were able to complete the recordings with no complications. The maximum root mean square values obtained from the cough sounds were significantly reduced when both cases were diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia. In contrast, higher values became apparent when the patients demonstrated a less severe status. Based on an analysis of our two cases, the patients' cough sounds recorded with a commercial digital device show promise as potential digital biomarkers that may reflect aspiration risk related to attenuated cough force. Serial monitoring aided the decision making to resume oral feeding. Future studies should further explore the clinical utility of this technique.


Subject(s)
Cough , Sound , Biomarkers , Cough/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Spirometry
10.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 278-284, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561574

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated the move towards home spirometry monitoring, including in children. The aim of this study is to determine whether the remote supervision of spirometry by a physiologist improves the technical quality and failure rate of the maneuvers. METHOD: Children with cystic fibrosis who had been provided with NuvoAir home spirometers were randomly allocated to either supervised or unsupervised home spirometry following a detailed training session. Home spirometry was performed every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Tests were assigned a quality factor (QF) using our laboratory grading system as per American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards, with tests marked from A to D, or Fail. In our laboratory, we aim for QF A in all spirometry tests, but report results of QF B or C with a cautionary note. QF A was, therefore, the primary outcome, and QF A-C, the secondary outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were enrolled; 166 measurements were obtained in the supervised group, and 153 in the unsupervised group. Significantly more measurements achieved QF A in the supervised compared to unsupervised group (89% vs. 74%; p = <0.001), while proportions reaching Grade A-C were similar (99% vs. 95%; p = 0.1). All significant declines in spirometry results had a clinical rather than technical reason. Family/patient feedback for both arms was very positive. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that home spirometry in children should ideally be remotely supervised by a physiologist, but acceptable results can be obtained if resources do not allow this, provided that training is delivered and results monitored according to our protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of people worldwide are suffering the consequences of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and impulse oscillometry (IOS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) might be important tools for the follow-up of this population. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate abnormalities detected using these two methods in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: In this follow-up study, 59 patients underwent clinical evaluations, spirometry, IOS and LUS in the 2nd (M1) and 5th (M2) months after diagnostic confirmation of COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Aeration scores were obtained from the LUS exams based on the following findings: B-lines >2, coalescent B-lines, and subpleural consolidations. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (100%) participants had cough and/or dyspnea at M1, which decreased to 38 (64.4%) at M2 (p = 0.0001). Spirometry was abnormal in 26 (44.1%) and 20 (33.9%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively, although without statistical significance (p = 0.10). Normal examination, restrictive patterns, and obstructive patterns were observed in 33 (55.9%), 18 (30.5%), and 8 (13.6%) participants, respectively, at M1 and in 39 (66.1%), 13 (22%), and 7 (11.9%) participants at M2 (p = 0.14). Regarding IOS, considering changes in resistive and reactive parameters, abnormal exams were detected in 52 (88.1%) and 42 (71.2%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively (p = 0.002). Heterogeneity of resistance between 4 and 20 Hz >20% was observed in 38 (64.4%) and 33 (55.9%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively (p = 0.30). Abnormal LUS was observed in 46 (78%) and 36 (61%) participants at M1 and M2, respectively (p = 0.002), with a reduction in aeration scores between M1 and M2 [5 (2-8) vs. 3 (0-6) points, p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: IOS and LUS abnormalities are frequent in the first 5 months post-COVID-19 infection; however, when prospectively evaluated, significant improvement is evident in the parameters measured by these two methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Oscillometry , Ultrasonography , COVID-19/pathology , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Respiration , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
13.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e15, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501686

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an urgent reconfiguration of our difficult asthma (DA) service. We rapidly switched to virtual clinics and rolled out home spirometry based on clinical need. From March to August 2020, 110 patients with DA (68% virtually) were seen in clinic, compared with March-August 2019 when 88 patients were seen face-to-face. There was DA clinic cancellation/non-attendance (16% vs 43%; p<0.0003). In patients with home spirometers, acute hospital admissions (6 vs 26; p<0.01) from March to August 2020 were significantly lower compared with the same period in 2019. There was no difference in the number of courses of oral corticosteroids or antibiotics prescribed (47 vs 53; p=0.81). From April to August 2020, 50 patients with DA performed 253 home spirometry measurements, of which 39 demonstrated >20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, resulting in new action plans in 87% of these episodes. In our DA cohort, we demonstrate better attendance rates at virtual multidisciplinary team consultations and reduced hospital admission rates when augmented with home spirometry monitoring.


Subject(s)
Asthma/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Handheld oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with hypersecretory conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) since the 1970s. Current devices are reusable and require regular cleaning and disinfection to prevent harbouring potentially pathogenic organisms. Adherence to cleaning regimens for respiratory devices is often poor and in response to this, a prototype disposable OPEP device-the 'UL-OPEP' (University of Limerick-Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure device)-was developed to mitigate the risk of contamination by pathogens. The device was previously evaluated successfully in a group of paediatric CF patients. The aim of the current study was to initially evaluate the safety of the prototype in patients with COPD over a period of 1 month to ensure no adverse events, negative impacts on lung function, exercise tolerance, or quality of life. Data on user experience of the device were also collected during post-study follow-up. METHODS: A sample of 50 volunteer participants were recruited from pulmonary rehabilitation clinics within the local hospital network. The patients were clinically stable, productive, and not current or previous users of OPEP devices. Participants were invited to use a prototype disposable OPEP device daily for a period of 1 month. Pre- and post-study lung function was assessed with standard spirometry, and exercise tolerance with the 6-min-walk-test (6MWT). Quality of life was assessed using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and user experience of the prototype device evaluated using a post-study questionnaire. RESULTS: 24 Participants completed the study: 9 were female. Overall median age was 67.5 years, range 53-85 years. Lung function, 6-min walk test, and SGRQ scores showed no significant change post-study. User feedback was positive overall. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the UL-OPEP is safe to use in patients with COPD. No adverse events were recorded during the study or in the follow-up period of 2 weeks. The device did not negatively impact patients' lung function, exercise tolerance, or quality of life during short term use (1 month), and usability feedback received was generally positive. Larger, longer duration studies will be required to evaluate efficacy. Registration The study was approved as a Clinical Investigation by the Irish Health Products Regulatory Authority (CRN-2209025-CI0085).


Subject(s)
Chest Wall Oscillation/instrumentation , Chest Wall Oscillation/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Spirometry/instrumentation , Spirometry/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chest Wall Oscillation/psychology , Disposable Equipment , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Ireland , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Pilot Projects , Spirometry/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 255, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is relatively little published on the effects of COVID-19 on respiratory physiology, particularly breathing patterns. We sought to determine if there were lasting detrimental effect following hospital discharge and if these related to the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed lung function and breathing patterns in COVID-19 survivors > 3 months after discharge, comparing patients who had been admitted to the intensive therapy unit (ITU) (n = 47) to those who just received ward treatments (n = 45). Lung function included spirometry and gas transfer and breathing patterns were measured with structured light plethysmography. Continuous data were compared with an independent t-test or Mann Whitney-U test (depending on distribution) and nominal data were compared using a Fisher's exact test (for 2 categories in 2 groups) or a chi-squared test (for > 2 categories in 2 groups). A p-value of < 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: We found evidence of pulmonary restriction (reduced vital capacity and/or alveolar volume) in 65.4% of all patients. 36.1% of all patients has a reduced transfer factor (TLCO) but the majority of these (78.1%) had a preserved/increased transfer coefficient (KCO), suggesting an extrapulmonary cause. There were no major differences between ITU and ward lung function, although KCO alone was higher in the ITU patients (p = 0.03). This could be explained partly by obesity, respiratory muscle fatigue, localised microvascular changes, or haemosiderosis from lung damage. Abnormal breathing patterns were observed in 18.8% of subjects, although no consistent pattern of breathing pattern abnormalities was evident. CONCLUSIONS: An "extrapulmonary restrictive" like pattern appears to be a common phenomenon in previously admitted COVID-19 survivors. Whilst the cause of this is not clear, the effects seem to be similar on patients whether or not they received mechanical ventilation or had ward based respiratory support/supplemental oxygen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Lung/physiology , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Spirometry/trends , Survivors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/trends , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/trends , Spirometry/methods , Young Adult
16.
Respir Care ; 66(11): 1691-1698, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because impulse oscillometry (IOS) can detect changes in the small airways and is safer to perform during the COVID-19 pandemic than other pulmonary function tests, it may have value in investigating pulmonary sequelae in COVID-19 survivors. This study evaluated the performance of IOS in detecting lung abnormalities in COVID-19 survivors and investigated the associations of the findings with those of lung ultrasound (LUS) and spirometry. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 117 subjects underwent IOS at a frequency range of 4-20 Hz 2 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. They also underwent spirometry and LUS, and their aeration scores were calculated. RESULTS: On IOS, the resonance frequency was > 12 Hz, and the area under the reactance curve was > 3.60 cm H2O/L/s in 70 (59.8%) and 55 (47.0%) subjects, respectively. A heterogeneity of resistance between R4 and R20 (R4-R20) > 20% was observed in 60 (51.3%) participants. Based on their abnormalities in resistive and reactive parameters, 76 (65.0%) participants had abnormal IOS. Spirometry abnormalities were detected in 40 (34.2%) cases. LUS was abnormal in 51 (43.6%) participants, and the median aeration score was 0 (0-8) points. Abnormal IOS was associated with abnormal LUS (P < .001) and abnormal spirometry (P = .002). Abnormal spirometry had a significant but weaker association with abnormal LUS (P = .031). In participants who reported hospitalization, abnormal IOS was associated with both abnormal LUS (P = .001) and abnormal spirometry (P = .006). In participants who did not report hospitalization, abnormal IOS was associated with abnormal LUS (P < .001) but not abnormal spirometry (P = .063). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 survivors, IOS detected changes even when spirometry was normal. In these individuals, IOS parameters were more strongly associated with abnormalities on LUS than with abnormalities on spirometry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oscillometry , Pandemics , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry , Survivors
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17798, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397898

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence of cardiac involvement post-SARS-CoV-2 infections in symptomatic as well as in oligo- and asymptomatic athletes. This study aimed to characterize the possible early effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on myocardial morphology and cardiopulmonary function in athletes. Eight male elite handball players (27 ± 3.5 y) with past SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with four uninfected teammates (22 ± 2.6 y). Infected athletes were examined 19 ± 7 days after the first positive PCR test. Echocardiographic assessment of the global longitudinal strain under resting conditions was not significantly changed (- 17.7% vs. - 18.1%). However, magnetic resonance imaging showed minor signs of acute inflammation/oedema in all infected athletes (T2-mapping: + 4.1 ms, p = 0.034) without reaching the Lake-Louis criteria. Spiroergometric analysis showed a significant reduction in VO2max (- 292 ml/min, - 7.0%), oxygen pulse (- 2.4 ml/beat, - 10.4%), and respiratory minute volume (VE) (- 18.9 l/min, - 13.8%) in athletes with a history of SARS-CoV2 infection (p < 0.05, respectively). The parameters were unchanged in the uninfected teammates. SARS-CoV2 infection caused impairment of cardiopulmonary performance during physical effort in elite athletes. It seems reasonable to screen athletes after SARS-CoV2 infection with spiroergometry to identify performance limitations and to guide the return to competition.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Athletic Performance/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Germany , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257040, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394554

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study abnormality of spirometry, six-minute walk distance, and chest radiograph among patients recovered from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 87 COVID-19 confirmed cases who recovered and discharged from a medical school hospital in Thailand. At the follow-up visit on day 60 after onset of symptoms, patients underwent an evaluation by spirometry (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75, and PEF), a six-minute-walk test (6MWT), and a chest radiograph. RESULTS: There were 35 men and 52 women, with a mean age of 39.6±11.8 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.8±4.3 kg/m2. Of all, 45 cases had mild symptoms; 35 had non-severe pneumonia, and 7 had severe pneumonia. Abnormality in spirometry was observed in 15 cases (17.2%), with 8% of restrictive defect and 9.2% of obstructive defect. Among the patients with an abnormal spirometry, the majority of the cases were in the severe pneumonia group (71.4%), compared with 15.6% in the non-severe pneumonia group, and 10.2% in the mild symptom group (p = 0.001). The mean six-minute-walk distance (6MWD) in the mild symptom and non-severe pneumonia groups was 538±56.8 and 527.5±53.5 meters, respectively. Although the severe pneumonia group tended to have a shorter mean 6-min walking distance, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.118). Twelve patients (13.8%) had abnormal chest radiographs that showed residual fibrosis. This abnormality was more common in the severe pneumonia group (85.7%) and in others (7.5%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal spirometry was noted in 17.2% of COVID-19 survivors with both restrictive and obstructive defects. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients had higher prevalence rates of abnormal spirometry and residual fibrosis on the chest radiographs when compared to patients in the mild symptom and non-severe pneumonia groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Walk Test/methods , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spirometry/methods , Thailand
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e053342, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379620

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current framework for investigating respiratory diseases is based on defining lung health as the absence of lung disease. In order to develop a comprehensive approach to prevent the development of lung disease, there is a need to evaluate the full spectrum of lung health spanning from ideal to impaired lung health. The American Lung Association (ALA) Lung Health Cohort is a new, population-based, cohort study focused primarily on characterising lung health in members of the millennial generation without diagnosed severe respiratory disease. Participants will be enrolled for the baseline study visit starting in 2021, and funding will be sought to support future study exams as part of a longitudinal cohort study. This study will be crucial for developing a novel paradigm of lung health throughout the adult life course. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will leverage the existing infrastructure of the ALA Airways Clinical Research Centers network to enrol 4000 participants between ages 25 and 35 years old at 39 sites across the USA between April 2021 and December 2024. Study procedures will include physical assessment, spirometry, chest CT scan, accelerometry and collection of nasal epithelial lining fluid, nasal epithelial cells, blood and urine. Participants will complete questionnaires about their sociodemographic characteristics, home address histories and exposures, work history and exposure, medical histories, lung health and health behaviours and activity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Medicine Institutional Review Board. Findings will be disseminated to the scientific community through peer-reviewed journals and at professional conferences. The lay public will receive scientific findings directly through the ALA infrastructure including the official public website. Deidentified datasets will be deposited to BioLINCC, and deidentified biospecimens may be made available to qualified investigators along with a limited-use datasets.


Subject(s)
Lung , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Spirometry , United States/epidemiology
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