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1.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(2): 633-639, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872828

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 affect the lungs and are transmitted mainly by aerosols or particles of saliva from infected persons. Clinical similarities between diseases can affect correct diagnosis. Individuals belonging to the population deprived of liberty (PDL) are at increased risk of contagion due to precarious sanitary conditions and overcrowded environments. A variety of specimens may be suitable for the diagnosis of COVID-19, using molecular diagnostic techniques; however, there is little data on the analysis of sputum samples with the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2® for the diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in this population group. The present study reports a case of TB and COVID-19 co-infection detected in sputum from an individual belonging to the PDL. For the detection, it used the GeneXpert platform (Cepheid, USA). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was detected using the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra® cartridge and SARS-CoV-2 was detected using the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2® cartridge. The genes IS6110 and IS1081 were detected within 80 min indicating the presence of MTC, with no mutations related to resistance to rifampicin. The SARS-CoV-2 E and N2 genes were detected within 45 min. The result was confirmed by RT-qPCR with detection of E, N, and RdRP/S genes in the sputum and nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens. Rapid diagnoses that allow the identification and differentiation of such diseases are important for adequate epidemiological surveillance, isolation of infected individuals, and interruption of the transmission chain. Using the GeneXpert platform, specimens can be tested as soon as they are received, without the need for prior preparation. The US Food and Drug Administration has issued emergency authorization for the use of the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 using specimens from a NP or nasal wash/aspirate. The case presented here gains an innovation with the use of the sputum to COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/diagnosis , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/microbiology
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865145

ABSTRACT

A healthy, immunocompetent South Asian man in his mid-20s, with a medical history of gastric ulcer, presented to Accident & Emergency with pleuritic chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, night sweats, weight loss, dry cough and asymptomatic iron deficiency anaemia. Following his initial assessment and investigations (chest X-ray, CT and blood tests), a diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis (TB) was made and empirical antimicrobial treatment started. However, subsequent microbiological testing, including urine, blood, induced sputum and lymph node sampling, was negative. Being interpreted as non-diagnostic, the antimicrobial therapy was continued. Following a clinical deterioration while on treatment, the patient's case was re-evaluated and further investigations, including a repeat CT and a liver biopsy, confirmed a diagnosis of stage IV (T1aN3bM1) gastric carcinoma. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges in differentiating metastatic cancer from miliary TB. We also focus on possible cognitive biases that may have influenced the initial management decisions.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Tuberculosis, Miliary , Cough , Fever , Humans , Male , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Miliary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Miliary/drug therapy , Young Adult
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862814

ABSTRACT

The identification of markers of inflammatory activity at the early stages of pulmonary diseases which share common characteristics that prevent their clear differentiation is of great significance to avoid misdiagnosis, and to understand the intrinsic molecular mechanism of the disorder. The combination of electrophoretic/chromatographic methods with mass spectrometry is currently a promising approach for the identification of candidate biomarkers of a disease. Since the fluid phase of sputum is a rich source of proteins which could provide an early diagnosis of specific lung disorders, it is frequently used in these studies. This report focuses on the state-of-the-art of the application, over the last ten years (2011-2021), of sputum proteomics in the investigation of severe lung disorders such as COPD; asthma; cystic fibrosis; lung cancer and those caused by COVID-19 infection. Analysis of the complete set of proteins found in sputum of patients affected by these disorders has allowed the identification of proteins whose levels change in response to the organism's condition. Understanding proteome dynamism may help in associating these proteins with alterations in the physiology or progression of diseases investigated.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases , Proteome , Sputum , Biomarkers/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Sputum/chemistry
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793510

ABSTRACT

Reports detailing the clinical characteristics, viral load, and outcomes of patients with normal initial chest CT findings are lacking. We sought to compare the differences in clinical findings, viral loads, and outcomes between patients with confirmed COVID-19 who initially tested negative on chest CT (CT negative) with patients who tested initially positive on chest CT (CT positive). The clinical data, viral loads, and outcomes of initial CT-positive and CT-negative patients examined between January 2020 and April 2020 were retrospectively compared. The efficacy of viral load (cyclic threshold value [Ct value]) in predicting pneumonia was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC). In total, 128 patients underwent initial chest CT (mean age, 54.3 ± 19.0 years, 50% male). Of those, 36 were initially CT negative, and 92 were CT positive. The CT-positive patients were significantly older (P < .001) than the CT-negative patients. Only age was significantly associated with the initial presence of pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.060; confidence interval (CI), 1.020-1-102; P = .003). In addition, age (OR, 1.062; CI, 1.014-1.112; P = .011), fever at diagnosis (OR, 6.689; CI, 1.715-26.096; P = .006), and CRP level (OR, 1.393; CI, 1.150-1.687; P = .001) were significantly associated with the need for O2 therapy. Viral load was significantly higher in the CT-positive group than in the CT-negative group (P = .017). The cutoff Ct value for predicting the presence of pneumonia was 27.71. Outcomes including the mean hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, and O2 therapy were significantly worse in the CT-positive group than in the CT-negative group (all P < .05). In conclusion, initially CT-negative patients showed better outcomes than initially CT-positive patients. Age was significantly associated with the initial presence of pneumonia, and viral load may help in predicting the initial presence of pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load/physiology , Young Adult
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was a lack of information about prognostic accuracy of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in forecasting cure among extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of SCC at various time points in forecasting cure among XDR-TB patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 355 eligible pulmonary XDR-TB patients treated at 27 centers in Pakistan between 01-05-2010 and 30-06-2017. The baseline and follow-up information of patients from treatment initiation until the end of treatment were retrieved from electronic nominal recording and reporting system. Time to SCC was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, and differences between groups were compared through log-rank test. Predictors of time to SCC and cure were respectively evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 226 (63.6%) and 146 (41.1%) patients respectively achieved SCC and cure. Median time to SCC was significantly shorter in patients who achieved cure, 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.47-3.53), than those who did not (median: 10 months, 95% CI: 5.24-14.76) (p-value < 0.001, Log-rank test). Patient's age > 40 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.632, p-value = 0.004), baseline sputum grading of scanty, + 1 (HR = 0.511, p-value = 0.002), + 2, + 3 (HR = 0.523, p-value = 0.001) and use of high dose isoniazid (HR = 0.463, p-value = 0.004) were significantly associated with early SCC. Only SCC at 6 month of treatment had statistically significant association with cure (odds ratio = 15.603, p-value < 0.001). In predicting cure, the sensitivities of SCC at 2, 4 and 6 months were respectively 41.8% (95%CI: 33.7-50.2), 69.9% (95%CI: 61.7-77.2) and 84.9% (95%CI: 78.1-90.3), specificities were respectively, 82.8% (95%CI: 76.9-87.6), 74.6% (95%CI: 68.2-80.4) and 69.4% (95%CI: 62.6-75.5) and prognostic accuracies were respectively 65.9% (95%CI: 60.7-70.8), 72.7% (95%CI: 67.7-77.2) and 75.8% (95%CI: 71.0-80.1). CONCLUSION: In forecasting cure, SCC at month 6 of treatment performed better than SCC at 2 and 4 months. However, it would be too long for clinicians to wait for 6 months to decide about the regimen efficacy. Therefore, with somewhat comparable prognostic accuracy to that SCC at 6 month, using SCC at 4 month of treatment as a prognostic marker in predicting cure among XDR-TB patients can decrease the clinicians waiting time to decide about the regimen efficacy.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
6.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103939, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763702

ABSTRACT

Rapid, accurate, sputum-free tests for tuberculosis (TB) triage and confirmation are urgently needed to close the widening diagnostic gap. We summarise key technologies and review programmatic, systems, and resource issues that could affect the impact of diagnostics. Mid-to-early-stage technologies like artificial intelligence-based automated digital chest X-radiography and capillary blood point-of-care assays are particularly promising. Pitfalls in the diagnostic pipeline, included a lack of community-based tools. We outline how these technologies may complement one another within the context of the TB care cascade, help overturn current paradigms (eg, reducing syndromic triage reliance, permitting subclinical TB to be diagnosed), and expand options for extra-pulmonary TB. We review challenges such as the difficulty of detecting paucibacillary TB and the limitations of current reference standards, and discuss how researchers and developers can better design and evaluate assays to optimise programmatic uptake. Finally, we outline how leveraging the urgency and innovation applied to COVID-19 is critical to improving TB patients' diagnostic quality-of-care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Antigens, Bacterial , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Sputum , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112753, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707727

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a lethal disease caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which continues to be a public health threat. COVID-19 is principally a respiratory disease and is often associated with sputum retention and cytokine storm, for which there are limited therapeutic options. In this regard, we evaluated the use of BromAc®, a combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (NAC). Both drugs present mucolytic effect and have been studied to treat COVID-19. Therefore, we sought to examine the mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® in tracheal aspirate samples from critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. METHOD: Tracheal aspirate samples from COVID-19 patients were collected following next of kin consent and mucolysis, rheometry and cytokine analysis using Luminex kit was performed. RESULTS: BromAc® displayed a robust mucolytic effect in a dose dependent manner on COVID-19 sputum ex vivo. BromAc® showed anti-inflammatory activity, reducing the action of cytokine storm, chemokines including MIP-1alpha, CXCL8, MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IP-10, and regulatory cytokines IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 IL-1Ra and total reduction for IL-9 compared to NAC alone and control. BromAc® acted on IL-6, demonstrating a reduction in G-CSF and VEGF-D at concentrations of 125 and 250 µg. CONCLUSION: These results indicate robust mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® ex vivo in tracheal aspirates from critically ill COVID-19 patients, indicating its potential to be further assessed as pharmacological treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromelains/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokines/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Sputum/cytology , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bromelains/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Down-Regulation , Drug Combinations , Expectorants/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/pathology , Young Adult
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 258-267, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The mortality rate for critically ill COVID-19 cases was more than 80%. Nonetheless, research about the effect of common respiratory diseases on critically ill COVID-19 expression and outcomes is scarce. DESIGN: We performed proteomic analyses on airway mucus obtained by bronchoscopy from patients with severe COVID-19, or induced sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and healthy controls. RESULTS: Of the total identified and quantified proteins, 445 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in different comparison groups. In comparison with COPD, asthma, and controls, 11 proteins were uniquely present in COVID-19 patients. Apart from DEPs associated with COPD versus controls and asthma versus controls, there was a total of 59 DEPs specific to COVID-19 patients. Finally, the findings revealed that there were 8 overlapping proteins in COVID-19 patients, including C9, FGB, FGG, PRTN3, HBB, HBA1, IGLV3-19, and COTL1. Functional analyses revealed that most of them were associated with complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, or iron metabolism, and anemia-related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides fundamental data for identifying COVID-19-specific proteomic changes in comparison with COPD and asthma, which may suggest molecular targets for specialized therapy.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Critical Illness , Humans , Microfilament Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0059121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691413

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to severe respiratory illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The diagnostic accuracy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)- or World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) primers in clinical practice remains unproven. We conducted a prospective study on the accuracy of RT-qPCR using an in-house-designed primer set (iNP) targeting the nucleocapsid protein as well as various recommended and commercial primers. The accuracy was assessed by culturing or seroconversion. We enrolled 12 confirmed COVID-19 patients with a total of 590 clinical samples. When a cutoff value of the cycle threshold (Ct) was set to 35, RT-qPCRs with WHO RdRp primers and CDC N1, N2, and N3 primers showed sensitivity of 42.1% to 63.2% and specificity of 90.5% to 100% in sputum, and sensitivity of 65.2% to 69.6% and specificity of 65.2% to 69.6% in nasopharyngeal samples. The sensitivity and specificity of iNP RT-qPCR in sputum and nasopharyngeal samples were 94.8%/100% and 69.6%/100%, respectively. Sputum testing had the highest sensitivity, followed by nasopharyngeal testing (P = 0.0193); self-collected saliva samples yielded better characteristics than oropharyngeal samples (P = 0.0032). Our results suggest that iNP RT-qPCR has better sensitivity and specificity than RT-PCR with WHO (P < 0.0001) or CDC (N1: P = 0.0012, N2: P = 0.0013, N3: P = 0.0012) primers. Sputum RT-qPCR analysis has the highest sensitivity, followed by nasopharyngeal, saliva, and oropharyngeal assays. Our study suggests that considerable improvement is needed for the RT-qPCR WHO and CDC primer sets for detecting SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Numerous research campaigns have addressed the vast majority of clinical and diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of various primer sets of SARS-CoV2 viral detection. Despite the impressive progress made to resolve the pandemic, there is still a need for continuous and active improvement of primers used for diagnosis in clinical practice. Our study significantly exceeds the scale of previously published research on the specificity and sensitivity of different primers comparing with different specimens and is the most comprehensive to date in terms of constant monitoring of primer sets of current usage. Henceforth, our results suggest that sputum samples sensitivity is the highest, followed by nasopharyngeal, saliva, and oropharyngeal samples. The CDC recommends the use of oropharyngeal specimens, leading to certain discrepancy between the guidelines set forth by the CDC and IDSA. We proved that the oropharyngeal samples demonstrated the lowest sensitivity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/virology , Viral Load , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690730

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the successful control of the current global COVID-19 pandemic. The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) is the most widely used detection technique. This research describes the development of two novel multiplex real-time RT-PCR kits, AccuPower® COVID-19 Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR Kit (NCVM) specifically designed for use with the ExiStation™48 system (comprised of ExiPrep™48 Dx and Exicycler™96 by BIONEER, Korea) for sample RNA extraction and PCR detection, and AccuPower® SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR Kit (SCVM) designed to be compatible with manufacturers' on-market PCR instruments. The limit of detection (LoD) of NCVM was 120 copies/mL and the LoD of the SCVM was 2 copies/µL for both the Pan-sarbecovirus gene and the SARS-CoV-2 gene. The AccuPower® kits demonstrated high precision with no cross reactivity to other respiratory-related microorganisms. The clinical performance of AccuPower® kits was evaluated using the following clinical samples: sputum and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab (NPS/OPS) samples. Overall agreement of the AccuPower® kits with a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved emergency use authorized commercial kit (STANDARD™ M nCoV Real-Time Detection kit, SD BIOSENSOR, Korea) was above 95% (Cohen's kappa coefficient ≥ 0.95), with a sensitivity of over 95%. The NPS/OPS specimen pooling experiment was conducted to verify the usability of AccuPower® kits on pooled samples and the results showed greater than 90% agreement with individual NPS/OPS samples. The clinical performance of AccuPower® kits with saliva samples was also compared with NPS/OPS samples and demonstrated over 95% agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient > 0.95). This study shows the BIONEER NCVM and SCVM assays are comparable with the current standard confirmation assay and are suitable for effective clinical management and control of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Sputum/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Limit of Detection , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(4): 1597-1610, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 survivors report residual lung abnormalities after discharge from the hospital. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers in serum and induced sputum samples from patients after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospitals in Spain with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited for this study. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were divided into groups with mild/moderate and severe disease according to the severity of their symptoms during hospitalization. Levels of 92 biomarkers were measured in serum and induced sputum samples. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients (46.2% severe cases) were included in this study. The median number of days after the onset of symptoms was 104. A significant difference was observed in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), an indicator of lung function, whereby DLCO <80% was significantly lower in severe cases (p <0.001). Differences in inflammatory biomarkers were observed between patients with mild/moderate and severe disease. For some biomarkers, correlations in serum and induced sputum levels were detected. Independent predictors of severe disease were DLCO <80% and the serum CDCP1 value. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CDCP1 remain after hospital discharge and are associated with the severity of COVID-19. The possible prognostic implications warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Cell Adhesion Molecules/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sputum/chemistry
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685569

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Active case finding (ACF) of individuals with tuberculosis (TB) is a key intervention to find the 30% of people missed every year. However, ACF requires screening large numbers of individuals who have a low probability of positive results, typically <5%, which makes using the recommended molecular tests expensive. METHODS: We conducted two ACF surveys (in 2020 and 2021) in high TB burden areas of Lao PDR. Participants were screened for TB symptoms and received a chest X-ray. Sputum samples of four consecutive individuals were pooled and tested with Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (RIF) (Xpert-MTB/RIF) (2020) or Xpert-Ultra (2021). The agreement of the individual and pooled samples was compared and the reasons for discrepant results and potential cartridge savings were assessed. RESULTS: Each survey included 436 participants, which were tested in 109 pools. In the Xpert-MTB/RIF survey, 25 (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 72.8% to 96.3%) of 28 pools containing MTB-positive samples tested positive and 81 pools containing only MTB-negative samples tested negative (specificity 100%, 95% CI 95.5% to 100%). In the Xpert-Ultra survey, all 32 (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 89.3% to 100%) pools containing MTB-positive samples tested positive and all 77 (specificity 100%, 95% CI 95.3% to 100%) containing only MTB-negative samples tested negative. Pooling with Xpert-MTB/RIF and Xpert-Ultra saved 52% and 46% (227/436 and 199/436, respectively) of cartridge costs alone. CONCLUSION: Testing single and pooled specimens had a high level of agreement, with complete concordance when using Xpert-Ultra. Pooling samples could generate significant cartridge savings during ACF campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Laos , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261849, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 pandemics are both diseases of public health threat globally. Both diseases are caused by pathogens that infect mainly the respiratory system, and are involved in airborne transmission; they also share some clinical signs and symptoms. We, therefore, took advantage of collected sputum samples at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in Ghana to conduct differential diagnoses of long-standing endemic respiratory illness, particularly tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: Sputum samples collected through the enhanced national surveys from suspected COVID-19 patients and contact tracing cases were analyzed for TB. The sputum samples were processed using Cepheid's GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in pools of 4 samples to determine the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Positive pools were then decoupled and analyzed individually. Details of positive TB samples were forwarded to the NTP for appropriate case management. RESULTS: Seven-hundred and seventy-four sputum samples were analyzed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both suspected COVID-19 cases (679/774, 87.7%) and their contacts (95/774, 12.3%). A total of 111 (14.3%) were diagnosed with SARS CoV-2 infection and six (0.8%) out of the 774 individuals tested positive for pulmonary tuberculosis: five (83.3%) males and one female (16.7%). Drug susceptibility analysis identified 1 (16.7%) rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis case. Out of the six TB positive cases, 2 (33.3%) tested positive for COVID-19 indicating a coinfection. Stratifying by demography, three out of the six (50%) were from the Ayawaso West District. All positive cases received appropriate treatment at the respective sub-district according to the national guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the need for differential diagnosis among COVID-19 suspected cases and regular active TB surveillance in TB endemic settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and early detection of drug susceptibility among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients could guide the timely initiation of effective treatment and reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB. In the current study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of GenoType MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) ver1.0 assay for detection of resistance to ofloxacin (OFL), kanamycin (KAN) and ethambutol (EMB), and additionally the XDR-TB among MDR-TB patients in Bangladesh. METHODS: The MTBDRsl assay was performed directly on 218 smear-positive sputum specimens collected from MDR-TB patients and the results were compared with the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed on solid Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media. We also analyzed the mutation patterns of gyrA, rrs, and embB genes for detection of resistance to OFL, KAN and EMB, respectively. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the MTBDRsl compared to phenotypic L-J DST were 81.8% (95% CI, 69.1-90.9) and 98.8% (95% CI, 95.6-99.8), respectively for OFL (PPV: 95.7% & NPV: 94.1%); 65.1% (95% CI, 57.5-72.2) and 86.7% (95% CI, 73.2-94.9), respectively for EMB (PPV: 94.9% & NPV: 39.4%); and 100% for KAN. The diagnostic accuracy of KAN, OFL and EMB were 100, 94.5 and 69.6%, respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of MtBDRsl for detection of XDR-TB was 100%. The most frequently observed mutations were at codon D94G (46.8%) of gyrA gene, A1401G (83.3%) of rrs gene, and M306V (41.5%) of the embB gene. CONCLUSION: Considering the excellent performance in this study we suggest that MTBDRsl assay can be used as an initial rapid test for detection of KAN and OFL susceptibility, as well as XDR-TB directly from smear-positive sputum specimens of MDR-TB patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Bangladesh/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/genetics , Female , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques/methods , Humans , Kanamycin/therapeutic use , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Ofloxacin/therapeutic use , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/chemistry , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261442, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593549

ABSTRACT

A laboratory validation study was conducted to assess the equivalence of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra testing on the GeneXpert System and the GeneXpert Omni System ('Omni') for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. High concordance of the two devices was demonstrated for well-characterized clinical samples as well as control materials, with controls tested on Omni at normal and challenging environmental conditions (i.e. 35°C, 90% relative humidity). Equivalence of the Cts for all probes was also shown. Equivalence was demonstrated for the Omni and GeneXpert devices for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance detection for a diverse range of clinical specimens and environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Point-of-Care Testing , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581791

ABSTRACT

The rapid, sensitive and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 is critical in responding to the current COVID-19 outbreak. In this proof-of-concept study, we explored the potential of targeted mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in both research samples and clinical specimens. First, we assessed the limit of detection for several SARS-CoV-2 proteins by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) MS in infected Vero E6 cells. For tryptic peptides of Nucleocapsid protein, the limit of detection was estimated to be in the mid-attomole range (9E-13 g). Next, this PRM methodology was applied to the detection of viral proteins in various COVID-19 patient clinical specimens, such as sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs. SARS-CoV-2 proteins were detected in these samples with high sensitivity in all specimens with PCR Ct values <24 and in several samples with higher CT values. A clear relationship was observed between summed MS peak intensities for SARS-CoV-2 proteins and Ct values reflecting the abundance of viral RNA. Taken together, these results suggest that targeted MS based proteomics may have the potential to be used as an additional tool in COVID-19 diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/isolation & purification , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sputum/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
18.
J Infect ; 83(5): e6-e9, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527752

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the relationship between the severity of lung damage and cytokine levels in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum. METHOD: Eight severe patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were admitted and their cytokines and chest computed tomography (CT) were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with in serum, IL-6 and TNF-α in sputum and in BALF show more directly reflect the severity of COVID-19 critical patients. The gradient ratio of IL-6 levels may predict the prognosis of severe patients. CONCLUSION: Cytokine levels in the sputum may be more helpful for indicating lung damage. Local intervention through the respiratory tract is expected to benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Sputum/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Prognosis
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(10): e0236020, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486498

ABSTRACT

Efforts to control transmissible infectious diseases rely on the ability to screen large populations, ideally in community settings. These efforts can be limited by the requirement for invasive or logistically difficult collection of patient samples, such as blood, urine, stool, sputum, and nasopharyngeal swabs. Oral sampling is an appealing, noninvasive alternative that could greatly facilitate high-throughput sampling in community settings. Oral sampling has been described for the detection of dozens of human pathogens, including pathogens whose primary sites of infection are outside of the oral cavity, such as the respiratory pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2. Oral sampling can demonstrate active infections as well as resolving or previous infections, the latter through the detection of antibodies. Its potential applications are diverse, including improved diagnosis in special populations (e.g., children), population surveillance, and infectious disease screening. In this minireview, we address the use of oral samples for the detection of diseases that primarily manifest outside the oral cavity. Focusing on well-supported examples, we describe applications for such methods and highlight their potential advantages and limitations in medicine, public health, and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Sputum
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