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Front Immunol ; 14: 1116238, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287970


Background: Adjuvants are chemical or biological materials that enhance the efficacy of vaccines. A-910823 is a squalene-based emulsion adjuvant used for S-268019-b, a novel vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is currently in clinical development. Published evidence has demonstrated that A-910823 can enhance the induction of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in humans and animal models. However, the characteristics and mechanisms of the immune responses induced by A-910823 are not yet known. Methods and Results: To characterize A-910823, we compared the adaptive immune response profile enhanced by A-910823 with that of other adjuvants (AddaVax, QS21, aluminum salt-based adjuvants, and empty lipid nanoparticle [eLNP]) in a murine model. Compared with other adjuvants, A-910823 enhanced humoral immune responses to an equal or greater extent following potent T follicular helper (Tfh) and germinal center B (GCB) cell induction, without inducing a strong systemic inflammatory cytokine response. Furthermore, S-268019-b containing A-910823 adjuvant produced similar results even when given as a booster dose following primary administration of a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated messenger RNA (mRNA-LNP) vaccine. Preparation of modified A-910823 adjuvants to identify which components of A-910823 play a role in driving the adjuvant effect and detailed evaluation of the immunological characteristics induced by each adjuvant showed that the induction of humoral immunity and Tfh and GCB cell induction in A-910823 were dependent on α-tocopherol. Finally, we revealed that the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the draining lymph nodes and induction of serum cytokines and chemokines by A-910823 were also dependent on the α-tocopherol component. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the novel adjuvant A-910823 is capable of robust Tfh cell induction and humoral immune responses, even when given as a booster dose. The findings also emphasize that α-tocopherol drives the potent Tfh-inducing adjuvant function of A-910823. Overall, our data provide key information that may inform the future production of improved adjuvants.

COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , Animals , Mice , T Follicular Helper Cells , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology , Squalene/pharmacology , Emulsions , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic
Cell ; 184(15): 3915-3935.e21, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283262


Emerging evidence indicates a fundamental role for the epigenome in immunity. Here, we mapped the epigenomic and transcriptional landscape of immunity to influenza vaccination in humans at the single-cell level. Vaccination against seasonal influenza induced persistently diminished H3K27ac in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), which was associated with impaired cytokine responses to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Single-cell ATAC-seq analysis revealed an epigenomically distinct subcluster of monocytes with reduced chromatin accessibility at AP-1-targeted loci after vaccination. Similar effects were observed in response to vaccination with the AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. However, this vaccine also stimulated persistently increased chromatin accessibility at interferon response factor (IRF) loci in monocytes and mDCs. This was associated with elevated expression of antiviral genes and heightened resistance to the unrelated Zika and Dengue viruses. These results demonstrate that vaccination stimulates persistent epigenomic remodeling of the innate immune system and reveal AS03's potential as an epigenetic adjuvant.

Epigenomics , Immunity/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cellular Reprogramming , Chromatin/metabolism , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Combinations , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Male , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Squalene/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Young Adult , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology