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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070214, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe how household economies and health service utilisation of pregnant and postpartum women were affected during the pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted in the Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS: The study participants were 1460 pregnant and postpartum women recruited for the Rajarata Pregnancy Cohort during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Household economic (income, poverty, nutritional and health expenditures) and health service utilisation details during the COVID-19 pandemic were gathered through telephone interviews. Sociodemographic and economic data were obtained from the cohort baseline and analysed with descriptive and non-parametric analysis. RESULTS: Out of the 1460 women in the sample, 55.3% (n=807) were pregnant and 44.7% (n=653) were postpartum women. Of the total sample, 1172 (80.3%) women participated in the economic component. The monthly household income (median (IQR)=212.39 (159.29-265.49)) reduced (median (IQR)=159.29 (106.20-212.39)) in 50.5% (n=592) families during the pandemic (Z=-8.555, p<0.001). Only 10.3% (n=61) of affected families had received financial assistance from the government, which was only 46.4% of the affected income. The nutritional expenditure of pregnant women was reduced (Z=-2.023, p=0.043) by 6.7%. During the pandemic, 103 (8.8%) families with pregnant or postpartum women were pushed into poverty, and families who were pushed into poverty did not receive any financial assistance. The majority of women (n=1096, 83.3%) were satisfied with the free public health services provided by the public health midwife during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the early stages of the pandemic, healthcare utilisation of pregnant women was minimally affected. Even before the country's current economic crisis, the household economies of pregnant women in rural Sri Lanka were severely affected, pushing families into poverty due to the pandemic. The impact of COVID-19 and the aftermath on pregnant women will have many consequences if the policies and strategies are not revised to address this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Health Services , Postpartum Period
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 45, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists and physiotherapy undergraduates have direct contact with patients which make them transmitters of infections if they do not follow standard precautions. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and source of information among physiotherapy undergraduates in Sri Lanka. METHODS: An observational Google based survey study was conducted among 294 physiotherapy undergraduates, of which there were 103 in University of Peradeniya, 103 in University of Colombo, and 88 in General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University. The Infection Control Standardized Questionnaire comprising three domains: knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions and hand hygiene was used for data collection along with a self-constructed data sheet for socio-demographic information and source of information. RESULTS: Participants achieved mean knowledge of 67.1 ± 16.8, 84.4 ± 14.7 and 66.4 ± 15.4 for nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and hand hygiene respectively. Of the total sample, 225 (76.5%) achieved adequate level of total knowledge. Eighty-three of them (28.3%) equally mentioned, formal teaching at faculty and informal sources as the most important source of knowledge. There was no significant impact of university and the duration of clinical exposure on knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, hand hygiene and total knowledge. The study year has a significant impact on standard precautions (P = 0.004) and total knowledge (P = 0.035) and final years had highest knowledge compared to the other study years. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of nosocomial infections and infection control measures were satisfactory among the physiotherapy undergraduates in Sri Lanka. Further developments of formal sources of information about nosocomial infections are recommended.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Sri Lanka , Information Sources , Infection Control , Physical Therapy Modalities
3.
Elife ; 122023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316749

ABSTRACT

It is quite well documented that the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted cancer screening services in all countries, irrespective of their resources and healthcare settings. While quantitative estimates on reduction in volume of screening tests or diagnostic evaluation are readily available from the high-income countries, very little data are available from the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). From the CanScreen5 global cancer screening data repository we identified six LMICs through purposive sampling based on the availability of cancer screening data at least for the years 2019 and 2020. These countries represented those in high human development index (HDI) categories (Argentina, Colombia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) and medium HDI categories (Bangladesh and Morocco). No data were available from low HDI countries to perform similar analysis. The reduction in the volume of tests in 2020 compared to the previous year ranged from 14.1% in Bangladesh to 72.9% in Argentina (regional programme) for cervical screening, from 14.2% in Bangladesh to 49.4% in Morocco for breast cancer screening and 30.7% in Thailand for colorectal cancer screening. Number of colposcopies was reduced in 2020 compared to previous year by 88.9% in Argentina, 38.2% in Colombia, 27.4% in Bangladesh, and 52.2% in Morocco. The reduction in detection rates of CIN 2 or worse lesions ranged from 20.7% in Morocco to 45.4% in Argentina. Reduction of breast cancer detection by 19.1% was reported from Morocco. No association of the impact of pandemic could be seen with HDI categories. Quantifying the impact of service disruptions in screening and diagnostic tests will allow the programmes to strategize how to ramp up services to clear the backlogs in screening and more crucially in further evaluation of screen positives. The data can be used to estimate the impact on stage distribution and avoidable mortality from these common cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Thailand , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bangladesh , Sri Lanka , Argentina , Colombia/epidemiology , Morocco/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries
4.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(12): 1129-1137, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause clinical manifestations that last for weeks or months after hospital discharge. The manifestations are heterogeneous and vary in their frequency. Their multisystem nature requires a holistic approach to management. There are sparse data from the South Asian region on the outcomes of hospital-discharged COVID-19 patients. We assessed the posthospital discharge outcomes of a cohort of Sri Lankan COVID-19 patients and explored the factors that influenced these outcomes. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from patients who were discharged following an admission to the Nawaloka Hospital, Sri Lanka with COVID-19 from March to June 2021. At discharge, their demographic, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded. The patients were categorised as having mild, moderate and severe COVID-19, based on the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health COVID-19 guidelines. Following discharge, information on health status, complications and outcomes was collected through clinic visits and preplanned telephone interviews. A validated (in Sri Lanka) version of the Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess multi-item dimensions health status of the patients at 1, 2 and 3 mo postdischarge. RESULTS: We collected data on 203 patients (male, n=111 [54.7%]). The level of vaccination was significantly associated with disease severity (p<0.001). Early recovery was seen in the mild group compared with the moderate and severe groups. At 3 mo, on average 98% of mild and 90% of moderate/severe patients had recovered. Based on the SF-36, physical functioning dimensions, role limitation due to physical and emotional health, energy/ fatigue, emotional well-being, social functioning, pain and general health were significantly different in the moderate/severe vs mild COVID-19 groups at 1, 2 and 3 mo postdischarge (p<0.05). Twenty-three patients developed complications, of which the most common were myocardial infarction with heart failure (n=6/23; 26.1%), cerebrovascular accident (n=6/23; 26.1%) and respiratory tract infections (n=3/23; 13.01%) and there were six deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, receiving two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine was associated with reduced disease severity. Those with mild disease recovered faster than those with moderate/severe disease. At 3 mo posthospital discharge, >90% had recovered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Aftercare , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284553, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305666

ABSTRACT

People's quality of life (QOL) has been disrupted globally in the wake of the pandemic in recent times. This was mainly due to global economic crises fuelled by the coronavirus (COVID- 19) and other related factors. Sri Lanka, too, was facing major social and economic constraints in the period 2021-2022. Thus, all communities islandwide have been economically disturbed. Among others, people with Visual Impairment and Blindness (VIB) have been pushed to severely disadvantageous positions, financially and otherwise. A sample from three geographical locations in Sri Lanka; and eleven individuals representing diverse cadres in Sri Lankan society were purposively selected for the study based on the existence of the majority of the visually impaired community using a mixed approach. Descriptive statistics were utilised to analyse the identified socio-economic characteristics. Ordered probit regression was employed to determine the mediating effect of socio-economic status on income levels. Word Cloud illustrates the factors affecting the QOL. Most severely impaired individuals are more likely to earn a lower rate of income. This situation has degraded their lives and poor QOL. Participants' responses elucidate that facilities, resources, education, opportunities, income, employment, and government activities would enhance their QOL. The study adds value to society by recognising VIB people, helping them gain financial independence and strengthening them without marginalising the impaired community. The proposed policies in this study would be valuable for these social groups to address their wealth concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Income , Social Class , Sri Lanka , Vision Disorders/epidemiology
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 528, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mental health disorders is known to be high among university students globally. Currently there are only a few studies on depression among university students in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to screen for the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other forms of depression, and to evaluate the factors associated with MDD. METHODS: A cross sectional survey using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was conducted among 637, second-year students from the faculties of Management Studies & Commerce, Science and Medicine at the University of Jaffna, during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Bivariate associations were assessed using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with any type of ragging. RESULTS: MDD was considered to have been experienced by 31% of the students. From all three faculties, 70% of the students claimed to have experienced some form of depression ranging from mild to severe. The factor associated with MDD was the students' ethnicity. CONCLUSION: Due to the high MDD risk among university students, it is imperative to develop psychosocial interventions to ensure early detection of mental health disorders and provide adequate support to safeguard this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Prevalence , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Students
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1028285, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250465

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information about diabetes and thyroid related autoantibodies in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or their siblings in Sri Lanka. Objectives: To assess in T1D children and their unaffected siblings the prevalence of autoantibodies to (1) glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma associated antigen-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) using 3 Screen ICA™ (3-Screen) and individual ELISA assays; (2) insulin (IAA); and (3) thyroid peroxidase (TPOA), thyroglobulin (TgA) and the TSH receptor (TSHRA). Methods: We selected - (a) consecutive T1D children, and (b) their unaffected siblings of both sexes, from the T1D Registry at Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo. Results: The median age (IQR) of 235 T1D children and 252 unaffected siblings was 11 (8.4, 13.2) and 9 (5.4, 14.9) years respectively, and the duration of T1D was 23 (7, 54) months. (1) T1D children (a) 79.1% were 3-Screen positive; (b) all 3-Screen positives were individual antibody positive (GADA in 74%; IA-2A 31.1%; ZnT8A 38.7%); (c) and were younger (p=0.01 vs 3-Screen negatives); (d) multiple autoantibodies were present in 45.1%; (e) IA-2A (p=0.002) and ZnT8A (p=0.006) prevalence decreased with T1D duration. (f) TPOA and TgA prevalence was higher in T1D children compared to unaffected siblings (28%, p=0.001 and 31%, p=0.004, respectively). (2) Unaffected siblings (a) 6.3% were 3-Screen positive (p=0.001 vs T1D), and 2.4% were positive for IAA; (b) four subjects had two diabetes related autoantibodies, one of whom developed dysglycaemia during follow-up. Conclusions: The 3-Screen assay, used for the first time in Sri Lankan T1D children and their siblings as a screening tool, shows a high prevalence of T1D related Abs with a high correlation with individual assays, and is also a helpful tool in screening unaffected siblings for future T1D risk. The higher prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in T1D children is consistent with polyglandular autoimmunity.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Sri Lanka , Siblings , Thyroid Gland , Prevalence , Autoantibodies
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244460

ABSTRACT

Evidence from high-income countries suggests that the impact of COVID-19 on suicide and self-harm has been limited, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries is lacking. Using data from a hospital-based self-poisoning register (January 2019-December 2021) and data from national records (2016-2021) of suicide in Sri Lanka, we aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on both self-poisoning and suicide. We examined changes in admissions for self-poisoning and suicide using interrupted time series (ITS) analysis. For the self-poisoning hospital admission ITS models, we defined the lockdown periods as follows: (i) pre-lockdown: 01/01/2019-19/03/2020; (ii) first lockdown: 20/03/2020-27/06/2020; (iii) post-first lockdown: 28/06/2020-11/05/2021; (iv) second lockdown: 12/05/2021-21/06/2021; and (v) post-second lockdown: 22/06/2021-31/12/2021. For suicide, we defined the intervention according to the pandemic period. We found that during lockdown periods, there was a reduction in hospital admissions for self-poisoning, with evidence that admission following self-poisoning remained lower during the pandemic than would be expected based on pre-pandemic trends. In contrast, there was no evidence that the rate of suicide in the pandemic period differed from that which would be expected. As the long-term socioeconomic impacts of the pandemic are realised, it will be important to track rates of self-harm and suicide in LMICs to inform prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2165360, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230165

ABSTRACT

Aiming to further the Immunization Partners in Asia Pacific (IPAP)'s vision of a world where no one suffers from a vaccine preventable disease, the 8th Asian Vaccine Conference (ASVAC 2022) was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka and virtually from 15 to 18, September 2022 (www.asianvaccine.com). This conference followed those held in Siem Reap, Cambodia (2009), Manila, Philippines (2010), Jakarta, Indonesia (2011), Cebu, Philippines (2013), Hanoi, Vietnam (2015), Singapore (2017) and Naypyidaw and Yangon, Myanmar (2019). The ASVAC2022 themed "Immunization: in Era of Pandemics," commenced with the EPI Managers' Workshop, followed by pre-conference workshops and Vaccinology Masterclass, followed by the main conference featuring 5 plenary lectures, 6 partner-led symposia, free paper and poster presentations, and industry-supported lunch and evening sessions. There were over 1830 registered participants, with 112 attending in person and 998 virtually from 63 countries. The conference was organized by IPAP and hosted by the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Forum of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka College of Pediatricians, Sri Lanka College of Microbiologists and College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka, with the support of the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. The 9th ASVAC is scheduled to be held in Davao City, Philippines in late 2023.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Humans , Philippines , Indonesia , Vaccination , Sri Lanka
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279418, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates gender differences in the treatment effects of business grants on firm performance following natural disasters, and seeks to identify the mechanisms underlying the unequal effects. METHOD: A panel data-set from an experiment in Sri Lanka is used to measure the difference in the treatment effects of a business grant on the performance of female and male-owned firms following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The sample of 608 microenterprises includes 297 female-owned firms and 311 male-owned firms. There are 338 firms (Male = 176, Female = 162) in the treatment group that received the grant and 270 firms (Male = 135, Female = 135) in the control group that did not receive the grant. Data on firm performance, firm characteristics and owner characteristics were collected in 13 survey waves from April 2005 to December 2010. Firm performance, which is measured by firm profit, is assessed by employing linear regression with fixed effects in an intention-to-treat analysis. FINDINGS: The results suggest that the business grant has a positive impact on the performance of male-owned firms, but zero effect on that of female-owned firms. Several potential mechanisms drive the results, including gender differences in business investment, household expenditure and initial business closures. The results also show a positive treatment effect of the business grant on the psychological recovery of recipients, but there is no evidence supporting gender differences in this dimension. CONTRIBUTION: This paper provides new evidence on gender differences in the treatment effects of business grants on firm performance in the context of post-disasters, and has implications for business recovery programs aimed at supporting female microentrepreneurs in the aftermath of large-scale catastrophes.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Natural Disasters , Male , Humans , Female , Sri Lanka , Small Business , Tsunamis
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S42-S48, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162906

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic challenged countries to protect their populations from this emerging disease. One aspect of that challenge was to rapidly modify national surveillance systems or create new systems that would effectively detect new cases of COVID-19. Fifty-five countries leveraged past investments in District Health Information Software version 2 (DHIS2) to quickly adapt their national public health surveillance systems for COVID-19 case reporting and response activities. We provide background on DHIS2 and describe case studies from Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, and Uganda to illustrate how the DHIS2 platform, its community of practice, long-term capacity building, and local autonomy enabled countries to establish an effective COVID-19 response. With these case studies, we provide valuable insights and recommendations for strategies that can be used for national electronic disease surveillance platforms to detect new and emerging pathogens and respond to public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162580

ABSTRACT

Timely completion is a crucial factor for the success of a construction project, especially in the Sri Lankan context. This study aims to identify the most influential factors that affect the timely completion of construction projects in Sri Lanka. Thirty-nine factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review and experts' opinions. A questionnaire incorporating the 39 project delay factors was distributed among 163 Civil Engineers, and responses were obtained. Random sampling method was adopted to select the sample. The Relative Importance Index (RII) analysed and ranked the project delay factors. The top ranked significant project delay factors were identified as shortage of skilled subcontractors/suppliers, shortage of labourers (Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled), financial difficulties of contractors, delay in delivering materials to the site, and Covid-19 pandemic situation. According to the main three respondent types, i.e., clients/owners, contractors and consultants, the contractor related factors was the key group among others that delay a construction project. The scientific value of the study includes assisting the Sri Lankan construction industry to identify the factors affecting the timely completion of construction projects, and developing mitigation methods and strategies. Also, the stakeholders could duly schedule the construction work by identifying areas that need more attention. The contribution of this study would assist stakeholders to adopt a proactive approach by identifying mistakes on their part and minimising potential issues that lead to construction project delays in Sri Lanka.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Construction Industry , Humans , Sri Lanka , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140629

ABSTRACT

Pet ownership is an integral part of a modern-day family. It provides a wide range of benefits to humans. However, data on pet ownership are relatively limited from rural regions, Southern Asia and low-middle-income countries. We aim to report the prevalence and associated factors for pet ownership and veterinary visits in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine significant associations between variables of interest and pet ownership (p < 0.05). Out of the 532 households, 57% currently owned a pet. The most common pet was the dog owned by 41% of the households and the cat was the second most owned by 17%. Security (69% - 152/220) was the most common role for dogs at home while it was companionship for cats (31% - 27/88) and hobby for both birds (64% - 18/28) and fish (54% - 14/26). Most dogs (54% - 118/220) had one veterinary visit within the last year. Households with >1 adult female [p = 0.02; OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.36)], participants living alone [p = 0.03; OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.86)] and Buddhists [p = 0.02; OR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.63)] were significantly associated with pet ownership. Pet ownership is common among people in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, with a few demographic factors having a significant association with pet ownership. Dogs are the most common type of pet and highlight the opportunity for research related to canine companionship and human health. Future research on such topics should consider the above-mentioned socio-demographic predictors as potential confounders.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Ownership , Adult , Dogs , Humans , Animals , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sri Lanka , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002331

ABSTRACT

Economic growth becomes a critical component in the development of every country since it enhances living standards and other related concerns while eliminating poverty. As a developing country, Sri Lanka must place more emphasis to achieve sustainable economic growth. In addition, various factors have positive and negative impacts on economy's growth. As such, the specific goals of any economy are to sustain long-term economic growth and low inflation. As a result, generally, high inflation is destructive for an economy and low inflation is beneficial. Therefore, it is worth investigating the impact of inflation on economic growth concerning a stable inflation level. This study examines the impact of inflation on economic growth in Sri Lanka by employing the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag model as the estimation technique. Furthermore, the findings illustrate a negative relationship between inflation and economic growth in the short run; when inflation increases by 1%, economic growth decreases by United States Dollar (USD) 3,427.94 million and long run economic growth declines by 107,263.8 million USD. Subsequently, with the current economic reality of Sri Lanka, the macroeconomic policies should be adaptable to maintain the stability of the inflation rate for a sustainable economy.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Poverty , Employment , Socioeconomic Factors , Sri Lanka
18.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 206, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male sexual dysfunction in diabetes is often an unrevealed clinical issue. Though many publications report the prevalence, there is limited data on its associations, impact, and health-seeking behaviour. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of male sexual dysfunction, its associations, impact and treatment-seeking among men with diabetes in a selected tertiary care Diabetes Clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetes Clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, from January to September 2020. Men with diabetes aged 18 to 70 years undergoing annual assessment were recruited consecutively. Socio-demographic and clinical information were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation, mental health and quality of life were assessed using validated self-administered questionnaires. Cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests and total testosterone levels were performed. Penile colour Doppler ultrasonography was performed on consenting participants with erectile dysfunction. Associations were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact for dichotomous variables and independent sample t-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Two hundred and twelve participants were recruited with a mean age of 54.1 (SD = 10.1) years. Erectile dysfunction was present in 168 (79.2%), (mild: 45, mild-moderate: 56, moderate: 26, severe: 41). Premature ejaculation was present in 26 (18.7%). Libido was low among 16%. Sexual dysfunction was not revealed to a health provider by 85.6% despite 60.5% experiencing psychological and/or relationship effects. Out of 18 who sought treatment, only 4 achieved a good response. Mean age (55.4 ± 9.5 vs 48.7 ± 10.6 years, p < 0.001) and duration of diabetes (10.9 ± 7.6 vs 5.8 ± 4.6 years, p < 0.001) were higher while eGFR was lower (73.9 ± 27.7 vs 100.51 ± 28.08 years, p < 0.008) among those with ED compared to those without. Diabetic retinopathy (4% vs 42%, p < 0.001), peripheral neuropathy (17.9% vs 38.4%, p = 0.041) and lower limb arterial disease (0% vs 12.2%, p = 0.04) were associated with ED. Arterial insufficiency was seen among 50% of the participants who underwent penile colour Doppler ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: Male sexual dysfunction is a pervasive yet underappreciated problem in diabetes care despite its effect on the individual. Patient and disease characteristics would guide the identification of high-risk individuals for targeted screening in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Erectile Dysfunction , Premature Ejaculation , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Erectile Dysfunction/diagnosis , Erectile Dysfunction/epidemiology , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Premature Ejaculation/complications , Premature Ejaculation/etiology , Quality of Life , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
19.
Nature ; 608(7921): 21, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996858
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding parents' and children's mental health issues would help design population-specific intervention programs. The present study explored parents' perceived stress and child emotions and behavior during the COVID-19 lockdown among Sri Lankan families. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Sri Lankan parents of children aged 11 to 17 years. Validated instruments (Perceived Stress Scale-PSS and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-SDQ) evaluated parental stress, child emotions, and hyperactivity/inattention. Multiple linear regression assessed the predictors of mental health issues, including the interaction between age and gender. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five parents responded to the survey (mothers:76%). One-third of parents experienced difficulties with their children during the pandemic. Emotions and hyperactivity-inattention problems measured via the SDQ scale were high among 38% of children, while the perceived stress was high in 79.2% of parents. Overall, child emotions and hyperactivity-inattention increased with decreasing age, increasing parent stress, having middle-income compared to high-income, and having a family member/close relative tested positive for COVID-19. Hyperactivity-inattention (29.3%) was more than the emotional problems (22%) among children. The emotional problems were reported more with increasing parent stress, while child hyperactivity-inattention alone was reported more with decreasing age, middle-income compared to high-income families, and increasing parent stress. Also, the interaction effect of age and gender indicated that higher age was related to greater parent-reported hyperactivity-inattention problems in males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight how the COVID-19 crisis and social isolation have contributed to increased parental stress and child emotional and hyperactivity-inattention problems. In addition to cautioning the healthcare workers, socio-culturally appropriate preventive and supportive mental health programs may help deal with further waves of COVID-19 or any other adverse circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mothers/psychology , Parents/psychology , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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