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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(4): e142-e145, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752202

ABSTRACT

We reviewed all cases of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) bacteremia in Danish children between 2016 and 2021. We found 2 fatal cases with preceding viral prodrome due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given the usual benign course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, awareness of possible superinfection with PVL-SA in a child with rapid deterioration is crucial to ensure adequate treatment, including antimicrobial drugs with antitoxin effect.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis , COVID-19/complications , Exotoxins/biosynthesis , Leukocidins/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Public Health Surveillance , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723594

ABSTRACT

A man fully mRNA-vaccinated against COVID-19 presented to our hospital with an acute febrile illness, respiratory symptoms and a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. He was later found early into hospitalisation to have two morbid bacterial co-infections: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although this patient was initially admitted for COVID-19 management, his initial presentation was remarkable for lobar pneumonia, hyponatraemia and rhabdomyolysis more compatible with Legionnaire's disease than severe COVID-19. On discovery of MRSA pneumonia as a second bacterial infection, immunosuppressive COVID-19 therapies were discontinued and targeted antibiotics towards both bacterial co-infections were initiated. The patient's successful recovery highlighted the need to have high suspicion for bacterial co-infections in patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia and a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, as patients with serious bacterial co-infections may have worse outcomes with use of immunosuppressive COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Legionella pneumophila , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703889

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) reduces time to clinical improvement in hospitalized COVID -19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen. Dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring oxygen support. Data is lacking on the efficacy of combination therapy in patients on mechanical ventilation. We analyzed for comparative outcomes between Corticosteroid (CS) therapy with combined Corticosteroid and Remdesivir (CS-RDV) therapy. We conducted an observational cohort study of patients aged 18 to 90 with COVID-19 requiring ventilatory support using TriNetX (COVID-19 Research Network) between January 20, 2020, and February 9, 2021. We compared patients who received at least 48 hours of CS-RDV combination therapy to CS monotherapy. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality rates in propensity-matched (PSM) cohorts. Secondary outcomes were Length of Stay (LOS), Secondary Bacterial Infections (SBI), and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and Pseudomonas infections. We used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and stratified log-rank tests. Of 388 patients included, 91 (23.5%) received CS-RDV therapy, and 297 (76.5%) received CS monotherapy. After propensity score matching, with 74 patients in each cohort, all-cause mortality was 36.4% and 29.7% in the CS-RDV and CS therapy, respectively (P = 0.38). We used a Kaplan-Meier with a log-rank test on follow up period (P = 0.23), and a Hazards Ratio model (P = 0.26). SBI incidence was higher in the CS group (13.5% vs. 35.1%, P = 0.02) with a similar LOS (13.4 days vs. 13.4 days, P = 1.00) and similar incidence of MRSA/Pseudomonas infections (13.5% vs. 13.5%, P = 1.00) in both the groups. Therefore, CS-RDV therapy is non-inferior to CS therapy in reducing 28-day all-cause in-hospital mortality but associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of SBI in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): e58-e59, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541588

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 10-year-old male with Staphylococcus aureus mitral endocarditis who was initially misdiagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019, with eventual fatal outcome due to brain hemorrhage after cardiac intervention. Our case differs from recent studies, in which microbleeds did not increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke or global mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/surgery , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Diagnostic Errors , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
5.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
6.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(3)2021 Aug 11.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410993

ABSTRACT

Periprosthetic joint infections at an advanced age can lead to significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, mostly related to an atypical form of presentation in this population. We describe in this case the delayed diagnostic process of a disseminated invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a frail patient with a total hip prosthesis. The detection of Staphylococcus aureus in a urine sample was a supplementary hint towards the possible existence of a Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The course of this case shows that teleconsultation and ambulatory based diagnostics are not appropriate for frail older patients with (sub)acute bone and joint infections, even in times of pandemic and constrainedly deferred care.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
7.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the co-infections with COVID-19 is crucial to delineate its true clinical impact. Pediatric information in this aspect is limited. Our study aims to analyze the spectrum of co-infections in pediatric COVID-19 patients and determine the clinical as well as laboratory parameters predicting co-infection. METHODOLOGY: In this prospective observational study conducted from June to December 2020 in a single tertiary care institution, data pertaining to demographic, illness and treatment-related variables were analyzed among two subsets of pediatric patients of age 1 month-12 years with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection-Group A: those with confirmed co-infection and Group B: moderate to severe disease without co-infection. Among Group A, etiology of co-infection was characterized through relevant microbiological examination within 48 h admission. RESULT: Among our study population, 15.03% and 20.6% had co-infections and moderate to severe disease respectively. Among those with confirmed co-infection, 32.5%, 11.6% and 6.97% recorded blood culture, respiratory secretion and CSF growth, respectively, the picture being dominated by Methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Serum serology demonstrated Scrub typhus infection to be most prevalent. Concurrent respiratory viral infections were seen in 11.6%. Children with co-infection had significantly higher morbidity and need for supportive therapy. Predictors of co-infection were localization of infection, Neutrophil count ≥10×109, age-specific lymphopenia, CRP > 100 mg/dl and hyperferritinemia. CONCLUSION: Co-infections are an important factor prognosticating pediatric COVID infection. Their early detection, prompt and appropriate treatment is of paramount importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Staphylococcal Infections , Child , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology
8.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 9(1): 127-132, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Defects in human cognition commonly result in clinical reasoning failures that can lead to diagnostic errors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old female was brought to the emergency department with 4-5 days of confusion, disequilibrium resulting in several falls, and hallucinations. Further investigation revealed tachycardia, diaphoresis, mydriatic pupils, incomprehensible speech and she was seen picking at the air. Given multiple recent medication changes, there was initial concern for serotonin syndrome vs. an anticholinergic toxidrome. She then developed a fever, marked leukocytosis, and worsening encephalopathy. She underwent lumbar puncture and aspiration of an identified left ankle effusion. Methicillin sensitive staph aureus (MSSA) grew from blood, joint, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures within 18 h. She improved with antibiotics and incision, drainage, and washout of her ankle by orthopedic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Through integrated commentary on the diagnostic reasoning process from clinical reasoning experts, this case underscores how multiple cognitive biases can cascade sequentially, skewing clinical reasoning toward erroneous conclusions and driving potentially inappropriate testing and treatment. A fishbone diagram is provided to visually demonstrate the major factors that contributed to the diagnostic error. A case discussant describes the importance of structured reflection, a tool to promote metacognitive analysis, and the application of knowledge organization tools such as illness scripts to navigate these cognitive biases.


Subject(s)
Clinical Reasoning , Diagnostic Errors , Adult , Cognition , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341315

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old man with no medical history of note presented with new onset of confusion and dyspnoea. He tested positive for coronavirus (COVID-19), and subsequently, was admitted to the intensive care unit due to severe sepsis and acute renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Shortly afterwards, he was intubated due to haemodynamic instability. His blood culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, and echocardiogram showed evidence of vegetation in the aortic valve area. He was commenced on intravenous antibiotics for infective endocarditis (IE). Following extubation, he underwent an MRI of the spine due to increasing back pain. This was suggestive of L5-S1 discitis, likely secondary to septic emboli from IE. A few days later, he developed acute ischaemia of the left toes and extensive thrombosis of the right cubital and left iliac veins. Following a prolonged hospital admission, he was discharged home and later underwent an elective forefoot amputation from which he made a good recovery.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Staphylococcal Infections , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus
11.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 709-714, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226482

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on conjunctival flora in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.Methods: This prospective, controlled study was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020. The study group consisted of 45 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 43 control subjects. The collected samples were inoculated into the Thioglycollate broth media without delay. The samples with growth were then passed on eosin methylene blue agar, sabouraud dextrose agar, chocolate agar, and 5% sheep blood agar solid media.Results: The mean age of the COVID-19 patients was 64.24 ± 15.4 years, and the control subjects were 59.72 ± 11.4 years. The culture positivity of conjunctiva samples in COVID-19 patients (95.6%) was statistically significantly higher than control subjects (76.7%) (p = .024). Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus' positivity was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than control subjects (p < .05).Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 demonstrate significantly higher culture positivity on conjunctival flora than the control subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctiva/microbiology , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Skelet Muscle ; 11(1): 10, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 virus could be potentially myopathic. Serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) is frequently found elevated in severe SARS-CoV2 infection, which indicates skeletal muscle damage precipitating limb weakness or even ventilatory failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We addressed such a patient in his forties presented with features of severe SARS-CoV2 pneumonia and high serum CPK. He developed severe sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and received intravenous high dose corticosteroid and tocilizumab to counter SARS-CoV2 associated cytokine surge. After 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV), weaning was unsuccessful albeit apparently clear lung fields, having additionally severe and symmetric limb muscle weakness. Ancillary investigations in addition with serum CPK, including electromyogram, muscle biopsy, and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested acute myopathy possibly due to skeletal myositis. CONCLUSION: We wish to stress that myopathogenic medication in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia should be used with caution. Additionally, serum CPK could be a potential marker to predict respiratory failure in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia as skeletal myopathy affecting chest muscles may contribute ventilatory failure on top of oxygenation failure due to SARS-CoV2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Electromyography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/blood , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neural Conduction , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Ventilator Weaning
13.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 494, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis has a relevant clinical impact due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. Right-sided endocarditis has lower complication rates than left-sided endocarditis. Common complications are multiple septic pulmonary embolisms, haemoptysis, and acute renal failure. Risk factors associated with right-sided infective endocarditis are commonly related to intravenous drug abuse, central venous catheters, or infections due to implantable cardiac devices. However, patients with congenital ventricular septal defects might be at high risk of endocarditis and haemodynamic complications. CASE PRESENTATION: In the following, we present the case of a 23-year-old man without a previous intravenous drug history with tricuspid valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis complicated by acute renal failure and haemoptysis caused by multiple pulmonary emboli. In most cases, right-sided endocarditis is associated with several common risk factors, such as intravenous drug abuse, a central venous catheter, or infections due to implantable cardiac devices. In this case, we found a small perimembranous ventricular septal defect corresponding to a type 2 Gerbode defect. This finding raised the suspicion of a congenital ventricular septal defect complicated by a postendocarditis aneurysmal transformation. CONCLUSIONS: Management of the complications of right-sided infective endocarditis requires a multidisciplinary approach. Echocardiographic approaches should include screening for ventricular septal defects in patients without common risk factors for tricuspid valve endocarditis. Patients with undiagnosed congenital ventricular septal defects are at high risk of infective endocarditis. Therefore, endocarditis prophylaxis after dental procedures and/or soft-tissue infections is highly recommended. An acquired ventricular septal defect is a very rare complication of infective endocarditis. Surgical management of small ventricular septal defects without haemodynamic significance is still controversial.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Coronary Circulation , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Hemoptysis/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Acute Kidney Injury/microbiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Conservative Treatment , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/complications , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Hemoptysis/microbiology , Hemoptysis/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13396-13404, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933642

ABSTRACT

Rapid, accurate, reliable, and risk-free tracking of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level is critical to achieve efficient source control and prevent outbreaks of microbial infectious diseases. For the first time, we report a promising approach for integrating the concepts of a remarkably large Stokes shift and dual-recognition into a single matrix to develop a pathogenic microorganism stimuli-responsive ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe with speed, cost efficiency, stability, ultrahigh specificity, and sensitivity. As a proof-of-concept, we selected the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as the target analyte model, which easily bound to its recognition aptamer and the broad-spectrum glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin (Van). To improve the specificity and short sample-to-answer time, we employed classic noncovalent π-π stacking interactions as a driving force to trigger the binding of Van and aptamer dual-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent Apt-Van-QDs to the surface of an unreported blue fluorescent π-rich electronic carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), achieving S. aureus stimuli-responsive ratiometric nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs. In the assembly of Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs, the blue CNPs (energy donor) and NIR Apt-Van-QDs (energy acceptor) became close to allow the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process, leading to a remarkable blue fluorescence quenching for the CNPs at ∼465 nm and a clear NIR fluorescence enhancement for Apt-Van-QDs at ∼725 nm. In the presence of S. aureus, the FRET process from CNPs to Apt-Van-QDs was disrupted, causing the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs to display a ratiometric fluorescent response to S. aureus, which exhibited a large Stokes shift of ∼260 nm and rapid sample-to-answer detection time (∼30.0 min). As expected, the nanoprobe Apt-Van-QDs@CNPs showed an ultrahigh specificity for ratiometric fluorescence detection of S. aureus with a good detection limit of 1.0 CFU/mL, allowing the assay at single-cell level. Moreover, we also carried out the precise analysis of S. aureus in actual samples with acceptable results. We believe that this work offers new insight into the rational design of efficient ratiometric nanoprobes for rapid on-site accurate screening of pathogenic microorganisms at the single-cell level in the early stages, especially during the worldwide spread of COVID-19 today.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescent Dyes/chemical synthesis , Nanotechnology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Fluorescence , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Food Microbiology/methods , Humans , Nanoparticles , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/chemistry , Vancomycin/pharmacology
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(8): 568-569, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749390

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, we have seen a significant number of cases of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), first identified in Wuhan China. Coronavirus might coexist with other infections such as Staphylococcus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Iran , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/therapy
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