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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0260580, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910478

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a serious public health problem. In previous work, two models of an intensive care unit (ICU) showed that differing population structures had markedly different rates of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission. One explanation for this difference is the models having differing long-term equilbrium dynamics, resulting from different basic reproductive numbers, R0. We find in this system however that this is not the case, and that both models had the same value for R0. Instead, short-term, transient dynamics, characterizing a series of small, self-limiting outbreaks caused by pathogen reintroduction were responsible for the differences. These results show the importance of these short-term factors for disease systems where reintroduction events are frequent, even if they are below the epidemic threshold. Further, we examine how subtle changes in how a hospital is organized-or how a model assumes a hospital is organized-in terms of the admission of new patients may impact transmission rates. This has implications for both novel pathogens introduced into ICUs, such as Ebola, MERS or COVID-19, as well as existing healthcare-associated infections such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Intensive Care Units , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Models, Statistical , Patient Admission , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Humans , Nurses , Physicians , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Stochastic Processes
2.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
3.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117328

ABSTRACT

Hand sanitizers have been developed as a convenient means to decontaminate an individual's hands of bacterial pathogens in situations in which soap and water are not available. Yet to our knowledge, no study has compared the antibacterial efficacy of a large collection of hand sanitizers. Using zone of growth inhibition and kill curve assays, we assessed the performance of 46 commercially available hand sanitizers that were obtained from national chain big-box stores, gasoline stations, pharmacies, and boutiques for antibacterial activity toward prototypical Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial pathogens. Results revealed substantial variability in the efficacy of many sanitizers evaluated. Formulations following World Health Organization-recommended ingredients (80% ethanol or 75% isopropyl alcohol) or those including benzalkonium chloride as the active principal ingredient displayed excellent antibacterial activity, whereas others exhibited modest or poor activity in the assays performed. Results also revealed that E. coli was generally more susceptible to most sanitizers in comparison to S. aureus and that there was significant strain-to-strain variability in hand sanitizer antimicrobial efficacy regardless of the organism evaluated. Further, tests of a subset of hand sanitizers toward severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed no direct correlation between antibacterial and antiviral performance, with all ethyl alcohol formulations performing equally well and displaying improved activity in comparison to benzalkonium chloride-containing sanitizer. Taken together, these results indicate that there is likely to be substantial variability in the antimicrobial performance of commercially available hand sanitizers, particularly toward bacterial pathogens, and a need to evaluate the efficacy of sanitizers under development.IMPORTANCE In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, hand hygiene has taken on a prominent role in efforts to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and infection, which has led to a radical increase in the number and types of hand sanitizers manufactured to meet public demand. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated or compared the antimicrobial performance of hand sanitizers that are being produced under COVID-19 emergency authorization. Tests of 46 commercially available hand sanitizers purchased from national chain brick-and-mortar stores revealed considerable variability in their antibacterial performance toward two bacterial pathogens of immediate health care concern, S. aureus and E. coli Expanded testing of a subset of hand sanitizers revealed no direct correlation between antibacterial performance of individual sanitizers and their activity toward SARS-CoV-2. These results indicate that as the pandemic subsides, there will be a need to validate the antimicrobial efficacy of sanitizers being produced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Vero Cells
5.
APMIS ; 128(6): 451-462, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155071

ABSTRACT

Bacteria and viruses were analysed in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic pig farmers and their domestic pigs. Eighty six human nasal and 495 (50 pools) porcine snout swabs were collected in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (62.8%, 54/86), human rhino- and coronaviruses (HRV, 29.1%, 25/86; HCoV, 16.3%, 14/86) were frequently detected in humans, while Haemophilus parasuis (90.0%, 45/50), Mycoplasma hyorhinis (78.6%, 11/14), Enterovirus G (EV-G, 56.0%, 28/50) and S. aureus (36.0%, 18/50), respectively, were highly prevalent in pigs. The detection of S. aureus in human follow-up samples indicates a carrier status. The methicillin-resistant phenotype (MRSA) was identified in 33.3% (18/54) of nasal swabs and in one of 18 (5.6%) pooled snout swabs that were tested positive for S. aureus. Strains were indicative of the livestock-associated clonal complex CC398, with t011 being the most common staphylococcal protein A type. Enterobacterales and non-fermenters were frequently isolated from swabs. Their detection in follow-up samples suggests a carrier status. All were classified as being non-multiresistant. There was no example for cross-species transmission of viruses. In contrast, transmission of S. aureus through occupational contact to pigs seems possible. The study contributes to the 'One Health' approach.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Sus scrofa/microbiology , Sus scrofa/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Carrier State , Humans , Livestock , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Occupational Diseases/microbiology , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Swine , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/veterinary
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