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1.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1507(1): 70-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673249

ABSTRACT

For many years, it was believed that the aging process was inevitable and that age-related diseases could not be prevented or reversed. The geroscience hypothesis, however, posits that aging is, in fact, malleable and, by targeting the hallmarks of biological aging, it is indeed possible to alleviate age-related diseases and dysfunction and extend longevity. This field of geroscience thus aims to prevent the development of multiple disorders with age, thereby extending healthspan, with the reduction of morbidity toward the end of life. Experts in the field have made remarkable advancements in understanding the mechanisms underlying biological aging and identified ways to target aging pathways using both novel agents and repurposed therapies. While geroscience researchers currently face significant barriers in bringing therapies through clinical development, proof-of-concept studies, as well as early-stage clinical trials, are underway to assess the feasibility of drug evaluation and lay a regulatory foundation for future FDA approvals in the future.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Aging/metabolism , Congresses as Topic/trends , Longevity/physiology , Research Report , Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolomics/trends , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cell Transplantation/trends
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000248

ABSTRACT

The placenta is a temporary organ that is discarded after birth and is one of the most promising sources of various cells and tissues for use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, both in experimental and clinical settings. The placenta has unique, intrinsic features because it plays many roles during gestation: it is formed by cells from two individuals (mother and fetus), contributes to the development and growth of an allogeneic fetus, and has two independent and interacting circulatory systems. Different stem and progenitor cell types can be isolated from the different perinatal tissues making them particularly interesting candidates for use in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The primary source of perinatal stem cells is cord blood. Cord blood has been a well-known source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells since 1974. Biobanked cord blood has been used to treat different hematological and immunological disorders for over 30 years. Other perinatal tissues that are routinely discarded as medical waste contain non-hematopoietic cells with potential therapeutic value. Indeed, in advanced perinatal cell therapy trials, mesenchymal stromal cells are the most commonly used. Here, we review one by one the different perinatal tissues and the different perinatal stem cells isolated with their phenotypical characteristics and the preclinical uses of these cells in numerous pathologies. An overview of clinical applications of perinatal derived cells is also described with special emphasis on the clinical trials being carried out to treat COVID19 pneumonia. Furthermore, we describe the use of new technologies in the field of perinatal stem cells and the future directions and challenges of this fascinating and rapidly progressing field of perinatal cells and regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Placenta/cytology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Stem Cells/cytology , Amniotic Fluid/cytology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Drug Carriers , Extraembryonic Membranes/cytology , Female , Forecasting , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophage Activation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Nanoparticles , Pregnancy , Preservation, Biological , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cells/immunology
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