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1.
Biomolecules ; 12(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855504

ABSTRACT

Global food systems are under significant pressure to provide enough food, particularly protein-rich foods whose demand is on the rise in times of crisis and inflation, as presently existing due to post-COVID-19 pandemic effects and ongoing conflict in Ukraine and resulting in looming food insecurity, according to FAO. Cultivated meat (CM) and cultivated seafood (CS) are protein-rich alternatives for traditional meat and fish that are obtained via cellular agriculture (CA) i.e., tissue engineering for food applications. Stem and progenitor cells are the building blocks and starting point for any CA bioprocess. This review presents CA-relevant vertebrate cell types and procedures needed for their myogenic and adipogenic differentiation since muscle and fat tissue are the primary target tissues for CM/CS production. The review also describes existing challenges, such as a need for immortalized cell lines, or physical and biochemical parameters needed for enhanced meat/fat culture efficiency and ways to address them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Agriculture , Animals , Fishes , Humans , Meat , Stem Cells
2.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 170, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817268

ABSTRACT

Alveoli are the functional units of blood-gas exchange in the lung and thus are constantly exposed to outside environments and frequently encounter pathogens, particles and other harmful substances. For example, the alveolar epithelium is one of the primary targets of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 lung disease. Therefore, it is essential to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the integrity of alveoli epithelial barrier is maintained. Alveolar epithelium comprises two cell types: alveolar type I cells (AT1) and alveolar type II cells (AT2). AT2s have been shown to function as tissue stem cells that repair the injured alveoli epithelium. Recent studies indicate that AT1s and subgroups of proximal airway epithelial cells can also participate alveolar repair process through their intrinsic plasticity. This review discussed the potential mechanisms that drive the reparative behaviors of AT2, AT1 and some proximal cells in responses to injury and how an abnormal repair contributes to some pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism
4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 145, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the widespread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, in spite of the newly emerging vaccines, mutated strains remain a great obstacle to supportive and preventive measures. Coronavirus 19 survivors continue to face great danger of contacting the disease again. As long as no specific treatment has yet to be approved, a great percentage of patients experience real complications, including among others, lung fibrosis. High oxygen inhalation especially for prolonged periods is per se destructive to the lungs. Nevertheless, oxygen remains the first line support for such patients. In the present study we aimed at investigating the role of amniotic fluid-mesenchymal stem cells in preventing versus treating the hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis in rats. METHODS: The study was conducted on adult albino rats; 5 pregnant female rats were used as amniotic fluid donors, and 64 male rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control group; where 10 rats were kept in normal atmospheric air then sacrificed after 2 months, and hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis group, where 54 rats were exposed to hyperoxia (100% oxygen for 6 h/day) in air-tight glass chambers for 1 month, then randomly divided into the following 5 subgroups: Hyperoxia group, cell-free media-treated group, stem cells-prophylactic group, stem cells-treated group and untreated group. Isolation, culture and proliferation of stem cells were done till passage 3. Pulmonary function tests, histological examination of lung tissue under light and electron microscopes, biochemical assessment of oxidative stress, IL-6 and Rho-A levels, and statistical analysis of data were performed. F-test (ANOVA) was used for normally distributed quantitative variables, to compare between more than two groups, and Post Hoc test (Tukey) for pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Labelled amniotic fluid-mesenchymal stem cells homed to lung tissue. Stem cells administration in the stem cells-prophylactic group succeeded to maintain pulmonary functions near the normal values with no significant difference between their values and those of the control group. Moreover, histological examination of lung tissues showed that stem cells-prophylactic group were completely protected while stem cells-treated group still showed various degrees of tissue injury, namely; thickened interalveolar septa, atelectasis and interstitial pneumonia. Biochemical studies after stem cells injection also showed decreased levels of RhoA and IL-6 in the prophylactic group and to a lesser extent in the treated group, in addition to increased total antioxidant capacity and decreased malondialdehyde in the stem cells-injected groups. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic fluid-mesenchymal stem cells showed promising protective and therapeutic results against hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis as evaluated physiologically, histologically and biochemically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperoxia , Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Female , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/pathology , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells/pathology
5.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 117(1): 11, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733976

ABSTRACT

Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) generated from human cardiac biopsies have been shown to have disease-modifying bioactivity in clinical trials. Paradoxically, CDCs' cellular origin in the heart remains elusive. We studied the molecular identity of CDCs using single-cell RNA sequencing (sc-RNAseq) in comparison to cardiac non-myocyte and non-hematopoietic cells (cardiac fibroblasts/CFs, smooth muscle cells/SMCs and endothelial cells/ECs). We identified CDCs as a distinct and mitochondria-rich cell type that shared biological similarities with non-myocyte cells but not with cardiac progenitor cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. CXCL6 emerged as a new specific marker for CDCs. By analysis of sc-RNAseq data from human right atrial biopsies in comparison with CDCs we uncovered transcriptomic similarities between CDCs and CFs. By direct comparison of infant and adult CDC sc-RNAseq data, infant CDCs revealed GO-terms associated with cardiac development. To analyze the beneficial effects of CDCs (pro-angiogenic, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic), we performed functional in vitro assays with CDC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). CDC EVs augmented in vitro angiogenesis and did not stimulate scarring. They also reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax in NRCMs. In conclusion, CDCs were disclosed as mitochondria-rich cells with unique properties but also with similarities to right atrial CFs. CDCs displayed highly proliferative, secretory and immunomodulatory properties, characteristics that can also be found in activated or inflammatory cell types. By special culture conditions, CDCs earn some bioactivities, including angiogenic potential, which might modify disease in certain disorders.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Stem Cells
6.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731951

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary senescence is accelerated by unresolved DNA damage response, underpinning susceptibility to pulmonary fibrosis. Recently it was reported that the SARS-Cov-2 viral infection induces acute pulmonary epithelial senescence followed by fibrosis, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examine roles of alveolar epithelial stem cell senescence and senescence-associated differentiation disorders in pulmonary fibrosis, exploring the mechanisms mediating and preventing pulmonary fibrogenic crisis. Notably, the TGF-ß signalling pathway mediates alveolar epithelial stem cell senescence by mechanisms involving suppression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene in pulmonary fibrosis. Alternatively, telomere uncapping caused by stress-induced telomeric shelterin protein TPP1 degradation mediates DNA damage response, pulmonary senescence and fibrosis. However, targeted intervention of cellular senescence disrupts pulmonary remodelling and fibrosis by clearing senescent cells using senolytics or preventing senescence using telomere dysfunction inhibitor (TELODIN). Studies indicate that the development of senescence-associated differentiation disorders is reprogrammable and reversible by inhibiting stem cell replicative senescence in pulmonary fibrosis, providing a framework for targeted intervention of the molecular mechanisms of alveolar stem cell senescence and pulmonary fibrosis. Abbreviations: DPS, developmental programmed senescence; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; OIS, oncogene-induced replicative senescence; SADD, senescence-associated differentiation disorder; SALI, senescence-associated low-grade inflammation; SIPS, stress-induced premature senescence; TERC, telomerase RNA component; TERT, telomerase reverse transcriptase; TIFs, telomere dysfunction-induced foci; TIS, therapy-induced senescence; VIS, virus-induced senescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Telomerase , Cellular Senescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cells/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism
7.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 18(1): 1, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676353

Subject(s)
Publishing , Stem Cells
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631344

ABSTRACT

Since the first evidence that stem cells can provide pro-resolving effects via paracrine secretion of soluble factors, growing interest has been addressed to define the most ideal cell source for clinical translation. Leftover or clinical waste samples of human amniotic fluid obtained following prenatal screening, clinical intervention, or during scheduled caesarean section (C-section) delivery at term have been recently considered an appealing source of mesenchymal progenitors with peculiar regenerative capacity. Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSC) have been demonstrated to support tissue recovery in several preclinical models of disease by exerting paracrine proliferative, anti-inflammatory and regenerative influence. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) concentrated from the hAFSC secretome (the total soluble trophic factors secreted in the cell-conditioned medium, hAFSC-CM) recapitulate most of the beneficial cell effects. Independent studies in preclinical models of either adult disorders or severe diseases in newborns have suggested a regenerative role of hAFSC-EVs. EVs can be eventually concentrated from amniotic fluid (hAF) to offer useful prenatal information, as recently suggested. In this review, we focus on the most significant aspects of EVs obtained from either hAFSC and hAF and consider the current challenges for their clinical translation, including isolation, characterization and quantification methods.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Extracellular Vesicles , Precision Medicine , Stem Cells , Humans
10.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 119-122, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are expected to have a therapeutic effect on progressive neurodegenerative diseases for which there is currently no fundamental treatment. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim is to confirm that repeated infusion of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be safely administered to patients with Parkinson's disease, and to investigate the effects of this as a pilot study. METHODS: Three patients with Parkinson's disease received five or six repeated infusions of ADSCs at intervals of approximately one month. Observations were based on medical examinations by a neurologist and interviews with the patient and caregivers. The severity of Parkinson's disease was assessed using the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale and Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). RESULTS: No adverse events were observed during the observation period from the start of treatment to six months after the end of the last dose. MDS-UPDRS improved in all three patients. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated administration of Autologous ADSCs for Parkinson's disease was safe and feasible. The results of this pilot study provide insight into the value of further research.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Adipose Tissue , Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Pilot Projects , Stem Cells , Transplantation, Autologous
11.
N Engl J Med ; 385(24): 2264-2270, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560911

ABSTRACT

Inherited junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a severe genetic skin disease that leads to epidermal loss caused by structural and mechanical fragility of the integuments. There is no established cure for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. We previously reported that genetically corrected autologous epidermal cultures regenerated almost an entire, fully functional epidermis on a child who had a devastating form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa. We now report long-term clinical outcomes in this patient. (Funded by POR FESR 2014-2020 - Regione Emilia-Romagna and others.).


Subject(s)
Epidermis/transplantation , Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional/therapy , Keratinocytes/transplantation , Transduction, Genetic , Transgenes , Cell Self Renewal , Cells, Cultured/transplantation , Child , Clone Cells , Epidermis/pathology , Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional/genetics , Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/pathology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Keratinocytes/cytology , Keratinocytes/physiology , Male , Regeneration , Stem Cells/physiology , Transplantation, Autologous
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Stem Cells , Aged , Child , Humans , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6855, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537312

ABSTRACT

The bat sarbecovirus RaTG13 is a close relative of SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this bat virus was most likely unable to directly infect humans since its Spike (S) protein does not interact efficiently with the human ACE2 receptor. Here, we show that a single T403R mutation increases binding of RaTG13 S to human ACE2 and allows VSV pseudoparticle infection of human lung cells and intestinal organoids. Conversely, mutation of R403T in the SARS-CoV-2 S reduces pseudoparticle infection and viral replication. The T403R RaTG13 S is neutralized by sera from individuals vaccinated against COVID-19 indicating that vaccination might protect against future zoonoses. Our data suggest that a positively charged amino acid at position 403 in the S protein is critical for efficient utilization of human ACE2 by S proteins of bat coronaviruses. This finding could help to better predict the zoonotic potential of animal coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Caco-2 Cells , Cloning, Molecular , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Replicon , Species Specificity , Stem Cells , Zoonoses
14.
Sci Immunol ; 6(66): eabl5344, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494931

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is effective in preventing hospitalization from severe COVID-19. However, multiple reports of breakthrough infections and of waning antibody titers have raised concerns on the durability of the vaccine, and current vaccination strategies now propose administration of a third dose. Here, we monitored T cell responses to the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in 71 healthy donors vaccinated with two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) for up to 6 months after vaccination. We found that vaccination induced the development of a sustained anti-viral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response. These cells appeared before the development of high antibody titers, displayed markers of immunological maturity and stem cell memory, survived the physiological contraction of the immune response, and persisted for at least 6 months. Collectively, these data show that vaccination with BNT162b2 elicits an immunologically competent and long-lived SARS-CoV-2­specific T cell population.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stem Cells/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488617

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak was acknowledged by the WHO on 30 January 2020, much research has been conducted to unveil various features of the responsible SARS-CoV-2 virus. Different rates of contagion in adults, children, and pregnant women may guide us to understand the underlying infection conditions of COVID-19. In this study, we first provide a review of recent reports of COVID-19 clinical outcomes in children and pregnant women. We then suggest a mechanism that explains the curious case of COVID-19 in children/pregnant women. The unique stem cell molecular signature, as well as the very low expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the lower ACE/ACE2 ratio in stem cells of children/pregnant women compared to adults might be the cause of milder symptoms of COVID-19 in them. This study provides the main molecular keys on how stem cells can function properly and exert their immunomodulatory and regenerative effects in COVID-19-infected children/pregnant women, while failing to replicate their role in adults. This can lay the groundwork for both predicting the pattern of spread and severity of the symptoms in a population and designing novel stem cell-based treatment and prevention strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stem Cells/physiology , Adult , Age of Onset , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480601

ABSTRACT

As the number of confirmed cases and deaths occurring from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surges worldwide, health experts are striving hard to fully comprehend the extent of damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although COVID-19 primarily manifests itself in the form of severe respiratory distress, it is also known to cause systemic damage to almost all major organs and organ systems within the body. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms leading to multi-organ failure seen in COVID-19 patients. We also examine the potential of stem cell therapy in treating COVID-19 multi-organ failure cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Regenerative Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stem Cells/cytology , Stem Cells/immunology
17.
Biol Direct ; 16(1): 18, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477451

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity reflecting the rapid activation and effective differentiation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In the course of muscle regeneration, MuSCs are reprogrammed by immune cells. In turn, MuSCs confer immune cells anti-inflammatory properties to resolve inflammation and facilitate tissue repair. Indeed, MuSCs can exert therapeutic effects on various degenerative and inflammatory disorders based on their immunoregulatory ability, including effects primed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). At the molecular level, the tryptophan metabolites, kynurenine or kynurenic acid, produced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), augment the expression of TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG6) through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In addition, insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) produced by MuSCs can endow maturing macrophages oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent anti-inflammatory functions. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of the immunomodulatory characteristics of MuSCs and the issues related to their potential applications in pathological conditions, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immune System/physiology , Muscles/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kynurenic Acid/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Muscles/metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Tryptophan/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
18.
Ocul Surf ; 23: 197-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466745

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). While the ocular surface is considered one of the major SARS-CoV2 transmission routes, the specific cellular tropism of SARS-CoV2 is not fully understood. In the current study, we evaluated the expression and regulation of two SARS-CoV2 viral entry proteins, TMPRSS2 and ACE2, in human ocular epithelial cells and stem cells. METHODS: TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression in ABCB5-positive limbal stem cells (LSCs) were assessed by RNAseq, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. PAX6, TMPRSS2, and ACE2 mRNA expression values were obtained from the GSE135455 and DRA002960 RNA-seq datasets. siRNA-mediated PAX6 knockdown (KD) was performed in limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells. TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression in the PAX6 KD cells was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: We found that ABCB5-positive LSCs express high levels of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 compared to ABCB5-negative limbal epithelial cells. Mechanistically, gene knockout and overexpression models revealed that the eye transcription factor PAX6 negatively regulates TMPRSS2 expression. Therefore, low levels of PAX6 in ABCB5-positive LSCs promote TMPRSS2 expression, and high levels of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression by LSCs indicate enhanced susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection in this stem cell population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study points to a need for COVID-19 testing of LSCs derived from donor corneas before transplantation to patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Furthermore, our findings suggest that expandable human ABCB5+ LSC cultures might represent a relevant novel model system for studying cellular SARS-CoV2 viral entry mechanisms and evaluating related targeting strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cells , Viral Proteins , Virus Internalization
19.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438525

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Diploidy , Lung/cytology , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Animals , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung/physiology , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology , Transplantation, Homologous
20.
Am J Pathol ; 191(9): 1511-1519, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432756

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory changes are well-reported symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The virus targets cells for entry by binding of its spike protein to cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It is not known whether ACE2 is expressed on taste receptor cells (TRCs), or whether TRCs are infected directly. in situ hybridization probe and an antibody specific to ACE2 indicated presence of ACE2 on a subpopulation of TRCs (namely, type II cells in taste buds in taste papillae). Fungiform papillae of a SARS-CoV-2+ patient exhibiting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including taste changes, were biopsied. Presence of replicating SARS-CoV-2 in type II cells was verified by in situ hybridization. Therefore, taste type II cells provide a potential portal for viral entry that predicts vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2 in the oral cavity. The continuity and cell turnover of a patient's fungiform papillae taste stem cell layer were disrupted during infection and had not completely recovered 6 weeks after symptom onset. Another patient experiencing post-COVID-19 taste disturbances also had disrupted stem cells. These results demonstrate the possibility that novel and sudden taste changes, frequently reported in COVID-19, may be the result of direct infection of taste papillae by SARS-CoV-2. This may result in impaired taste receptor stem cell activity and suggest that further work is needed to understand the acute and postacute dynamics of viral kinetics in the human taste bud.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stem Cells , Taste Buds , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Stem Cells/enzymology , Stem Cells/pathology , Stem Cells/virology , Taste Buds/enzymology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Buds/virology
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