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1.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285788, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322031

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related stigmatization of affected people or people at risk of infection has been shown to enhance the reluctance of affected individuals to use health services and reduce their mental health. It is thus highly important to gain a thorough understanding of COVID-19-related stigmatization. The present study's first aim was to explore stigmatization profiles of experienced stigmatization (anticipated stigmatization, internalized stigmatization, enacted stigmatization, disclosure concerns) and stigmatization practices in 371 German people at high risk of infection using latent class analyses. The second aim was to investigate the relationship between stigmatization profiles and psychological distress via multiple regression analysis taking into account other possible negative and positive risk factors. Our results showed two stigmatization profiles: "high stigmatization group" and "low stigmatization group". Belonging to the "high stigmatization group" was significantly correlated with higher levels of psychological distress. Other risk factors significantly related to psychological distress were mental health disorders in the past, exposure to COVID-19, fear related to COVID-19, perceived risk of being infected, lower perceived self-efficacy, and lower subjective knowledge about COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychological Distress , Humans , Stereotyping , Depression/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology
2.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283467, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare COVID-19 stigmatization at two pandemic time points (1) August 2020-during lockdowns and prior to vaccine rollout, and (2) May 2021-during vaccine rollout, when approximately half of U.S. adults were vaccinated. METHODS: Comparison of COVID19-related stigmatization and associated factors in two national internet surveys conducted in August 2020 (N = 517) and May 2021 (N = 812). Factors associated with endorsing stigmatization were identified using regression analysis. The main outcomes included endorsement of stigmatization and behavioral restrictions towards persons with COVID-19 and towards persons of Chinese descent. A previously developed "stigmatizing attitudes and behavioral restrictions" scale was adapted to measure the intersection of negative attitudes toward COVID-19 disease and negative attitudes toward persons of Chinese descent. RESULTS: COVID-19 related stigmatization declined significantly from August 2020 to May 2021. Many factors were associated with stigmatizing in both surveys: full time employment, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, worry about contracting COVID-19, probable depression, and Fox News and social media as sources of information (all positively associated), and self-assessed knowledge about COVID-19, contact with Chinese individuals, and publicly funded news as sources (all negatively associated). Positive attitudes toward vaccination were associated with stigmatization. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related stigmatization reduced substantially over these two points in the pandemic, with many continuities in the factors associated with stigmatizing. Despite the reduction in stigmatizing, however, some stigmatizing attitudes for both COVID-19 and Chinese individuals remained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Stereotyping , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Attitude , Vaccination
3.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 236: 103924, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Pakistan, the fourth wave of COVID-19 is causing an increasing number of positive cases. This fourth wave may be a risky aspect of mental health issues for COVID-19 patients. This quantitative study is designed to understand the stigmatization, and panic disorder and to explore the mediating role of death anxiety among patients of COVID-19 during the fourth wave of novel coronavirus. METHODS: The study was conducted using a correlational research design. The survey was carried out by utilizing a questionnaire with a convenient sample technique. The sample of the study was comprised of 139 patients with COVID-19. Data were collected through Stigma Scale for Chronic Illnesses (SSCI), The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), and Death Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: Results show that stigma is significantly positively related to panic disorder and death anxiety. Furthermore, panic disorder is also significantly positively related to death anxiety. Results also indicate that stigmatization is a significant positive predictor for death anxiety and panic disorder. Moreover, results indicate that death anxiety has a mediating role in the relationship between stigmatization and panic disorder with age and gender as covariates. CONCLUSION: This study would be helpful for people around the world to understand this threatening contagious virus so they wouldn't stigmatize infected ones. Additional research is required for the sustainable improvement of anxiety over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Panic Disorder , Humans , Panic Disorder/epidemiology , Panic Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stereotyping , Pandemics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1156240, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298883

ABSTRACT

Stigma refers to devalued stereotypes that create barriers for stigmatized individuals. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the stigmatization of survivors worsened existing inequalities and triggered mass hysteria. The paper delves into the stigmatization experienced by COVID-19 survivors and the role of Marxist criticism in analyzing this issue. The main findings from the empiricist tradition approach suggest that the perception of COVID-19 stigma is higher among those who are older, belong to ethnic minorities, lack social support, have manual occupations, and possess lower levels of education. The proposed destigmatization pathways include psychological counseling services, social support, and health education. Employing a Marxist perspective can aid in illuminating how economic practices and material conditions influence prevalent ideologies related to stigma. The stigmatization of COVID-19 survivors may be perceived as a consequence of social power inequality, although the current emphasis on individual characteristics as triggers for stigma may neglect the wider systemic forces in operation. Thus, it's crucial to establish improved social care policies to combat exploitation and oppression due to power imbalances. The ultimate objective of such an examination is to identify effective approaches to tackle and eradicate stigma regarding health-related concerns. An interdisciplinary approach integrating a pluralistic perspective would benefit investigating how social systems and individual attributes contribute to the exacerbation of social inequality and stigmatization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Social Stigma , Stereotyping , Survivors
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 521, 2023 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global health crisis, leading to stigmatization and discriminatory behaviors against people who have contracted or are suspected of having contracted the virus. Yet the causes of stigmatization in the context of COVID-19 remain only partially understood. Using attribution theory, we examine to what extent attributes of a fictitious person affect the formation of stigmatizing attitudes towards this person, and whether suspected COVID-19 infection (vs. flu) intensifies such attitudes. We also use the familiarity hypothesis to explore whether familiarity with COVID-19 reduces stigma and whether it moderates the effect of a COVID-19 infection on stigmatization. METHODS: We conducted a multifactorial vignette survey experiment (28-design, i.e., NVignettes = 256) in Germany (NRespondents = 4,059) in which we experimentally varied signals and signaling events (i.e., information that may trigger stigma) concerning a fictitious person in the context of COVID-19. We assessed respondents' cognitive (e.g., blameworthiness) and affective (e.g., anger) responses as well as their discriminatory inclinations (e.g., avoidance) towards the character. Furthermore, we measured different indicators of respondents' familiarity with COVID-19. RESULTS: Results revealed higher levels of stigma towards people who were diagnosed with COVID-19 versus a regular flu. In addition, stigma was higher towards those who were considered responsible for their infection due to irresponsible behavior. Knowing someone who died from a COVID infection increased stigma. While higher self-reported knowledge about COVID-19 was associated with more stigma, higher factual knowledge was associated with less. CONCLUSION: Attribution theory and to a lesser extent the familiarity hypothesis can help better understand stigma in the context of COVID-19. This study provides insights about who is at risk of stigmatization and stigmatizing others in this context. It thereby allows identifying the groups that require more support in accessing healthcare services and suggests that basic, factually oriented public health interventions would be promising for reducing stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stereotyping , Humans , Pandemics , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1143640, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288019

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigmatisation, misinformation and discrimination have been magnified globally due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The healthcare sector was not spared from this. We conducted a transnational study, using the Health Stigma and Discrimination framework (HSDF) to explore public perception and reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic in a multicultural context. Findings from the Asian arm of the study, sited in Singapore, are reported in this paper. Methods: This phenomenological research deployed semi-structured informant interviews using non-probability sampling approaches to recruit members of the public. Interviews were coded independently by two researchers and thematic analysis was used to analyse the responses. Results: Twenty-nine members of the public (23-80 years old) were interviewed between Oct 2020 to Feb 2021. Five major themes were identified: (i) perception of stigma amongst respondents, (ii) experiences of stigma amongst respondents, (iii) views on what drove stigma and misinformation, (iv) facilitators in preventing and reducing stigma and misinformation, and (v) ageist attitudes towards older adults. Overall, construction workers living in dormitories, healthcare workers, and to some extent tourists from China, were perceived to have been stigmatised and shunned by the public. Place-based stigmatisation was common; participants responded by avoiding places that had confirmed cases of COVID-19. Perceived stigma was temporary and not enduring, driven at the outset by fear of being infected. This study also identified the role played by trust in reducing stigmatisation. The relative absence of politicising of issues and high-quality information readily disseminated to the public were reported as factors that could have reduced and prevented stigma and misinformation on the various groups. Ageist attitudes were observed in some participants with older adults being labelled as vulnerable, susceptible to misinformation and being less able to cope during the pandemic. Conclusion: Through the lens of the HSDF, this study provided an exploratory account of the nature of stigma that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic in an Asian context. It also shed light on facilitators in preventing and reducing stigma during an outbreak especially the role of trust and communications during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Social Stigma , Stereotyping
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(3): 539-546, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and factors leading to the glass ceiling for Pakistani female doctors in leadership positions. Method: The qualitative narrative study was conducted the Department of Medical Education, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan from March to July 2021, and comprised female doctors with 10-15 years of professional experience who were either currently at top leadership position or had retired from such a position in public and private medical clinical setups and medical colleges. Data was collected using in-depth interviews conducted through Zoom due to the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. The transcribed data was processed using ATLAS.ti.9 software for thematic analysis with an inductive approach. RESULTS: Of the 9 subjects aged 47-72 years having professional experience of 11-39 years, 4(44.4%) were clinicians, 3(33.3%) had basic medical science background and 2(22.2%) were health profession educationists. In terms of qualifications, 4(44.4%) were PhDs, 4(44.4%) were Fellows of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan, and 1(11.1%) had an M. Phil. Besides, 4(44.4%) subjects were from the public sector, and 5(55.5%) from the private sector, 1(11.1%) had retired from service. The extent of experiencing the glass ceiling was common to all but 1(11.1%) participant. Factors identified included 'institutional challenges', 'family support issues', 'personal challenges' and 'societal unacceptance'. Detailed analysis revealed that women in leadership positions faced 'malintent of seniors', 'discrimination', 'stereotyping', 'lack of mentors' and 'ethnic background conditioning' at the institutional level. On the personal front, they faced 'lack of support of in-laws', 'insecurity of husbands', 'need of personal attributes' and 'beauty as a barrier'. CONCLUSIONS: The glass ceiling was found to be a challenge faced by Pakistani female doctors in leadership positions in both clinical settings and academia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Female , Pakistan , Leadership , Stereotyping , Qualitative Research
8.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 70(1): 6-8, 2023 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243337

ABSTRACT

While everyday prejudice and stereotypes may seem harmless, they can cause problems for interpersonal interactions and have drastic consequences for professional caregivers. American sociologist Goffman (1963) defined "stigma" as an individual being disqualified from complete social acceptance. Stigmatization and social stigma convey long-discounted stereotypes and social discrimination in specific ways, resulting in an individual being psychologically categorized as unwelcome or an outcast and, in turn, notable differences between their virtual and actual social identity. Link and Phelan (2001) defined stigmatization as the simultaneous occurrence of four processes: (1) distinct labeling; (2) stereotyping labels with unwelcome attributes; (3) separating "us" from "them" by framing labeled individuals as different; and (4) discriminating against labeled individuals. Evidently, stigmatization is a complex and multifaceted social process that comprises labeling, stereotyping, separating, depriving (of status), and discriminating through the exercise of power (Link & Phelan, 2001). Stigmatized individuals often perceive themselves as different from and devalued by others (Jacoby et al., 2005). Stigmatizing others may provide individuals with a higher perceived locus of control, stronger self-esteem, and reduced anxiety (Heatherton et al., 2000). Stigmatization significantly impacts the physical and mental health of victims. For example, it can make patients stressed, prolong the length of their hospitalization, and increase their likelihood of receiving a depression diagnosis (Budhwani & De, 2019). The main causes of social stigmatization are ignorance, lack of understanding, misinformation, and misunderstanding (Kok et al., 2018). The research has demonstrated that healthcare professionals may stigmatize and discriminate against the patients for which they are caring, hurting the dignity of their patients (Alenezi, 2022) and leading to a lack of trust in patient-physician relationships, reducing patients' opportunities to receive adequate care (Tyerman et al., 2021), hindering their treatment and recovery, and resulting in lower-quality healthcare and prognoses (Copeland, 2021). Therefore, reducing stigmatization in healthcare institutions is necessary to improve healthcare services and boost trust between patients and healthcare teams. During the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline healthcare workers stigmatized and discriminated against many patients during their process of care, harming the mental health of these patients (Tsukuda et al., 2022). These pandemic-era experiences highlight the need for healthcare workers to reflect empathetically on their behavior from various perspectives. Given that empathy and attitude are linked to each other, Economou et al. (2020) argued that anti-stigmatization efforts should prioritize and strengthen healthcare workers' perspective-taking abilities. The nursing-development process should focus on reestablishing behavioral and professional norms to eliminate labeling, instill empathy, emphasize relationships, and develop moral maturity to mitigate stigmatization among patients (Copeland, 2021). The Lancet, a prestigious medical journal, created The Lancet Commission to end stigma and discrimination in mental health with the assistance of over 50 renowned healthcare experts. Strategies for countering stigmatization include the incorporation of relevant training programs and educational interventions aimed at improving how students understand disease and reducing discriminatory behavior against patients. The healthcare sector must focus on the impacts of stigmatization on both healthcare providers' behaviors and treatment quality rather than merely assessing the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers (Thornicroft et al., 2022). This approach can help ensure patients receive high-quality healthcare that promotes their recovery, is tailored to their needs, and is free from discrimination and stigmatization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , United States , Social Stigma , Stereotyping , Delivery of Health Care
9.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 20(3): 392-399, 2022 09 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238368

ABSTRACT

This article provides a synthesis about the representations of aging around the world. The population of the elderly is increasing from year to year and the support of elder people is becoming a major challenge. Understanding the representations of aging is an essential element to catch how societies take care of their elderly. Beyond presenting the influence of the cultural variable on the representations of old age, this article also proposes to highlight the impact of the Covid-19 on these perceptions. Indeed, the crisis emphasized the way seniors are thought and treated when ethical questions arise.


Cet article de synthèse s'intéresse aux représentations du vieillissement à travers le monde. Le vieillissement de la population s'accroit d'année en année et l'accompagnement des ainés s'illustre comme un enjeu de santé publique majeur. Appréhender les représentations du vieillissement est un élément essentiel pour comprendre comment les sociétés prennent en charge leurs personnes âgées. Au-delà de présenter l'influence de la variable culturelle sur les représentations de la vieillesse, cet article se propose également de mettre en lumière l'impact de la pandémie Covid-19 sur ces dernières. En effet, la crise sanitaire aura permis de mettre en exergue la façon dont les ainés sont pensés et traités, lorsque des questions d'ordre éthique viennent à se poser.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Stereotyping , Aging
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1067693, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232634

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic across the world, it is critical to propose effective strategies for stigma governance in public health emergencies in order to reduce negative effects caused by stigma. However, no known research has focused on the essential role of events in understanding stigma phenomenon from the perspective of external dynamic changes. Methods: Based on the event system theory, this paper analyzes the evolution mode and characteristics of specific events in the process of stigmatization from strength, space and time aspects, and taking COVID-19 event as an example, 1202 questionnaires and empirical analysis were conducted. Results and discussion: Our results reveal that event strength directly affects the results of stigmatization, and such impact appears to be more prominent with a novel, disruptive and critical event. In addition, spatial and temporal attributes represent the dynamic development of an event, and they can interact with event strength to regulate the relationship between event strength and outcomes. Finally, stigma governance strategies under public health emergencies from three aspects of event strength, space, and time were put forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Emergencies , Social Stigma , Stereotyping
11.
Dev World Bioeth ; 22(4): 211-216, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231138

ABSTRACT

As social and interdependent beings, we have responsibilities to each other. One of them is to recognize each other appropriately. When we fail to meet this responsibility, we often stigmatize. In this paper, I argue that the COVID-19-related stigmatization is a variation of the lack of recognition understood as an orientation to our evaluative features. Various stereotypical behaviors regarding COVID-19 become stigmatized practices because of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination, and power. When people stigmatize COVID-19 victims, they orient themselves to their evaluative quality of being vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 virus by internalizing the victims as dangerous, understanding them as separable, and being motivated to act with them differently. All this causes the COVID-19 victims to lose status and suffer discrimination for which they do not experience participatory parity in different facets of their lives, rendering the COVID-19-related stigmatization an appalling example of misrecognition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereotyping , Dangerous Behavior
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 68, 2023 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID patients have experienced a decline in their quality of life due to, in part but not wholly, its negative emotional impact. Some of the most prevalent mental health symptoms presented by long COVID patients are anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. As such, the need has arisen to analyze the personal experiences of these patients to understand how they are managing their daily lives while dealing with the condition. The objective of this study is to increase understanding about the emotional well-being of people diagnosed with long COVID. METHODS: A qualitative design was created and carried out using 35 patients, with 17 participants being interviewed individually and 18 of them taking part in two focus groups. The participating patients were recruited in November and December 2021 from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers in the city of Zaragoza (Northern Spain) and from the Association of Long COVID Patients in Aragon. The study topics were emotional well-being, social support networks, and experience of discrimination. All an inductive thematic content analyses were performed iteratively using NVivo software. RESULTS: The Long COVID patients identified low levels of self-perceived well-being due to their persistent symptoms, as well as limitations in their daily lives that had been persistent for many months. Suicidal thoughts were also mentioned by several patients. They referred to anguish and anxiety about the future as well as a fear of reinfection or relapse and returning to work. Many of the participants reported that they have sought the help of a mental health professional. Most participants identified discriminatory situations in health care. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to continue researching the impact that Long COVID has had on mental health, as well as to provide Primary Health Care professionals with evidence that can guide the emotional treatment of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Stereotyping , Social Support , Health Services
13.
Nature ; 613(7945): 704-711, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185935

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, sizeable groups of unvaccinated people persist even in countries with high vaccine access1. As a consequence, vaccination became a controversial subject of debate and even protest2. Here we assess whether people express discriminatory attitudes in the form of negative affectivity, stereotypes and exclusionary attitudes in family and political settings across groups defined by COVID-19 vaccination status. We quantify discriminatory attitudes between vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens in 21 countries, covering a diverse set of cultures across the world. Across three conjoined experimental studies (n = 15,233), we demonstrate that vaccinated people express discriminatory attitudes towards unvaccinated individuals at a level as high as discriminatory attitudes that are commonly aimed at immigrant and minority populations3-5. By contrast, there is an absence of evidence that unvaccinated individuals display discriminatory attitudes towards vaccinated people, except for the presence of negative affectivity in Germany and the USA. We find evidence in support of discriminatory attitudes against unvaccinated individuals in all countries except for Hungary and Romania, and find that discriminatory attitudes are more strongly expressed in cultures with stronger cooperative norms. Previous research on the psychology of cooperation has shown that individuals react negatively against perceived 'free-riders'6,7, including in the domain of vaccinations8,9. Consistent with this, we find that contributors to the public good of epidemic control (that is, vaccinated individuals) react with discriminatory attitudes towards perceived free-riders (that is, unvaccinated individuals). National leaders and vaccinated members of the public appealed to moral obligations to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake10,11, but our findings suggest that discriminatory attitudes-including support for the removal of fundamental rights-simultaneously emerged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Internationality , Prejudice , Vaccination Refusal , Vaccination , Humans , Civil Rights/psychology , Cooperative Behavior , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Germany , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Hungary , Moral Obligations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Prejudice/psychology , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , Romania , Stereotyping , United States , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
14.
PeerJ ; 10: e14503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164157

ABSTRACT

The evidence all over the world shows an alarming increase in the stigmatization of health personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to explore possible psychological factors that help explain the disposition to stigmatize health personnel in the central and northern regions of Mexico. Two studies explore possible psychological factors to explain the disposition to stigmatize healthcare personnel (HP) in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. In study one, 520 participants responded to three instruments that measure the disposition to stigmatize, the perceived contagion risk, and the positive beliefs towards HP. Results showed a generalized low disposition to stigmatization, where only a small percentage obtained high scores. A regression analysis identified that stigmatization towards HP can derive mainly from the perception of risk of contagion, although positive beliefs of HP decrease this disposition. The second study extends this finding by analyzing responses of 286 participants to seven instruments measuring factors hypothesized as predictors towards stigmatization: uncertainty generated by the pandemic, selfish strategies to face off the pandemic, social capital, trust in institutions, perceived vulnerability of contagion, perceived risk of contagion, and positive beliefs towards HP. A path analysis reveals that the main predictor of stigmatization is the perceived risk of contagion, increased by the strategy of selfishness, and the uncertainty generated by the pandemic. These results are discussed emphasizing the importance of cooperation and community ties to prevent the stigmatization of HP in the context of sanitary emergencies generated by contagious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stereotyping , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mexico/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Delivery of Health Care
15.
Seizure ; 99: 40-42, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Arabic word "Assarɛ" (الصرع) continues to be used to stigmatize Moroccan people with epilepsy (PWE), affecting their quality of life and reducing their likelihood of visiting a doctor. METHODS: 298 participants responded to an automated questionnaire, administered via social media, which investigated the socio-demographic information and proposed new terms to replace or salvage the term "Assarε." RESULTS: Most of the participants refused the use of "Assarɛ" term when referring to Epilepsy. "Brain Electrical Disorder" (الإعتلال الكهربائي للدماغ) and "Lipilipsy" (لبيليبسي) were the most commonly nominated terms to replace "Assarɛ". Independent variables, such as age over 35 years, education level, and the number of people living with epilepsy, influenced the respondents' choices. CONCLUSION: The desire of most participants in the survey to change the label "Assarɛ" demonstrates the widespread and severe stigmatisation and marginalisation of PWE.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Quality of Life , Adult , Humans , Social Stigma , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 127(6): 485-494, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098646

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the level of discrimination against people with intellectual disability during COVID-19, and assessed stereotypes, levels of familiarity with people with intellectual disability, and personal experiences with COVID-19 as potential correlates. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a large sample from the Dutch population (n = 1,797). Salient stereotype factors of people with intellectual disability were "friendly" and "in need of help," but not "give nuisance." Those respondents who were unfamiliar with people with intellectual disability in real life demonstrated higher levels of discrimination, perceiving them as more of a nuisance and as being less in need of help, in comparison to those who were more familiar. People with intellectual disability were judged by an ambivalent set of stereotypes during the COVID-19 pandemic that were in line with pre-COVID-19 findings and as such seemed to be fairly persistent and robust. There is a pressing need to both raise awareness of stereotypes towards and discrimination against people with intellectual disability via advocacy and education, and to facilitate positive encounters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Humans , Stereotyping , Social Stigma , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have widely reported that social and cultural values serve as constraints in controlling the spread of an epidemic. However, I argue that a social and cultural value system is a double-edged sword and can motivate people's preventive health behaviors. Few studies have examined the positive role of social and cultural values in promoting epidemic control. METHODS: Using the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in 2003 and the COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2020 in Hong Kong as examples, the present study performed participant observation in Hong Kong from January to June 2003 and from January 2020 to May 2022; in-depth individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 participants between February 2021 and March 2022. RESULTS: Social and cultural values serve as informal social control mechanisms in manipulating people's adoption of preventive health behaviors that can assist in epidemic control. Specifically, the construction and stigmatization of the "others" groups and the traditional cultural values based on the capitalist ideology were noted to facilitate control measures against the two outbreaks in Hong Kong. CONCLUSION: These two outbreaks reinforced the embedded social and cultural values of the capitalist ideology of Hong Kong, which increased the vulnerability of disadvantaged social groups to stigmatization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Stereotyping , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054341

ABSTRACT

Recent years have not only seen growing public distrust in science, but also in the people conducting science. Yet, attitudes toward scientists remain largely unexplored, and the limited body of literature that exists points to an interesting ambivalence. While survey data suggest scientists to be positively evaluated (e.g., respected and trusted), research has found scientists to be perceived as capable of immoral behavior. We report two experiments aimed at identifying what contributes to this ambivalence through systematic investigations of stereotypical perceptions of scientists. In these studies, we particularly focus on two potential sources of inconsistencies in previous work: divergent operationalizations of morality (measurement effects), and different specifications of the broad group of scientists (framing effects). Results show that scientists are generally perceived as more likely to violate binding as opposed to individualizing moral foundations, and that they deviate from control groups more strongly on the latter. The extent to which different morality measures reflect the differentiation between binding and individualizing moral foundations at least partially accounts for previous contradictory findings. Moreover, the results indicate large variation in perceptions of different types of scientists: people hold more positive attitudes toward university-affiliated scientists as compared to industry-affiliated scientists, with perceptions of the 'typical scientist' more closely resembling the latter. Taken together, the findings have important academic ramifications for science skepticism, morality, and stereotyping research as well as valuable practical implications for successful science communication.


Subject(s)
Morals , Physicians , Attitude , Humans , Stereotyping , Universities
19.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 34(9): 757-759, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016469

Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , Humans , Stereotyping
20.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 132-136, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958530

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program designed to reduce nursing students' social distancing from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: This experimental study was designed using a pretest, a posttest, and a control group. All participants were nursing students, of which 25 were included in the intervention group and 23 were placed in the control group. A 13-week program was offered to the intervention group. The measuring instruments consisted of a personal information form and the Social Distance Scale. Data were analyzed using the two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. FINDINGS: A significant difference was found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The Education Program on Stigmatization in Schizophrenia is an effective intervention that reduces the social distance of nursing students from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Schizophrenia , Students, Nursing , Humans , Physical Distancing , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Stereotyping
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