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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957324

ABSTRACT

In the face of unknown risks, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we tend to have stigmatized perceptions. The current study aimed to examine the association of social engagements with the level of stigmatization of COVID-19 infection among the general population. The data of 429 participants of the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seroprevalence neighborhood association (U-CORONA) study, a population-based cohort study conducted in Utsunomiya City, Japan, were analyzed. Their stigmatized perception of people with COVID-19 infection was evaluated via a questionnaire for the situation if they or others in their community were to get infected. The association between social engagements (community social capital, social network diversity, and social network size) and stigmatization were analyzed by a multiple linear regression model with generalized estimating equations. Overall, females reported a higher stigmatized perception of people with COVID-19 than males. Lower education and depressive symptoms were also positively associated with higher stigmatization, while age, household income, and comorbidities were not. People with higher community social capital reported lower stigmatization (B = -0.69, 95% CI = -1.23 to -0.16), while social network diversity and social network size did not show an association with stigmatization. We found an association between community social capital and stigmatization, suggesting that enhancing their community social capital, but not social network diversity and size, has the potential to mitigate the levels of stigmatization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Social Participation , Stereotyping
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938790

ABSTRACT

The first goal of this study is to develop a conceptual model of the causal relationship between psychological antecedents (internal attribution, anger, dangerousness, fear) of stigmatization, stigmatization (public stigma, anticipated stigma), and the behavioral consequences (compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, COVID-19 testing intention) of stigmatization associated with COVID-19. The second goal of the study is to investigate the age differences in the conceptual model between younger and older adults unconfirmed with COVID-19 in Korea. After building the model based on previous studies, an online survey was conducted with Koreans in their 20s (n = 300, females: 50%) and 60s (n = 300, females: 50%) who had not been confirmed with COVID-19. The results revealed that for participants in their 20s and 60s, their internal attribution of COVID-19 infection to individuals confirmed with COVID-19 enhanced their anger at the individuals. Afterward, their anger increased their anticipated stigma of being confirmed with COVID-19 through enhancing the public stigma of the individuals confirmed with COVID-19. Unexpectedly, the fear of individuals confirmed with COVID-19 elicited by the dangerousness of the individuals had no effect on the public stigma of the individuals among participants in their 20s and 60s. The fear directly enhanced their compliance with the COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Next, for participants in their 20s, their anticipated stigma increased their compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, but not their COVID-19 testing intention. However, the anticipated stigma did not affect both the compliance with the COVID-19 prevention guidelines and COVID-19 testing intention among participants in their 60s. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stereotyping , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 439, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 broke out worldwide, it had caused extensive public health concerns and psychological distress, including PTSD and stigmatization towards recovered patients and people from high-risk areas. However, the association between PTSD, stigmatization and certain related factors have not been confirmed. METHODS: Through cluster random sampling, 946 Chinese graduates were investigated from 5 universities in Shanghai at three months after China lifted its coronavirus lockdown. PTSD symptoms were evaluated with PCL-5. Demographic and disease-related characteristics including stigmatization, educational attainment and working position were collected to assess their association with PTSD. RESULTS: 12.4% graduates were reported significant PTSD symptoms in PCL-5 screening with a cut-off of 33. Graduates with a Master's degree (P = 0.02) or working position like "looking for a job" and "planning to go abroad" (P = 0.038) showed severer stigmatization related to COVID-19. Stigmatization towards both patients recovering from COVID-19 and people from high-risk areas had significant association with PTSD symptoms. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that stigmatization can explain 5% of variation of PCL-5 scores after controlling gender, age, educational attainments and working position. CONCLUSION: Graduates who were looking for jobs or preparing to go abroad showed more stigmatization related to COVID-19. There was a positive correlation between stigma against COVID-19 and PTSD symptoms. More attention should be paid to the mental health status of graduates who are preparing to go abroad or looking for jobs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Stereotyping , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808461, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903197

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In July 2021, Zhangjiajie City became the new epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Aside from the physical manifestations of COVID-19, patients are also victims of severe social stigmatization. Stigma affects not only COVID-19 patients or survivors, but also individuals associated with them. This study aims to describe and assess the COVID-19-related stigma between patients, their relatives, and healthy local residents. Methods: The study included 43 COVID-19 patients, 68 relatives, and 75 healthy residents from Zhangjiajie. Demographic data was collected, including gender, age, marital status, and educational level. Stigma attitudes toward COVID-19 were measured using the Stigma Scale and Social Distance Scale. Frequencies and percentages were described for each item of the scales, and differences among the three groups were examined using the chi-square test. Results: With regards to personal and perceived stigma, most participants agreed that patients with COVID-19 "could snap out of the problem" and that "they were dangerous." For social distance, over 30% of participants from the three groups agreed with the item "unwillingness to marry into the family of someone with COVID-19." In all groups, there were significant statistical differences in the belief that "the problem is not a real medical illness" and the desire to "spend the evening socializing." Conclusion: Although the outbreak was well-contained in Zhangjiajie, stigmatizing attitudes toward COVID-19 and desire for social distance to such patients were common among patients, their relatives and healthy local residents. Our study's results suggest that public education, anti-stigma interventions, and policies are necessary for people living in Zhangjiajie in order to effectively curtail the spread of COVID-19 and provide a useful strategy for a tourist city like Zhangjiajie to recover sooner from economic decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Social Stigma , Stereotyping
5.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S2): e2022150, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Perceived COVID-19-related stigmatizations have a strong impact on healthcare workers' wellbeing and quality of professional life, decreasing satisfaction and increasing fatigue. This work aims to investigate the role of professional identification in moderating the impact of COVID-19-related stigma on quality of professional life in a sample of healthcare professionals working in hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional design in which a web-based questionnaire was sent to professionals was used to collect answers from 174 participants, most of whom women and nurses. RESULTS: Perceived stigma was negatively related with compassion satisfaction and positively related with an increase in both burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Professional identification had a positive correlation with satisfaction and a negative correlation with burnout, but this was not directly related with secondary traumatic stress. Importantly, stigma and identification interacted so that stigma decreased compassion satisfaction only when identification was low, and increased secondary traumatic stress only when identification was high. No interaction effect appeared with respect to burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of stigmatization has the potential to decrease the quality of professional life of healthcare professionals. Professional identification seems to help professional to maintain higher level of compassion satisfaction and reduced burnout. However, professional identification seems also be associated with vicarious trauma experienced following stigma. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Empathy , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Aging Stud ; 61: 101031, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821323

ABSTRACT

The productive aging literature describes a wide range of psychosocial benefits of volunteerism for older adults. A growing, compelling body of research drawing from stereotype embodiment theory identifies significant, negative public health impacts of internalized age stereotypes. Yet, little research explores which activities may reduce internalized ageism and enhance psychosocial health as people age. This cross-sectional parallel mediation study examines whether internalized age stereotypes mediate the relationship between volunteering and social connectedness for adults over 50. A convenience sample of volunteers (n = 165) 50+ years of age in the U.S. Mountain West completed an online survey primarily during the COVID-19 pandemic. The independent variable is volunteer hours per week (M = 6.45, SD = 5.38). The dependent variable is social connectedness measured by five positively worded items from the UCLA loneliness scale (M = 4.32, SD = 0.63, and α = 0.86). The indirect effects of five internalized positive (e.g., "wise" and "capable") (M = 4.85, SD = 0.68, α = 0.72) and five negative (e.g., "grumpy" and "helpless") (M = 1.20, SD = 1.02, α = 0.74) age stereotypes were tested. Results (n = 154) indicate that increased internalized positive, but not negative, age stereotypes partially mediate the relationship between volunteer hours and increased social connectedness, while holding constant relevant covariates. Although positive age stereotypes have long been considered a form of ageism, the results of this study suggest that internalizing positive age stereotypes may function as a form of esteem (particularly during the pandemic) to promote enhanced psychosocial health as people age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Stereotyping , Volunteers
7.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(2)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766038

ABSTRACT

Objective: To survey and analyze the experience of stigma among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted from September to December 2020 in the Fars, Khorasan Razavi, and Yazd provinces of Iran. Sampling was done via the snowball method. Based on data saturation criteria, 24 adults aged > 18 years who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 were recruited. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with each patient. Data were analyzed following the conventional content analysis method.Results: The results showed that during their illness with COVID-19, the participants experienced a difficult and anxious course, with rejection and alienation from their first-degree relatives taking them by surprise. The 3 main themes extracted from this study were (1) fear and rejection, (2) discrimination, and (3) loneliness. These experiences changed the attitudes of the participants toward life and themselves.Conclusions: The results show the importance of being aware of social stigma among patients and that primary care physicians play an integral role in addressing this issue, especially during pandemics. Psychological counseling sessions for those afflicted is recommended, and education and training should be provided to the public regarding the proper treatment of patients with COVID-19. Quantitative studies in this field are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Gesundheitswesen ; 84(4): 310-318, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers seem to be more affected by stigma due to the Covid-19 pandemic compared to other occupational groups. However, there is very little research on this topic. The aims of the present study were to investigate pandemic-related stigmatization experiences among nursing and medical staff in Germany and determine the type and effects of stigmatization as well as appropriate prevention and intervention measures. METHODS: The interviews were conducted by a semi-structured interview guide and evaluated using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen nurses participated in the interviews. Sources of stigmatization were friends and acquaintances, family members, executives, colleagues, patients and their relatives, strangers and public media. Some of the interviewed persons reported self-stigmatization. A common cause of stigma in the private environment was the fear of infection. In the context of the work, illness-related absence was also named as one of the causes of stigma. The interviewees reported about distancing and avoiding contact, as well as allegations they were faced with. As a result, they suffered from negative feelings and partially from psychosomatic complaints. Some interviewees tried to avoid stigmatization by concealing their own profession or place of work. Help was offered in private and professional context in form of conversations and encouragement. CONCLUSION: Stigmatization of healthcare professionals during the pandemic has hardly been explored in Germany. There is a particular need for research to quantify the extent, manifestations and effects of work-related stigmatization and to develop suitable preventive measures at workplace and outside of work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Stereotyping
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community Health Workers are globally recognised as crucial members of healthcare systems in low and middle-income countries, but their role and experience during COVID-19 is not well-understood. This study aimed to explore factors that influence CHWs' ability and willingness to work in the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos. DESIGN: A generic qualitative study exploring Community Health Workers experiences and perceptions of working during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: 15 semi-structured, in-depth, video interviews were conducted with Community Health Workers purposively sampled across seven of Lagos' Local Government Areas with the highest COVID-19 burden. Interviews explored Community Health Workers' attitudes towards COVID-19, its management, and their experiences working in Lagos. Data was analysed thematically using the framework method. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified. 1. Influences on ability to undertake COVID-19 Role: Trust and COVID-19 knowledge were found to aid Community Health Workers in their work. However, challenges included exhaustion due to an increased workload, public misconceptions about COVID-19, stigmatisation of COVID-19 patients, delayed access to care and lack of transportation. 2. Influences on willingness to work in COVID-19 Role: Community Health Workers' perceptions of COVID-19, attitudes towards responsibility for COVID-19 risk at work, commitment and faith appeared to increase willingness to work. 3. Suggested Improvements: Financial incentives, provision of adequate personal protective equipment, transportation, and increasing staff numbers were seen as potential strategies to address many of the challenges faced. CONCLUSION: Despite Community Health Workers being committed to their role, they have faced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. Changes to their working environment may make their role during disease outbreaks more fulfilling and sustainable. International input is required to enhance Nigeria's policies and infrastructure to better support Community Health Workers during both current and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers/psychology , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Knowledge , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transportation , Workload , Young Adult
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 855, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in global health and economic crisis. We investigated the experiences of frontline health care workers recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos State Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study among frontline health workers recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos State, Nigeria. We interviewed 12 respondents before achieving data saturation. We used a checklist to guide the interview according to the phenomenon under study. Data obtained were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. RESULTS: The study was summarized under five themes: knowledge of COVID-19, exposure, reactions, challenges and recommendations. The respondents were quite knowledgeable on COVID-19, their reactions when informed of their status were denial, anxiety, distress, disorientation, crying for fear of stigmatization, while some were psychologically prepared. Reactions from colleagues, family and friends were encouraging and provided solace for them with a few colleagues and families that had negative reactions. Challenges include anosmia, movement restriction, loneliness, worries about the state of their families, nondisclosure of status to family members, non-conducive isolation centre with limited space, insomnia, stigmatization by health workers at the isolation centre, extended duration of stay, delay in the release of test results and use of ambulance for evacuation to the isolation centres. Coping strategies were watching movies, phone calls, use of social media, listening to music, attending webinars, working on projects and reading spiritual books. Recommendations were early laboratory testing of samples and conveying of results, increase testing capacity, the need of health care workers to be more compassionate, better method of evacuation of people that tested positive to COVID-19, aside the use of ambulance that increases the likelihood of stigmatization and standard guideline for the case management of people recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos state. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents felt stigmatized and psychologically and morally traumatized. Isolation is a difficult experience and some negative emotions as expressed by previous studies were experienced by the respondents. There is need for increased testing capacity, timely results dissemination, early evacuation and creation of more isolation centres in Lagos State due to the rising number of cases and shortage of bed space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stereotyping , Health Personnel , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e70-e75, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, stigmatization of older persons increased in traditional and social media. It was unknown whether this negative messaging could be detrimental to the mental health of older individuals, and whether the relatively uncommon positive messaging about older individuals could benefit their mental health. METHOD: To address these gaps, we designed age-stereotype interventions based on actual news stories that appeared during the pandemic, and divided them into negative and positive versions of what we term personified (i.e., individual-based) and enumerative (i.e., number-based) age-stereotype messaging. The negative versions of the 2 types of messaging reflected the age stereotype of decline, whereas the positive versions of the 2 types of messaging reflected the age stereotype of resilience. RESULTS: As expected, the exposure of older individuals to the negative-age-stereotype-messaging interventions led to significantly worse mental health (i.e., more anxiety and less peacefulness), compared to a neutral condition; in contrast, the positive-age-stereotype-messaging interventions led to significantly better mental health (i.e., less anxiety and more peacefulness), compared to a neutral condition. The findings were equally strong for the personified and enumerative conditions. Also as expected, the interventions, which were self-irrelevant to the younger participants, did not significantly impact their mental health. DISCUSSION: This is the first-known study to experimentally demonstrate that institutional ageism, and statistics that reflect stereotypes about older individuals, can impact mental health. The results demonstrate the need for media messaging aimed at empowering older individuals during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stereotyping
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555270

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Understanding community members' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and the prevalence of associated stigma are critical steps for increasing accurate public health knowledge, encouraging uptake of preventative or mitigating health behaviors, and ultimately bringing the COVID-19 pandemic under control. Methods: We conducted a one-time, phone-based assessment to assess the presence of perceived COVID-19 community stigma reported by Kenyan primary and secondary school teachers, as well as adolescents living with HIV. Participants were previously enrolled in an ongoing, cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the impact of multi-media teacher training on teachers' negative attitudes and beliefs around HIV. The SAFI Stigma Questionnaire, a validated tool to assess HIV-related stigma in this setting, was adapted to ask questions regarding the stigma and discrimination experienced or perceived during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: We enrolled 330 participants in this study, including 311 primary and secondary teachers (56% female, average age 36 years) and 19 adolescents living with HIV (57.89% female, average age 16.37 years). None of the adolescent participants reported witnessing or experiencing discrimination related to COVID-19, nor did they report losing financial and/or social support. In contrast, the teacher participants reported prominent social stigma experiences of various levels and related to COVID-19. Teachers in the intervention group, who had completed the multi-media training on HIV-related stigma, were significantly less likely to think that the community viewed COVID-19 as a dirty or shameful disease, and less likely to feel it was important to keep their COVID-19 infection a secret, compared to the teacher control group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that COVID-19-related stigma may be prevalent in western Kenya and that interventions to reduce community-level stigma for HIV may also have a protective impact on other stigmatized infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Social Stigma , Stereotyping
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2124, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that even in highly developed countries many people with depression do not seek help for their mental health issues, despite promising prevention approaches encouraging people to seek help and reduce self-stigma. Therefore, an anti-stigma intervention study to support help-seeking behaviour will be developed on the basis of the newly explicated "Seeking Mental Health Care Model". METHODS: A quasi-experimental online study will be carried out to assess the effect of different intervention variables relevant for the help-seeking process. The study is conceived as a fractional factorial design. Participants will be screened for depressive complaints (PHQ-9 sum score ≥ 8) and current psychiatric/psychotherapeutic treatment. After baseline assessment the participants will be randomly allocated into one of the 24 study groups receiving different combinations of the vignette-based intervention aiming to reduce stigma and support help-seeking. Next, relevant outcome measures will be administered a second time. In a 3- and 6-month follow-up help-seeking behaviour will be measured. Gamified elements and avatar-choice techniques will be used to heighten study immersion and adherence. DISCUSSION: On the basis of the project results, promising research and intervention perspectives can be developed. Results, firstly, allow for a more detailed empirical investigation and conceptualisation of the stages of mental health care utilisation, as well as an examination of theoretical approaches to stigmatisation. Secondly, our online study could provide insights for an evidence-based design and evaluation of online interventions for people with a mental illness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00023557 . Registered 11 December 2020. World Health Organization, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1264-9954. Registered 16 February 2021.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Attitude , Humans , Mental Disorders/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Random Allocation , Social Stigma , Stereotyping
14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(1): 60-66, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contributions of older adults amid the COVID-19 pandemic have been eclipsed by discourse positioning them as an at-risk population. We assess whether age-based framing (e.g., senior citizen) is associated with more negative stereotyping in the media compared to familial role-based framing (e.g., grandparent) across 8 months, from a baseline period (October 2019-December 2019) to the onset of the pandemic (January 2020-May 2020). METHODS: Leveraging a 12-billion-word news media database-with over 30 million news articles from over 7000 websites-we identified the most common synonyms for age-based framing (e.g., senior citizen) and familial role-based framing (e.g., grandparent). For each framing category, we compiled the most frequently used descriptors every month, amassing 488,907 descriptors in total. All descriptors were rated from 1 (very negative) to 5 (very positive) to determine a Cumulative Aging Narrative Score (CANS) for age-based and familial role-based framing. RESULTS: Age-based framing of older adults increased negative stereotyping in the media by seven times compared to familial role-based framing during COVID-19. The percentage of positive topics for age-based framing was significantly lower during COVID-19 (35%) than before (61%). Conversely, the percentage of positive topics for familial role-based framing was higher during the pandemic (91%) than before (70%). CONCLUSION: This is one of the first empirical studies on whether framing older adults based on age or role is linked to more negative stereotypes during COVID-19. We argue for a more role-centered approach in framing older adults so that their contributions are acknowledged and valued by society.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , COVID-19/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Stereotyping , Aged , Humans , Terminology as Topic
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 518, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477302

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great toll on global health. Frontline healthcare workers (FHCW) directly involved in the treatment of COVID-19 patients have faced some physical and psychological challenges. This study explored the stigma and traumatic experiences of the FHCW during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. METHODS: We recruited twenty FHCW directly involved in the treatment of COVID-19 patients through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted for all participants, and qualitative analysis of data was done using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. RESULTS: Five themes identified were: Early stage of the pandemic (fear, anxiety, public fright, other countries repatriating their citizens, the socio-economic impact of the pandemic and a call to duty for the FHCW); working with COVID-19 patients (excitement on patients recovery and duty stress); psychological, mental and emotional trauma; stigmatization (stigmatized by colleagues, family, friends or their residential communities, reasons for stigmatization which were fear of infection, limited knowledge of the virus and working at the isolation centre and the effect of stigma); and recommendations (education and awareness creation, government showing more care towards the FHCW and provision of health insurance for FHCW to take care of those that get infected in the line of duty). CONCLUSION: Stigmatization has proven to be a major challenge for FHCW in conducting their duties. The psychological impact experienced by FHCW may affect the quality of the services rendered by these workers. The study reveals the need of education and awareness creation in the ongoing pandemic. There is a need for the government and society to acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of FHCW.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Humans , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereotyping
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457866

ABSTRACT

Both COVID-19 and ageism can have a negative impact on the well-being of older people. Yet, our knowledge on the links between COVID-19, ageism and well-being is still emerging. The present study aimed to contribute to this knowledge by exploring the lived experiences of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we analyzed older persons' subjective experiences and perceptions of ageism arising from COVID-19-related policies and discourses in two country contexts-Austria and Ireland-and the implications of these experiences for personal well-being. Based on the thematic analysis of 27 interviews with older adults, we found that participants perceived and encountered a discriminatory homogeneous representation of older people as a group. Three specific forms of this homogenization, namely stigmatization, paternalism, and scapegoating, were identified as impact on well-being. Moreover, our analysis showed how these forms of ageism challenge both the individual and social identities of older people, revealing older participants' different attitudes in responding to this challenge. With reference to the international research literature, we discussed the impact of these experiences on the well-being of older people and the possible legal and socio-political implications of our findings.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereotyping
17.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100971, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428091

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored how everyday information and communication technology (EICT), such as online banking, e-shopping, or e-mail, are essential for individuals of all ages to maintain activity engagement, health, and well-being. Yet, older adults are often stereotypically portrayed as incapable, technophobic, or unwilling to engage in EICT. This may further contribute to the digital divide, as age stereotypes have the power to act like self-fulfilling prophecies and impede older adults' engagement in complex everyday life tasks. This study aimed to shed light on internalized ageism as manifested in older non-users' narrations about EICT use. It further explored how age stereotypes in the context of EICT are constructed and perpetuated through disempowering and ageist environments. A qualitative approach was applied, performing semi-structured interviews in participants' homes (N = 15). Data were analyzed following the principles of qualitative content analysis, applying both deductive categorization and inductive coding. Internalized ageism appeared to be an omnipresent element in older adults' narrations about EICT non-use. This was reflected in the four subcategories "competence and learning", "relevance and use", "technology design", and "intergenerational contact". Ageism, as manifested in the social environment and the design of technology, seemingly contributed to the internalization of age stereotypes and low EICT engagement. This research calls for inclusive technology designs, ageism-free EICT learning settings, and awareness campaigns about lifelong learning to help close the digital divide and ensure optimal aging experiences for older people.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereotyping , Technology
18.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 65(4): 437-449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416016

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the health of older adults. In addition to a higher risk for serious illness and death, the societal value of senescent adults was challenged. There have been conflicting results reported in the research literature regarding positive and negative stereotypes of older adults, and areliable and valid assessment tool to measure content (existence of astereotype) and strength (intensity of astereotype) is unavailable. To address issues with instruments employed to measure ageist stereotypes, researchers developed the Stereotypes Content and Strength Survey. University students (n=483) were directed to "think about their perceptions of older adults" and indicate how many they believed could be described using the terms listed on a5-point Likert-type scale from none-all. Response categories for each descriptive item were dichotomized into 1 = "some, most or all" and 0 = "none or few." Based on an odds analyses of 117 items, 84 met the content criteria to be considered astereotype regarding older adults. Using the criteria for strength, items were categorized into 36 "strong," 25 "moderate," and 23 "weak" stereotypes. Assessing the content and strength of stereotypic beliefs using this procedure may contribute to major bias influencing ageist perceptions.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Stereotyping
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376827

ABSTRACT

Recently, 194 World Health Organization member states called on the international organization to develop a global campaign to combat ageism, citing its alarming ubiquity, insidious threat to health, and prevalence in the media. Existing media studies of age stereotypes have mostly been single-sourced. This study harnesses a 1.1-billion-word media database comprising the British National Corpus and Corpus of Contemporary American English-with genres including spoken/television, fiction, magazines, newspapers-to provide a comprehensive view of ageism in the United Kingdom and United States. The US and UK were chosen as they are home to the largest media conglomerates with tremendous power to shape public opinion. The most commonly used synonym of older adults was identified, and its most frequently used descriptors were analyzed for valence. Such computational linguistics techniques represent a new advance in studying aging narratives. The key finding is consistent, though no less alarming: Negative descriptions of older adults outnumber positive ones by six times. Negative descriptions tend to be physical, while positive ones tend to be behavioral. Magazines contain the highest levels of ageism, followed by the spoken genre, newspapers, and fiction. Findings underscore the need to increase public awareness of ageism and lay the groundwork to design targeted societal campaigns to tackle ageism-one of our generation's most pernicious threats.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Stereotyping , Public Opinion , Television , United States
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 855, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in global health and economic crisis. We investigated the experiences of frontline health care workers recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos State Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study among frontline health workers recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos State, Nigeria. We interviewed 12 respondents before achieving data saturation. We used a checklist to guide the interview according to the phenomenon under study. Data obtained were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. RESULTS: The study was summarized under five themes: knowledge of COVID-19, exposure, reactions, challenges and recommendations. The respondents were quite knowledgeable on COVID-19, their reactions when informed of their status were denial, anxiety, distress, disorientation, crying for fear of stigmatization, while some were psychologically prepared. Reactions from colleagues, family and friends were encouraging and provided solace for them with a few colleagues and families that had negative reactions. Challenges include anosmia, movement restriction, loneliness, worries about the state of their families, nondisclosure of status to family members, non-conducive isolation centre with limited space, insomnia, stigmatization by health workers at the isolation centre, extended duration of stay, delay in the release of test results and use of ambulance for evacuation to the isolation centres. Coping strategies were watching movies, phone calls, use of social media, listening to music, attending webinars, working on projects and reading spiritual books. Recommendations were early laboratory testing of samples and conveying of results, increase testing capacity, the need of health care workers to be more compassionate, better method of evacuation of people that tested positive to COVID-19, aside the use of ambulance that increases the likelihood of stigmatization and standard guideline for the case management of people recovering from COVID-19 in Lagos state. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents felt stigmatized and psychologically and morally traumatized. Isolation is a difficult experience and some negative emotions as expressed by previous studies were experienced by the respondents. There is need for increased testing capacity, timely results dissemination, early evacuation and creation of more isolation centres in Lagos State due to the rising number of cases and shortage of bed space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stereotyping , Health Personnel , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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