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1.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(3): 407-408, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687824

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has exaggerated the role of steroids in the standard of care despite minimum direct evidence of their efficacy in COVID-19 patients and their well-known adverse effects. The literature abounds on the side effects of steroids affecting different organ systems of the body. COVID-19 patients, who are on long-term steroids, are more susceptible to their adverse effects. We, herein, briefly review the potential uses and the adverse effects of steroids on different organ systems of the body. Key Words: Steroids, COVID-19, Adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/adverse effects
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 442-447, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible association between invasive fungal sinusitis (mucormycosis) and coronavirus disease. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care centre over four months, involving all patients with mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses suffering from or having a history of coronavirus disease infection. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients presented with mucormycosis, all had an association with coronavirus disease 2019. The ethmoids (100 per cent) were the most common sinuses affected. Intra-orbital extension was seen in 43.47 per cent of cases, while intracranial extension was only seen in 8.69 per cent. Diabetes mellitus was present in 21 of 23 cases, and was uncontrolled in 12 cases. All patients had a history of steroid use during their coronavirus treatment. CONCLUSION: New manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 are appearing over time. The association between coronavirus and mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses must be given serious consideration. Uncontrolled diabetes and over-zealous use of steroids are two main factors aggravating the illness, and both of these must be properly checked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Administration, Intravenous , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucorales/drug effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/etiology , Pandemics , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
7.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 52(6): 535-550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the use of steroids in the management of COVID-19 has been addressed by a few systematic review and meta-analysis, however, they also used data from "SARS-CoV" and "MERS-CoV." Again, most of these studies addressed only one severity category of patients or addressed only one efficacy endpoint (mortality). In this context, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy among all severity categories of patients with COVID-19 (mild to moderate and severe to critical category) in terms of "mortality," "requirement of mechanical ventilation," "requirement of ICU" and clinical cure parameters. METHODS: 11 databases were screened. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or high quality (on the basis of risk of bias analysis) comparative-observational studies were included in the analysis. RevMan5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies (3 RCT and 12 comparative-observational studies) were included. In the mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 population, treatment with dexamethasone showed significant protection against mortality (single study). Among severe and critically ill combined population, steroid administration was significantly associated with lowered mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.83 [0.76-0.910]), lowered requirement of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.59 [0.51-0.69]), decreased requirement of intensive care unit (ICU) (RR 0.62 [0.45-0.86]), lowered length of ICU stay (single-study) and decreased duration of mechanical ventilation (two-studies). In mild to moderate population, steroid treatment was associated with a higher "duration of hospital stay," while no difference was seen in other domains. In patients at risk of progression to "acute respiratory distress syndrome," steroid administration was associated with "reduced requirement of mechanical ventilation" (single-study). CONCLUSION: This study guides the use of steroid across patients with different severity categories of COVID-19. Among mechanically ventilated patients, steroid therapy may be beneficial in terms of reduced mortality. Among "severe and critical" patients; steroid therapy was associated with lowered mortality, decreased requirement of mechanical ventilation, and ICU. However, no benefit was observed in "mild to moderate" population. To conclude, among properly selected patient populations (based-upon clinical severity and biomarker status), steroid administration may prove beneficial in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Steroids/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066845

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a biphasic illness with an initial viraemia phase and later effective adaptive immune phase, except in a minority of people who develop severe disease. Immune regulation is the key target to treat COVID illness. In anticipation, an elderly man self-medicated himself with dexamethasone on the day of symptom onset of a flu-like illness, took other symptomatic measures and was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. His condition deteriorated with each passing day resulting in hospitalisation. He demanded oxygen and declared as severe COVID. With supportive treatment, he recovered after the 20th day of illness. Immunosuppression and anti-inflammation are likely to benefit when the immune response is dysregulated and turning into a cytokine storm. A medication that has saved many could be the one predisposing to severity if taken as a preventive measure, too early in the disease course, especially the viraemia phase.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Viremia/drug therapy , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Medication/methods , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Viremia/complications
9.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 32(1): 3-17, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058394

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) presenting with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. The first case was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and it has rapidly progressed to the form of a pandemic. The presentation is mild in about 80 percent of the cases but the disease can also progress to a severe form of respiratory illness leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sometimes multi-organ failure, especially in people with other co-morbidities. Pregnant women also appear to be at a greater risk of acquiring a severe infection due to physiological changes during pregnancy. Many drugs with in vitro activity against the virus or an immunomodulatory effect have been considered for repurposing or have been tried as off-label drugs. The safety data regarding the use of newly approved or off-label or investigational drugs in pregnant women is limited and this poses a great challenge for clinicians. Therefore, it is important to know the utility and safety of the medications to avoid untoward adverse effects on pregnant women and fetuses. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the approved, off-label, unlicensed, new and some promising pharmacological options for their use in the treatment of COVID-19 and the safety profile in pregnancy in an Indian scenario.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fetus/drug effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drugs, Investigational , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 287-292, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056691

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) after viral illnesses are important sources of morbidity and mortality. This has not been extensively studied in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study included all COVID-19-positive adult patients (≥18 years) hospitalized between 01 March and 05 August 2020 at the current institution. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAI in the acute care setting was used. The outcomes that were studied were rates and types of infections and in-hospital mortality. Several multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine characteristics associated with development of HAI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (3.7%) of 1565 patients developed 140 separate HAIs from 73 different organisms: 23 were Gram-positive, 39 were Gram-negative and 11 were fungal. Patients who developed HAI did not have higher odds of death (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.40-1.81, p = 0.69). HAIs were associated with the use of tocilizumab (OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.4-10.6, p < 0.001), steroids (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10, p = 0.007), hydroxychloroquine (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.8, p = 0.05), and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.8, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: HAI were common in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Tocilizumab and steroids were associated with increased risk of HAIs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/adverse effects , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Steroids/therapeutic use
11.
Kardiologiia ; 60(6): 15-29, 2020 07 07.
Article in English, Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688942

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus pneumonia not only severely affects the lung tissue but is also associated with systemic autoimmune inflammation, rapid overactivation of cytokines and chemokines known as "cytokine storm", and a high risk of thrombosis and thromboembolism. Since there is no specific therapy for this new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), searching for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory therapy is critical.Materials and methods This study evaluated efficacy and safety of pulse therapy with high doses of glucocorticosteroids (GCS), methylprednisolone 1,000 mg for 3 days plus dexamethasone 8 mg for another 3-5 days, in 17 patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia as a part of retrospective comparative analysis (17 patients in control group). The study primary endpoint was the aggregate dynamics of patients' condition as evaluated by an original CCS-COVID scale, which included, in addition to the clinical status, assessments of changes in the inflammation marker, C-reactive protein (CRP); the thrombus formation marker, D-dimer; and the extent of lung injury evaluated by computed tomography (CT). Patients had signs of lung injury (53.2 % and 25.6 %), increases in CRP 27 and 19 times, and a more than doubled level of D-dimer (to 1.41 µg/ml and 1.15 µg/ml) in the active therapy and the control groups, respectively. The GCS treatment group had a more severe condition at baseline.Results The GCS pulse therapy proved effective and significantly decreased the CCS-COVID scores. Median score difference was 5.00 compared to the control group (р=0.011). Shortness of breath considerably decreased; oxygen saturation increased, and the NEWS-2 clinical status scale scores decreased. In the GCS group, concentration of CRP significantly decreased from 134 mg/dl to 41.8 mg/dl (р=0.009) but at the same time, D-dimer level significantly increased from 1.41 µg/ml to 1.98 µg/ml (р=0.044). In the control group, the changes were nonsignificant. The dynamics of lung injury by CT was better in the treatment group but the difference did not reach a statistical significance (р=0.062). Following the GCS treatment, neutrophilia increased (р=0.0001) with persisting lymphopenia, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, a marker of chronic inflammation, increased 2.5 times (р=0.006). The changes in the N/L ratio and D-dimer were found to correlate in the GCS pulse therapy group (r =0.49, p=0.04), which underlined the relationship of chronic autoimmune inflammation with thrombus formation in COVID-19. No significant changes were observed in the control group. In result, four patients developed venous thromboembolic complications (two of them had pulmonary artery thromboembolism) after the GCS pulse therapy despite the concomitant antiplatelet treatment at therapeutic doses. Recovery was slower in the hormone treatment group (median stay in the hospital was 26 days vs 18 days in the control group, р=0.001).Conclusion Pulse therapy with high doses of GCS exerted a rapid anti-inflammatory effect but at the same time, increased the N/L ratio and the D-dimer level, which increased the risk of thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Steroids/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced
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