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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 566-570, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726466

ABSTRACT

There has been a surge of rhino-orbital mucormycosis cases in India in the wake of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been widely suggested that dysglycemia resulting from diabetes which is a common comorbidity in COVID-19 patients, and indiscriminate steroid use has resulted in this surge. We report a series of 13 cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients admitted to our center between mid-April and early June 2021. The cases showed a male preponderance, two patients had loss of vision, and four of them showed intracranial extension of disease. Twelve patients had received steroids and 12 had preexisting or newly diagnosed diabetes, both steroid use and diabetes being the most common identified risk factors. Considering other possible risk factors, immunosuppressed state, antiviral or ayurvedic (Indian traditional) medications, and oxygen therapy were not associated with a definite risk of mucormycosis, because they were not present uniformly in the patients. We propose that COVID-19 itself, through molecular mechanisms, predisposes to mucormycosis, with other factors such as dysglycemia or steroid use increasing the risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/virology , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/virology , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/virology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/mortality , Risk Factors , Steroids/therapeutic use
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259153, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of statins and steroids on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in patients with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis (ILD-PF). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ILD-PF who were using statins (statin cohort, N = 11,567) and not using statins (nonstatin cohort, N = 26,159). Cox proportional regression was performed to analyze the cumulative incidence of CAD and stroke. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAD and stroke were determined after sex, age, and comorbidities, as well as the use of inhaler corticosteroids (ICSs), oral steroids (OSs), and statins, were controlled for. RESULTS: Compared with those of patients without statin use, the aHRs (95% CIs) of patients with statin use for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79) and 0.52 (0.38-0.72), respectively. For patients taking single-use statins but not ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79)/0.69 (0.61-0.79) and 0.54 (0.39-0.74)/0.50 (0.32-0.79), respectively. For patients using ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.71 (0.42-1.18)/0.74 (0.64-0.85) and 0.23 (0.03-1.59)/0.54 (0.35-0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that statin use, either alone or in combination with OS use, plays an auxiliary role in the management of CAD and ischemic stroke in patients with ILD-PF.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Steroids/therapeutic use , Stroke/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Steroids/administration & dosage , Stroke/complications , Stroke/prevention & control
4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 442-447, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible association between invasive fungal sinusitis (mucormycosis) and coronavirus disease. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care centre over four months, involving all patients with mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses suffering from or having a history of coronavirus disease infection. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients presented with mucormycosis, all had an association with coronavirus disease 2019. The ethmoids (100 per cent) were the most common sinuses affected. Intra-orbital extension was seen in 43.47 per cent of cases, while intracranial extension was only seen in 8.69 per cent. Diabetes mellitus was present in 21 of 23 cases, and was uncontrolled in 12 cases. All patients had a history of steroid use during their coronavirus treatment. CONCLUSION: New manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 are appearing over time. The association between coronavirus and mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses must be given serious consideration. Uncontrolled diabetes and over-zealous use of steroids are two main factors aggravating the illness, and both of these must be properly checked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Administration, Intravenous , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucorales/drug effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/etiology , Pandemics , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagnostic indices in clinical practice. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel visually-based classification of pulmonary findings from computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with the following three patterns defined: peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse findings of pneumonia. We also evaluated the prognostic value of this classification to predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1st and September 30th, 2020, who presented with suspicious findings on CT lung images at admission (n = 69). We compared the association between the three predefined patterns (peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse), admission to the intensive care unit, tracheal intubation, and death. We tested quantitative CT analysis as an outcome predictor for COVID-19. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using a semi-automated method (Thoracic Volume Computer-Assisted Reading software, GE Health care, United States). Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). We collected patient clinical data, including demographic and clinical variables at the time of admission. RESULTS: Patients with a diffuse pattern were intubated more frequently and for a longer duration than patients with a peripheral or multifocal pattern. The following clinical variables were significantly different between the diffuse pattern and peripheral and multifocal groups: body temperature (p = 0.04), lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.02), c-reactive protein (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (p < 0.01), D-dimer (p < 0.01), and steroid (p = 0.01) and favipiravir (p = 0.03) administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our simple visual assessment of CT images can predict the severity of illness, a resulting decrease in respiratory function, and the need for supplemental respiratory ventilation among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Neutrophils , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e336, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572279

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread worldwide and remains an ongoing medical challenge. This case series reports on the clinical features and characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and confirmed COVID-19 infection. From February 2020 to March 2021, nine patients with IBD had confirmed COVID-19 across four hospitals in Korea. The median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 42 years. Six patients were male, and seven patients had ulcerative colitis (UC). No patients required oxygen therapy, intensive care unit hospitalizations, or died. The most common symptom was fever, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms developed as diarrhea in five patients with UC. Oral steroids were used to combat UC aggravation in two patients. In this case series of nine IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Korea, the clinical presentation was predominately a mild respiratory tract infection. Most patients with UC developed new GI symptoms including diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Administration, Oral , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Young Adult
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7115-7126, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is to date a global pandemic that can affect all age groups; gastrointestinal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19 and a new clinical entity defined as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been described in children and adolescents previously affected by COVID-19. Presenting symptoms of this new disease include high fever and severe abdominal pain that can mimic more common causes of abdominal pain; patients can rapidly deteriorate presenting severe cardiac dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Some fatalities due to this serious illness have been reported. We describe the case of a ten-year-old patient presenting with persistent high fever associated with continuous and worsening abdominal pain. Various hypotheses were performed during his diagnostic workup and an initial appendectomy was performed in the suspect of acute appendicitis. As his clinical picture deteriorated, the child was subsequently diagnosed and successfully treated as a case of MIS-C. The objective of this case report and brief review of abdominal pain in children throughout the age groups is to provide the emergency pediatrician with updated suggestions in diagnosing abdominal pain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucositis/etiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/trends , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1350-1356, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540143

ABSTRACT

The coagulation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-a) and lymphopenia are associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. The use of anti-inflammatory agents, such as corticosteroids (CS) or tosilizumab (TCZ), has been suggested for the treatment of advanced stage of COVID-19 and the reduction of mechanical ventilators and mortality. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine the role of combination therapy with tocilizumab and steroids in COVID-19 patients. Relevant studies were found using online international databases, and suitable studies were selected and assessed by two independent researchers. The quality of all papers was determined by a checklist. Heterogeneity assay among the primary studies was evaluated by Cochran's Q-test and I2 index. The statistical analyses were done using the Stata ver. 14 package (StataCorp) software. Publication bias was estimated through Egger's test, and the impact of each study on the overall estimate was assessed by sensitivity analysis. Five studies were entered into this meta-analysis. The results of these studies showed that the risk of death for COVID-19 patients treated with the combination of corticosteroids and tocilizumab compared to tocilizumab and the control group was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-1.50) and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31-0.74), respectively. This meta-analysis showed that the risk of death in COVID-19 patients who were treated with corticosteroids and tocilizumab was lower than the tocilizumab alone and control groups (26% and 52%, respectively).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 32(1): 33-35, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521439

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines protect against symptomatic and severe COVID-19. The BNT162b2/Pfizer and mRNA-1273/Moderna vaccines represent new vaccine technology relying on administration of mRNA encoding SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein encased in lipid nanoparticles. The vaccines are administered as two doses into muscle, which elicits a strong response, typically within 14 days after the second dose. Neuromuscular diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle and are often treated with chronic glucocorticoid steroids, both of which may contribute to a blunted immune response to vaccination. Here, we measured IgG antibody content and neutralizing antibody response after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in non-ambulatory neuromuscular disease patients. After two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, median anti-receptor binding domain IgG and percent surrogate viral neutralization in non-ambulatory neuromuscular disease samples were significantly elevated similar to healthy vaccinated controls. As in healthy controls, COVID-19 vaccines produce greater antibody levels compared to those with a history of outpatient COVID-19 infection. This data documents that non-ambulatory neuromuscular disease patients respond well to two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine despite low muscle mass and even chronic steroid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Neuromuscular Diseases/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Diseases/drug therapy , Neutralization Tests , Steroids/therapeutic use , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 914: 174579, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging reports have shown the benefits of steroids in hospitalized COVID-19 patients as life-saving drugs. However, the use of steroids in COVID-19 patients is confusing among many physicians. AIM: The aim of the current study was to find out the exact association of steroids in the deaths of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Google scholar, and Clinical trials registries till May 25, 2021 and sorted out based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of studies was assessed using a standard scale. The pooled odds ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity and sub-group analyses were also done. The publication bias was assessed qualitatively. The Rev Man 5 was used for all analyses with a random-effect model. RESULTS: The quantitative analysis was done with 9922 patients (6265-male and 3657-females) from 21 relevant studies. The pooled estimate results i.e. 0.52 [0.34, 0.80] have shown a significant reduction in deaths of COVID-19 patients in the steroidal group as compared to the non-steroidal group. The sensitivity analyses did not alter our conclusions. In subgroup analysis, methylprednisolone has shown a significant reduction in deaths of COVID-19 patients as compared to the non-steroidal group, however, more clinical evidence is required for dexamethasone and hydrocortisone. CONCLUSION: The use of steroids in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is useful to reduce deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/classification , Steroids/therapeutic use
12.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(5): 550-551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456467
13.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(2): 152-156, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-Cov-2 infection has multiple neurologic manifestations including encephalitis in multiple cases reported, however the psychosis as principal manifestation of this condition is infrequently. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 who developed paranoid and self-referential ideas with behavioural alteration and multiple findings on mental examination. Encephalitis associated with Covid-19 was suspected due to the neurological clinical presentation (persistent despite resolve hypoxaemia and systemic symptoms) and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) that showed asymmetric hippocampal hyperintensities, although cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal. The patient received medical treatment with methylprednisolone for 5 days with complete resolution of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has neurological complications either by direct involvement or by para-infectious or post-infectious phenomena. Encephalitis occurs in a small proportion of the cases, while psychiatric symptoms have been described in a variable percentage of the events. However, a psychotic picture such as the one reported in our case is unusual. MRI, cerebrospinal fluid and EEG are important for the diagnostic evaluation of these patients but not obligatory to the diagnosis. The treatment of this condition with corticosteroids has been successful even in cases associated with Anti-NMDA. Our case is the second reported in Colombia, the first to be associated with psychosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Psychotic Disorders , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 352-358, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412861

ABSTRACT

Previous observational and randomized studies suggested potential benefit of therapeutic anticoagulation during hospitalization, but this treatment remains controversial. As of June 30th 2021, steroids is the standard treatment of COVID patients. We aimed to investigate the association of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation with mortality for patients with COVID-19 who were treated with steroids. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2533 patients discharged between March 1st, 2020 and March 30th, 2021, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the Mount Sinai Health System and treated with steroids. We evaluated the effect of therapeutic versus prophylactic anticoagulation on the outcomes using propensity score analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratification of patients by endotracheal intubation. Among the 2533 eligible patients, 465 (18.4%) received therapeutic anticoagulation. After 1:1 propensity score matching (N = 383 pairs), in-hospital mortality was similar between those with therapeutic versus prophylactic anticoagulation (36.0% versus 30.0%, P = 0.091). In-hospital mortality regardless of endotracheal intubation were not significantly different between the two groups. Therapeutic anticoagulation was not associated with reduced or increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 treated with steroids.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Steroids , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
16.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
18.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 98, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a wide clinical spectrum of skin manifestations, including urticarial, vesicular, vasculitic and chilblain-like lesions. Recently, delayed skin reactions have been reported in 1% individuals following mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors still remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 6821 employees and patients were vaccinated at our institutions between February and June 2021. Every patient received two doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in our hospitals, and reported back in case of any side effects which were collected in our hospital managed database. RESULTS: Eleven of 6821 vaccinated patients (0.16%) developed delayed skin reactions after either the first or second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Eight of 11 patients (73%) developed a rash after the first dose, while in 3/11 (27%), the rash occurred after the second dose. More females (9/11) were affected. Four of 11 patients required antihistamines, with two needing additional topical steroids. All the cutaneous manifestations resolved within 14 days. None of the skin reactions after the first dose of the vaccine prevented the administration of the second dose. There were no long-term cutaneous sequelae in any of the affected individuals. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that skin reactions after the use of mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 are possible, but rare. Further studies need to be done to understand the pathophysiology of these lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis/etiology , Erythema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Dermatitis/drug therapy , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Erythema/drug therapy , Erythema/epidemiology , Female , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Steroids/therapeutic use , Vaccination/adverse effects
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(12): 1451-1460, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349213

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic saw one of the fastest developments of vaccines in an effort to combat an out-of-control pandemic. The 2 most common COVID-19 vaccine platforms currently in use, messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus vector, were developed on the basis of previous research in use of this technology. Postauthorization surveillance of COVID-19 vaccines has identified safety signals, including unusual cases of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis reported in recipients of adenoviral vector vaccines. One of the devastating manifestations of this syndrome, termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). This review summarizes the current evidence and indications regarding biology, clinical characteristics, and pharmacological management of VITT with CVST. Observations: VITT appears to be similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), with both disorders associated with thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and presence of autoantibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4). Unlike VITT, HIT is triggered by recent exposure to heparin. Owing to similarities between these 2 conditions and lack of high-quality evidence, interim recommendations suggest avoiding heparin and heparin analogues in patients with VITT. Based on initial reports, female sex and age younger than 60 years were identified as possible risk factors for VITT. Treatment consists of therapeutic anticoagulation with nonheparin anticoagulants and prevention of formation of autoantibody-PF4 complexes, the latter being achieved by administration of high-dose intravenous immunoglobin (IVIG). Steroids, which can theoretically inhibit the production of new antibodies, have been used in combination with IVIG. In severe cases, plasma exchange should be used for clearing autoantibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab and eculizumab, can be considered when other therapies fail. Routine platelet transfusions, aspirin, and warfarin should be avoided because of the possibility of worsening thrombosis and magnifying bleeding risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Adverse events like VITT, while uncommon, have been described despite vaccination remaining the most essential component in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. While it seems logical to consider the use of types of vaccines (eg, mRNA-based administration) in individuals at high risk, treatment should consist of therapeutic anticoagulation mostly with nonheparin products and IVIG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange/methods , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Safety , Sex Characteristics , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Steroids/therapeutic use
20.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 307-315, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323440

ABSTRACT

Steroids are expected to be effective in the treatment of cytokine release syndrome, which is considered to be associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the use of steroids and its effects. We conducted a retrospective chart review and an analysis of 226 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Patients were divided into those who received steroids (steroid group) and those who did not (no steroid group). Inverse probability weighted analysis was performed to assess the effect of steroids on in-hospital mortality. The steroid group had higher rates of preexisting hypertension and peripheral vascular disease as well as higher lactate dehydrogenase levels, d-dimer levels, and inflammatory markers than the no steroid group (all P <0.05). The steroid group had significantly higher rates of multifocal pneumonia than the no steroid group at admission (75.4% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.001). Notably, the steroid group had higher rates of developing bacterial infection (25% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.041) and fungal infection (12.7% versus 0.7%, P <0.001) during the hospital course than the no steroid group. After adjustment, it was observed that steroids did not decrease or increase in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [0.60-1.73, P = 0.94]). There was an increase in bacterial and fungal infections with steroid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Steroids/therapeutic use
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