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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11542, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931486

ABSTRACT

We aimed to estimate the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of stomach cancer at the global, regional, and national levels. Stomach cancer resulted in 1.3 million (1.2-1.4 million) incident cases, 9.5 hundred thousand (8.7-10.4 hundred thousand) deaths, and 22.2 million (20.3-24.1 million) DALYs in 2019. The age-standardized incidence rate, death rate and DALY rate were 15.6 (14.1-17.2), 11.9 (10.8-12.8), and 268.4 (245.5-290.6) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Between 1990 and 2019, the global age-standardized incidence rate, death rate, and DALY rate decreased by - 30.5% (- 36.7 to - 22.9), - 41.9% (- 47.2 to - 36.3), and - 45.6% (- 50.8 to - 39.8), respectively. In 2019, most of the global numbers of incidence, death and DALYs were higher among males than females. A considerable burden of stomach cancer was attributable to smoking and a high-sodium diet. Although the global age-standardized incidence and death rates have decreased, continued growth in absolute numbers in some regions, especially in East Asia, poses a major global public health challenge. To address this, public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation. Primary and secondary prevention strategies with increased effectiveness are required to reduce the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer, particularly in populations with a high disease burden.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Stomach Neoplasms , Female , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e29364, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, endoscopic screening for gastrointestinal tumors was suspended or delayed in most countries. Thus, our study aimed to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical outcomes of patients with digestive system tumors through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases as of March 7, 2021 to identify the case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19 patients diagnosed with digestive system tumors. A random-effects model was used for meta-analysis, I2 was used to assess heterogeneity, and funnel plot was used to assess publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were included, involving 2943 tumor patients with COVID-19, of which 871 were digestive system tumors, and the CFR was 24% (95% CI, 18%-30%; I2 = 55.7%). The mortality rate of colorectal cancer was 21% (95% CI, 14%-27%; I2 = 0.0%), gastric cancer was 25% (95% CI, 6%-45%; I2 = 0.0%), and hepatobiliary cancer was 29%. In general, there was no significant difference in the CFR of digestive system tumors. CONCLUSION: The combined CFR of digestive system tumors and COVID-19 patients was 24%, which is much higher than that of the general population. Under the premise of fully complying with the international guidelines to limit the spread of COVID-19, we call for the resumption of endoscopic screening programs and selective surgery as soon as possible. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42021248194.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stomach Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(13): 1377-1379, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855873

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is widespread globally, and disease diagnosis is accompanied by high mortality and morbidity rates. However, prognoses and survivability have improved following implementation of surveillance and screening programs, which have led to earlier diagnoses. Indeed, early diagnosis itself supports increased surgical curability, which is the main treatment goal and guides therapeutic choice. The most recent Japanese guidelines for endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer consider the degree of endoscopic curability in relation to the characteristics of the gastric lesions. In clinical practice, the management approach for both prevention and treatment should be similar to that of colon lesions; however, unlike the established practices for colorectal cancer, the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways are not shared nor widespread for gastric cancer. Ultimately, this negatively impacts the opportunity to perform an endoscopic resection with curative intent.


Subject(s)
Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Stomach Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5980, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788316

ABSTRACT

The burdens and trends of gastric cancer are poorly understood, especially in high-prevalence countries. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, we analyzed the incidence, death, and possible risk factors of gastric cancer in five Asian countries, in relation to year, age, sex, and sociodemographic index. The annual percentage change was calculated to estimate the trends in age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized death rate (ASDR). The highest ASIR per 100,000 person-years in 2019 was in Mongolia [44 (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 34 to 55)], while the lowest was in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) [23 (95% UI, 19 to 29)]. The highest ASDR per 100,000 person-years was in Mongolia [46 (95% UI, 37 to 57)], while the lowest was in Japan [14 (95% UI, 12 to 15)]. Despite the increase in the absolute number of cases and deaths from 1990 to 2019, the ASIRs and ASDRs in all five countries decreased with time and improved sociodemographic index but increased with age. Smoking and a high-sodium diet were two possible risk factors for gastric cancer. In 2019, the proportion of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking was highest in Japan [23% (95% UI, 19 to 28%)], and the proportions attributable to a high-sodium diet were highest in China [8.8% (95% UI, 0.21 to 33%)], DPRK, and the Republic of Korea. There are substantial variations in the incidence and death of gastric cancer in the five studied Asian countries. This study may be crucial in helping policymakers to make better decisions and allocate appropriate resources.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Sodium , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 257(1): 65-71, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779821

ABSTRACT

Disruption of cancer screening programs and diagnoses of gastrointestinal cancers by the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported; however, little attention has been paid to the situation in depopulated areas with low infection rates. Akita Prefecture is one of the most depopulated areas of Japan and has the lowest COVID-19 infection rate per capita; at the same time, the prefecture has been top-ranked for mortality due to gastrointestinal cancer for years. In this population-based study in Akita Prefecture, we investigated the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers and the number of cancer screening procedures over the five-year period of 2016-2020, employing a database from the collaborative Akita Prefecture hospital-based registration system of cancers. The occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers, especially esophago-gastric cancers, declined by 11.0% in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic affected the overall healthcare system, compared with the average of 2016-2019. Nonetheless, the occurrence of advanced-stage (stage IV) esophago-gastric cancers increased by 7.2% in 2020. The decrease in the gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis rate in 2020 coincided with a 30% decline in the total number of regular population-based screening programs. Under the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, cancer screening was uniformly suspended throughout Japan. Accordingly, the COVID-19 pandemic has substantially disrupted the cancer screening system, leading to delays in diagnoses of gastrointestinal cancer, even in depopulated areas (Akita Prefecture) of Japan with a low prevalence of infection. Suspension of cancer screening procedures during an infectious disease pandemic should be thoroughly considered for each region based on the cancer incidence and infection status in that area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics
6.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 89-93, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportion of published imaging studies relative to incidence and mortality rate per cancer type. METHODS: From a random sample of 2500 articles published in 2019 by the top 25 imaging-related journals, we included cancer imaging studies. The publication-to-incidence and publication-to-mortality ratios (defined as the publication rate divided by the proportional incidence and mortality rate, respectively) were calculated per cancer type. Ratios >1 indicate a higher publication rate compared to the relative incidence or mortality rate of a specific cancer. Ratios <1 indicate a lower publication rate compared to the relative incidence or mortality rate of a specific cancer. RESULTS: 620 original cancer imaging studies were included. Female breast cancer (20.2%), prostate cancer (13.0%), liver cancer (12.9%), lung cancer (8.8%), and cancers in the central nervous system (8.1%) comprised the top 5 of cancers investigated. Cancers in the central nervous system and liver had publication-to-incidence ratios >2, whereas nonmelanoma of the skin, leukemia, stomach cancer, and laryngeal cancer had publication-to-incidence ratios <0.2. Cancers in the prostate, central nervous system, female breast, and kidney had publication-to-mortality ratios >2, whereas esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, laryngeal cancer, and leukemia had publication-to-mortality ratios <0.2. CONCLUSION: This overview of published cancer imaging research may be informative and useful to all stakeholders in the field of cancer imaging. The potential causes of disproportionality between the publication rate vs. incidence and mortality rates of some cancer types are multifactorial and need to be further elucidated.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Neoplasms , Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Incidence , Male , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications
7.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 27(5): 930-939, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the disadvantages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in patients with gastric cancer. This study aimed to examine the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with gastric cancer in the first era in Japan. METHODS: This retrospective study included 725 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer who visited our hospital between April 2019 and March 2021. The number of patients and their characteristics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared. RESULTS: The number of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic decreased by 26.2% (from 417 to 308; p = 0.013) compared to that before the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant decrease in cStage I cancer and an increase in cStage III cancer (p = 0.004). Patients were often symptomatic (p = 0.029), especially those with stenosis-related symptoms (p < 0.001) and longer symptom duration (p < 0.001). The number of endoscopic resections was decreased by 34.8% (p = 0.005). The number of total gastrectomy was higher than that of partial gastrectomy (p = 0.021). The median time to treatment was significantly shorter (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, delays diagnosing patients with gastric cancer, probably due to refraining from consultation, may have resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of advanced-stage cancer. Moreover, an increasing proportion of patients required more invasive gastrectomy. Therefore, it may be necessary to educate patients not to refrain from consultation, even during the COVID-19 pandemic, as it can have a negative impact on treatment, policy decision, and prognosis of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stomach Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
8.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 3, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older patients are underrepresented in the clinical trials that determine the standards of care for oncological treatment. We conducted a review to identify whether there have been age-restrictive inclusion criteria in clinical trials over the last twenty five years, focusing on patients with metastatic gastroesophageal cancer. METHODS: A search strategy was developed encompassing Embase, PubMed and The Cochrane Library databases. Completed phase III randomised controlled trials evaluating systemic anti-cancer therapies in metastatic gastroesophageal malignancies from 1st January 1995 to 18th November 2020 were identified. These were screened for eligibility using reference management software (Covidence; Veritas Health Innovation Ltd). Data including age inclusion/exclusion criteria and median age of participants were recorded. The percentage of patients ≥ 65 enrolled was collected where available. The change over time in the proportion of studies using an upper age exclusion was estimated using a linear probability model. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-three phase III studies were identified and screened, with 66 trials remaining for final analysis. The majority of trials were Asian (48%; n = 32) and predominantly evaluated gastric malignancies, (86%; n = 56). The median age of participants was 62 (range 18-94). Thirty-two percent (n = 21) of studies specified an upper age limit for inclusion and over half of these were Asian studies. The median age of exclusion was 75 (range 65-80). All studies prior to 2003 used an upper age exclusion (n = 12); whereas only 9 that started in 2003 or later did (17%). Among later studies, there was a very modest downward yearly-trend in the proportion of studies using an upper age exclusion (-0.02 per year; 95%CI -0.05 to 0.01; p = 0.31). Fifty-two percent (n = 34) of studies specified the proportion of their study population who were ≥ 65 years. Older patients represented only 36% of the trial populations in these studies (range 7-60%). CONCLUSIONS: Recent years have seen improvements in clinical trial protocols, with many no longer specifying restrictive age criteria. Reasons for poor representation of older patients are complex and ongoing efforts are needed to broaden eligibility criteria and prioritise the inclusion of older adults in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal Neoplasms , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Research Subjects/statistics & numerical data , Stomach Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Eligibility Determination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Young Adult
9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been recognized as one of the most serious public health crises. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term impact of the pandemic on the surgical treatment of patients with gastric cancer (GC) in addition to their clinicopathological characteristics. We also verified adherence to the COVID-19 screening protocol adopted in the institution. METHODS: All patients with GC who underwent surgical treatment between 2015 and 2021 were retrospectively evaluated and divided into two groups according to the time period: control group (2015-2019) and COVID group (2020-2021). The institutional protocol recommends that patients referred for surgery undergo RT-PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients were classified into the COVID group and 535 into the control group. The number of surgical procedures performed in the control group was 107 (SD±23.8) per year. Diagnostic procedures (p=0.005), preoperative chemotherapy (p<0.001), and adenocarcinomas without Lauren's subtype (p=0.009) were more frequent in the COVID group than in the control group. No significant difference was observed in the pathological characteristics and surgical outcomes of curative GC between the two groups. Evaluation of protocol compliance showed that of 83 patients with GC in the COVID group, 19 (22.9%) were not tested for COVID-19 before surgery. Two patients tested positive for COVID-19 (one preoperative and one postoperative). CONCLUSION: A decrease in the average number of surgeries and a higher frequency of diagnostic procedures occurred during the pandemic than in the previous time period. Tumor/node/metastasis classification, morbidity rates, and mortality rates in patients with GC during the pandemic did not differ from those in the previous time period. Accordingly, GC surgical treatment with acceptable screening protocol compliance could be safely performed during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
10.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 11-17, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare laparoscopic manual esophagoenterostomy and esophagoenterostomy with mechanical stapling anastomotic devices after laparoscopic gastrectomy for stomach cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 34 patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy for stomach in 2015-2018. Roux-en-Y esophagoenterostomy was used to reconstruct the gastrointestinal tract. Manual anastomoses were performed in 18 patients (group 1), stapled anastomoses (endogia 45 mm, covidien, mansfield, ma, usa) - in 16 patients (group 2). There was no randomization. Surgery duration, length of icu-stay, terms of enteral nutrition initiation, postoperative complications, hospital-stay were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean duration of surgery in the first group was 217 (184-302) min, in the second group - 201 (162-311) min. Duration of surgery in the first group was 1.08-fold higher than in the second group (95% CI 1.03-1.13, p=0.05). Mean blood loss was 145 ml in both groups. Mean icu-stay was 20.2 (17-42) hours in the first group and 21.1 (16.2-46) hours in the second group (ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-1.01, p=0.06). Total enteral feeding (sipping) was initiated on the third day in both groups. Mean postoperative hospital-stay was 9.21 (6-13) days in the first group and 9.23 (6-12 days) days in the second group (ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0,95-1.02, p=0.06). Postoperative morbidity was 5.5% in the first group and 6.25% in the second group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic manual esophagoenterostomy proposed by our surgical team does not have disadvantages in comparison with stapling anastomotic devices and these methods may be alternative to each other.


Subject(s)
Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y/methods , Esophagus/surgery , Gastrectomy/methods , Jejunum/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y/instrumentation , Humans , Laparoscopy , Surgical Stapling , Treatment Outcome
11.
Comput Biol Med ; 137: 104826, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427772

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. Additionally, the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the patients of Gastric Cancer (GC; the third leading cause of death in the world) pose a great challenge for the health management of the patients. Since there have been uncertainties to develop a new drug against COVID-19, there is an urgent need for repurposing drugs that can target key proteins of both SARS-CoV-2 and GC. The SARS-CoV-2-RdRp protein contains the NiRAN domain, which is known to have kinase-like folds. A docking study of the FDA approved drugs against GC was performed using AutoDock 4.2 and Glide Schrodinger suite 2019 against SARS-CoV-2-RdRp protein. MMGBSA and MD simulation studies were performed to investigate the binding and stability of the inhibitors with the target protein. In this study, we have found 12 kinase inhibitors with high binding energies namely Baricitinib, Brepocitinib, Decernotinib, Fasudil, Filgotinib, GSK2606414, Peficitinib, Ruxolitinib, Tofacitinib, Upadacitinib, Pamapimod and Ibrutinib. These FDA approved drugs against GC can play a key role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients along with GC as comorbidity. We also hypothesize that JAK, ITK, Rho-associated kinases, FGFR2, FYN, PERK, TYK2, p38-MAPK and SYK kinases can be considered as key therapeutic targets in COVID-19 treatment. Taken altogether, we have proposed the SARS-CoV-2-RdRp as a potential therapeutic target through in-silico studies. However, further in-vitro and in-vivo studies are required for the validation of the proposed targets and drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients already suffering from GC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Stomach Neoplasms , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Gastrointestinal Agents , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy
12.
Surg Today ; 52(2): 231-238, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected socioeconomic and healthcare systems in many countries. Accordingly, many individuals may have canceled their annual health-check programs, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which would have resulted in lower numbers of newly diagnosed patients with gastric cancer in comparison to other times. METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed to 62 hospitals every week from May 2020 to August 2020 (total 744) through mailing lists of the Stomach Cancer Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group. The number of patients with gastric cancer and hospital systems during the COVID-19 pandemic were surveyed. RESULTS: In total, 74% (551 out of 744) of the questionnaires were answered and analyzed. In early May, approximately 50% of hospitals had to restrict surgical slots due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they gradually loosened the restrictions thereafter. The number of gastrectomies was < 80% that of the same period in the previous year, and hospitals in Tokyo were seriously affected by a 50% decrease in the number of gastrectomies. CONCLUSIONS: The number of gastrectomies was lower than that in the previous year. Further multi-center follow-up studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the clinical outcomes of patients with gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Hospitals, High-Volume/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Endoscopy, Digestive System/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization , Gastrectomy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1S Suppl 1): e1051-e1056, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242125

ABSTRACT

Gut involvement is frequent in immunologic disorders, especially with inflammatory manifestations but also with cancer. In the last years, advances in functional and genetic testing have improved the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to immune dysregulation syndromes. CTLA-4 deficiency is a rare disease with variable phenotype, ranging from absence of symptoms to severe multisystem manifestations and complications. We describe a rare case of CTLA-4 deficiency in a boy with gastric cancer, very early onset inflammatory bowel disease and polyautoimmunity, the second-ever reported in the literature with the same characteristics. A 17-year-old boy was referred to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome, a tertiary care center, for a gastric mass and a long-term history of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, polyarthritis and psoriasis. Histology of gastric biopsies revealed the presence of neoplastic signet ring cells. Imaging staging showed localized cancer; therefore, the patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with termino-lateral gastro-jejunal anastomosis. Immunological work up and genetic testing by next-generation sequencing panels for primary immunodeficiencies led to the diagnosis of CTLA-4 deficiency. Good disease control was obtained with the administration of Abatacept. The patient experienced an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection without any concern. Eighteen months after treatment initiation, the patient is alive and well. Immunologic and genetic testing, such as next-generation sequencing, should always be part of the diagnostic approach to patients with complex immune dysregulation syndrome, severe clinical course, poor response to treatments or cancer. The early recognition of the monogenic disease is the key for disease management and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Abatacept/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases , CTLA-4 Antigen/deficiency , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Stomach Neoplasms , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , COVID-19 , CTLA-4 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/genetics , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26143, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Currently, more than 100 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide, with over 2.4 million mortalities. The pandemic affects people of all ages but older individuals and those with severe chronic illnesses, including cancer patients, are at higher risk. PATIENT CONCERNS: The impact of cancer treatment on the progression of COVID-19 is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of chemotherapy on COVID-19 outcomes for 2 cancer patients. On January 24, 2020, a level I response to a major public health emergency was initiated in Hubei Province, China, which includes Enshi Autonomous Prefecture that has a population of 4.026 million people. As of April 30, 2020, 252 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Enshi. DIAGNOSIS: Among the confirmed cases and asymptomatic carriers, 2 patients were identified who were previously diagnosed with malignant tumors, including one with hepatocellular carcinoma and the other with cardia carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: These 2 patients were receiving or just completed chemotherapy at the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis. OUTCOMES: Both patients were followed and presented favorable outcomes. The positive outcomes for these 2 patients could be partially explained by their recent chemotherapy that impacted their immune status. Also, their relatively younger ages and lack of comorbidities were likely factors in their successful recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Anticancer treatment might enhance a patient's ability to respond favorably to COVID-19 infection. However, anticancer treatment is likely to impact immune function differently in different individuals, which can influence disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cyclobutanes/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Organoplatinum Compounds/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
15.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(4): 1031-1035, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174016

ABSTRACT

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, formerly known as marantic endocarditis, is a very rare complication of advanced malignancy and other hypercoagulable states in which sterile, fibrin vegetations develop on heart valve leaflets. The most common malignancies associated with this entity are lung, pancreatic and gastric cancer. It has also been described as a presentation of COVID-19, which is known to be frequently complicated with coagulopathy and thromboembolic events. We report the case of a 62 year-old female patient newly diagnosed with stage IV gastric cancer and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, presenting with confusion and homonymous hemianopsia in the setting of multiple acute ischemic strokes complicating a nonbacterial thrombotic mitral endocarditis. Herein, we discuss the underlying pathophysiology and make the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 infection could have participated in the pathogenesis of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis in our patient suffering from a gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocarditis, Non-Infective , Stomach Neoplasms , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Neoplasms/complications
17.
Minerva Chir ; 75(5): 380-381, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005338
20.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 27-33, 2020 10 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916544

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. Patients with cancer have a higher risk to acquire the infection and worse prognosis as they have to attend more medical visits in healthcare institutions, receive medical and surgical treatments, and be subjected to diagnostic studies such as PET/CT in nuclear medicine services where the infection may be an incidental finding. We present here F18-FDG PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose), images with findings of COVID-19 from patients with different oncological conditions but no respiratory symptoms.


La COVID-19 es la infección viral causada por el SARS-CoV-2 y declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) como pandemia. Los pacientes con cáncer tienen un mayor riesgo de adquirir la infección y un peor pronóstico, ya que deben asistir a visitas médicas en diferentes centros hospitalarios, reciben tratamientos médicos y quirúrgicos y deben someterse a estudios diagnósticos como la PET/CT en servicios de medicina nuclear, lo que es ocasión para el hallazgo incidental de la infección. Se presentan las imágenes de tomografías computarizadas por emisión de positrones con 18-fluorodesoxiglucosa (F18) (Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose, PET/CT F18-FDG) en las que se evidenció la COVID-19 en pacientes con diversas enfermedades oncológicas, pero sin sintomatología respiratoria.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Incidental Findings , Neoplasms/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/complications , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/secondary , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fluorine Radioisotopes , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/complications , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Radiopharmaceuticals , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seminoma/complications , Seminoma/diagnostic imaging , Seminoma/secondary , Stomach Neoplasms
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