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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6610, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521737

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 typically manifests as a respiratory illness, but several clinical reports have described gastrointestinal symptoms. This is particularly true in children in whom gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent and viral shedding outlasts viral clearance from the respiratory system. These observations raise the question of whether the virus can replicate within the stomach. Here we generate gastric organoids from fetal, pediatric, and adult biopsies as in vitro models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To facilitate infection, we induce reverse polarity in the gastric organoids. We find that the pediatric and late fetal gastric organoids are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, while viral replication is significantly lower in undifferentiated organoids of early fetal and adult origin. We demonstrate that adult gastric organoids are more susceptible to infection following differentiation. We perform transcriptomic analysis to reveal a moderate innate antiviral response and a lack of differentially expressed genes belonging to the interferon family. Collectively, we show that the virus can efficiently infect the gastric epithelium, suggesting that the stomach might have an active role in fecal-oral SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stomach/virology , Virus Replication/physiology , Aborted Fetus , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Middle Aged , Organoids/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stomach/pathology
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 130: 110627, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733946

ABSTRACT

Piroxicam (PM) is an oxicam-NSAID commonly recommended for various pain and associated inflammatory disorders. However, it is reported to have a gastric and hepato-renal toxic effect. Therefore, the current research was planned to investigate the possible mechanisms behind the mitigating action of the coenzyme (CoQ10), a natural, free radical scavenger, against PM tissue injury. Rats were assigned to five equal groups; Control, CoQ10 (10 mg/kg, orally), PM (7 mg/kg, i.p.), CoQ + PM L, and CoQ + PM H group. After 28 days, PM provoked severe gastric ulceration and marked liver and kidney damage indicated by an elevated gastric ulcer index and considerable alteration in liver and kidney biochemical tests. The toxic effects might be attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction and excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as indicated by enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels along with decreased reduced-glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Apoptotic cell death also was demonstrated by increased regulation of activated caspase-3 in the stomach, liver, and kidney tissues. Interestingly, external supplementation of CoQ10 attenuated the PM-inflicted deleterious oxidative harm and apoptosis. This ameliorative action was ascribed to the free radical scavenging activity of CoQ10.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Piroxicam/pharmacology , Ubiquinone/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Stomach/drug effects , Stomach/pathology , Stomach Ulcer/metabolism , Ubiquinone/pharmacology
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