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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(37): 1169-1173, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030395

ABSTRACT

In May 2022, CDC learned of three children in California hospitalized concurrently for brain abscess, epidural empyema, or subdural empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Discussions with clinicians in multiple states raised concerns about a possible increase in pediatric intracranial infections, particularly those caused by Streptococcus bacteria, during the past year and the possible contributing role of SARS-CoV-2 infection (1). Pediatric bacterial brain abscesses, epidural empyemas, and subdural empyemas, rare complications of respiratory infections and sinusitis, are often caused by Streptococcus species but might also be polymicrobial or caused by other genera, such as Staphylococcus. On June 9, CDC asked clinicians and health departments to report possible cases of these conditions and to submit clinical specimens for laboratory testing. Through collaboration with the Children's Hospital Association (CHA), CDC analyzed nationally representative pediatric hospitalizations for brain abscess and empyema. Hospitalizations declined after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, increased during summer 2021 to a peak in March 2022, and then declined to baseline levels. After the increase in summer 2021, no evidence of higher levels of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality, genetic relatedness of isolates from different patients, or increased antimicrobial resistance of isolates was observed. The peak in cases in March 2022 was consistent with historical seasonal fluctuations observed since 2016. Based on these findings, initial reports from clinicians (1) are consistent with seasonal fluctuations and a redistribution of cases over time during the COVID-19 pandemic. CDC will continue to work with investigation partners to monitor ongoing trends in pediatric brain abscesses and empyemas.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Brain Abscess , COVID-19 , Empyema, Subdural , Empyema , Epidural Abscess , Brain Abscess/epidemiology , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Child , Empyema, Subdural/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272945, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993505

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), the major etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) contributes significantly to the global burden of infectious diseases which is getting resistant day by day. Nearly 30% of the S. pneumoniae genomes encode hypothetical proteins (HPs), and better understandings of these HPs in virulence and pathogenicity plausibly decipher new treatments. Some of the HPs are present across many Streptococcus species, systematic assessment of these unexplored HPs will disclose prospective drug targets. In this study, through a stringent bioinformatics analysis of the core genome and proteome of S. pneumoniae PCS8235, we identified and analyzed 28 HPs that are common in many Streptococcus species and might have a potential role in the virulence or pathogenesis of the bacteria. Functional annotations of the proteins were conducted based on the physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, virulence prediction, protein-protein interactions, and identification of essential genes, to find potentially druggable proteins among 28 HPs. The majority of the HPs are involved in bacterial transcription and translation. Besides, some of them were homologs of enzymes, binding proteins, transporters, and regulators. Protein-protein interactions revealed HP PCS8235_RS05845 made the highest interactions with other HPs and also has TRP structural motif along with virulent and pathogenic properties indicating it has critical cellular functions and might go under unconventional protein secretions. The second highest interacting protein HP PCS8235_RS02595 interacts with the Regulator of chromosomal segregation (RocS) which participates in chromosome segregation and nucleoid protection in S. pneumoniae. In this interacting network, 54% of protein members have virulent properties and 40% contain pathogenic properties. Among them, most of these proteins circulate in the cytoplasmic area and have hydrophilic properties. Finally, molecular docking and dynamics simulation demonstrated that the antimalarial drug Artenimol can act as a drug repurposing candidate against HP PCS8235_RS 04650 of S. pneumoniae. Hence, the present study could aid in drugs against S. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
Genome, Bacterial , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Streptococcus/genetics , Virulence
3.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939013

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Spain in March 2020 led to the declaration by the Spanish government of a state of emergency imposing strict confinement measures on the population. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children and adults and its relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity during the pandemic lockdown in Spain. This cross-sectional study included family households located in metropolitan Barcelona, Spain, with one adult with a previous confirmed COVID-19 episode and one or more exposed co-habiting child contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were used to determine SARS-CoV-2 infection status, characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota and determine common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infections. A total of 173 adult cases and 470 exposed children were included. Overall, a predominance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum and a limited abundance of common pathobionts including Haemophilus and Streptococcus were found both among adults and children. Children with current SARS-CoV-2 infection presented higher bacterial richness and increased Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Prevotella abundance than non-infected children. Among adults, persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA was associated with an increased abundance of an unclassified member of the Actinomycetales order. COVID-19 severity was associated with increased Staphylococcus and reduced Dolosigranulum abundance. The stringent COVID-19 lockdown in Spain had a significant impact on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children, reflected in the limited abundance of common respiratory pathobionts and the predominance of Corynebacterium, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 detection. COVID-19 severity in adults was associated with decreased nasopharynx levels of healthy commensal bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Viruses , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus , Viruses/genetics
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934119

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with cutaneous and systemic manifestations. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune dysfunction all contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis with host-microbe interaction governing the progression of this disease. Emerging evidence has indicated that infection is an environmental trigger for psoriasis and plays multiple roles in its maintenance as evidenced by the frequent association between guttate psoriasis onset and acute streptococcal infection. Different infectious factors act on immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines that can induce or aggravate psoriasis. In addition to bacterial infections, viral and fungal infections have also been shown to be strongly associated with the onset or exacerbation of psoriasis. Intervention of skin microbiota to treat psoriasis has become a hot research topic. In this review, we summarize the effects of different infectious factors (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) on psoriasis, thereby providing insights into the manipulation of pathogens to allow for the identification of improved therapeutic options for the treatment of this condition.


Subject(s)
Immune System Diseases , Psoriasis , Streptococcal Infections , Humans , Immune System Diseases/complications , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus
5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 803-806, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The community pharmacy-led Sore Throat Test and Treat (STTT) service in Wales allowed pharmacists to undertake a structured clinical assessment with FeverPAIN/Centor scores and a point-of-care test (POCT) for Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection. A new service model was temporarily agreed as a result of COVID-19, without routine use of POCT. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of removing the requirement for GAS POCT from a community pharmacy STTT service on antibiotic supply. METHODS: Analysis of STTT consultation data, obtained for two periods: November 2018 (date the service went live) to September 2019 (pre-pandemic); and November 2020 (date the new service model was introduced) to May 2021. RESULTS: For consultations eligible for POCT, the antibiotic supply rate increased from 27% (922/3369) (95% CI: 26%-29%) with the pre-pandemic service model (FeverPAIN/Centor + POCT) to 63% (93/147) (95% CI: 55%-71%) with the new model (FeverPAIN/Centor only); the percentage of patients who were not issued an antibiotic, despite their high clinical score, decreased from 56% (646/1154) to 9.3% (8/86). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data suggest that for every 100 STTT consultations with patients with a Centor score of ≥3 or a FeverPAIN score of ≥2, the use of POCT may spare up to 36 courses of antibiotics, increasing to 47 for patients with higher clinical scores, suggesting that the pre-COVID delivery model (FeverPAIN/Centor + POCT) is the optimal pathway and POCT in addition to clinical scores may result in fewer antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat symptoms. These findings have implications for STTT service delivery during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacies , Pharyngitis , Streptococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pyogenes
6.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(11): 1169-1174, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542850

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> In recent years, respiratory tract viral infections have caused many pandemics that impact the whole world. To investigate the seropositivity of <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, rubella, CMV, HSV-1 and group A <i>Streptococcus</i> in recovered COVID-19 patients and correlate these findings with vitamin D levels. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> A total of 417 COVID-19 patients with diarrhoea were enrolled in this study. Vitamin D and seroprevalence for <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, rubella, CMV, HSV-1 and group A <i>Streptococcus</i> were evaluated and correlated. <b>Results:</b> It was found that recent infection in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1, rubella, <i>Toxoplasma</i> and CMV, respectively. IgG was detected indicating the development of adaptive immunity with all microbes. <b>Conclusion:</b> Current study detected a correlation between vitamin D levels and HSV-1 and no correlation between this infection and vitamin D deficiency with the other microbes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcifediol/blood , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Female , Herpes Simplex/blood , Herpes Simplex/epidemiology , Herpes Simplex/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Rubella/blood , Rubella/diagnosis , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/immunology , Rubella virus/immunology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Streptococcal Infections/blood , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology , Streptococcus/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/blood , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
7.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(1): 51-58, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307660

ABSTRACT

This Crystal Ball speculates on the potential of molecular decoys for prevention and therapy in infectious diseases. It is dedicated to the memory of Singh Chhatwal, who pioneered research on disguises and decoys produced by Streptococcus, and so much more.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Streptococcus , Memory , Tropism
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090979

ABSTRACT

A 9-year-old child, with a background of repaired pulmonary atresia and Ebstein's anomaly, presented with fever, night sweats and lethargy. Blood cultures grew Granulicatella elegans, a nutritionally variant Streptococcus and known cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Echocardiogram revealed no clear vegetation, but increased stenosis of the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. The child was successfully managed with high-dose benzylpenicillin, completing 2 weeks in the hospital, and was discharged to complete the final 4 weeks of therapy with ceftriaxone in the community, as per European Society of Cardiology guidance. IE caused by any Granulicatella species is rare, with infection due to G. elegans rarer still. It is a Gram-positive bacteria that presents a diagnostic challenge due to non-specific symptoms at presentation and difficulty in growing the organism on culture medium. We present a case of G. elegans endocarditis in a young child, which illustrates the challenges in managing this condition and the importance of considering atypical organism endocarditis in children presenting with fever of unknown origin, in particular those with a background of congenital cardiac disease. We review the literature on Granulicatella endocarditis, and briefly discuss the challenges of managing this condition in a child with an autism spectrum disorder and learning difficulties.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Carnobacteriaceae , Child , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Streptococcus
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the airway microbiota is a highly dynamic ecology, the role of longitudinal changes in airway microbiota during early childhood in asthma development is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of longitudinal changes in early nasal microbiota with the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: In this prospective, population-based birth cohort study, we followed children from birth to age 7 years. The nasal microbiota was tested by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing at ages 2, 13, and 24 months. We applied an unsupervised machine learning approach to identify longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months (the primary exposure) and during age 2 to 24 months (the secondary exposure) and examined the association of these profiles with the risk of physician-diagnosed asthma at age 7 years. RESULTS: Of the analytic cohort of 704 children, 57 (8%) later developed asthma. We identified 4 distinct longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months. In the multivariable analysis, compared with the persistent Moraxella dominance profile during age 2 to 13 months, the persistent Moraxella sparsity profile was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.27). Similar associations were observed between the longitudinal changes in nasal microbiota during age 2 to 24 months and risk of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Children with an altered longitudinal pattern in the nasal microbiota during early childhood had a high risk of developing asthma. Our data guide the development of primary prevention strategies (eg, early identification of children at high risk and modification of microbiota) for childhood asthma. These observations present a new avenue for risk modification for asthma (eg, microbiota modification).


Subject(s)
Asthma/etiology , Microbiota , Nose/microbiology , Aerococcaceae/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Finland , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Haemophilus/isolation & purification , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Machine Learning , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Moraxella/isolation & purification , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk , Streptococcus/isolation & purification
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