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1.
preprints.org; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202301.0448.v1

ABSTRACT

The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.


Subject(s)
13701 , 8771 , 13275 , 59585 , 37625 , 33531 , 1014 , 15345
2.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2506091.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals with pre-existing mental health problems may have experienced additional stress, which could worsen symptoms or trigger relapse. Objective: To investigate if the number of consultations with general practitioners (GPs) among individuals with a pre-existing common mental health problem during the pandemic differed from pre-pandemic years. Methods: Data on consultations with GPs among 18-65-year-olds registered with common mental health problems in 2017-2021 were retrieved from the Norwegian Control and Payment of Health Reimbursement register. Based on data from the pre-pandemic years (2017-2019), we predicted the number of consultations per week for depression, anxiety disorder, phobia/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and eating disorders during the pandemic (March 2020-December 2021) among individuals with pre-existing mental health problems. The forecasted and observed trends in GP consultations per week during the pandemic were stratified by diagnosis, gender, and age groups. Results: The observed number of consultations for anxiety disorder, PTSD, and eating disorders were significantly higher than forecasted during extended periods of the two pandemic years. The differences were largest for PTSD (on average 37% higher in men and 47% higher in women during the pandemic), and for eating disorders among women (on average 87% higher during the pandemic). There were only minor differences between the predicted and observed number of consultations for depression and phobia/OCD. Conclusions: During the pandemic, individuals with a recent history of mental health problems were more likely to seek help for anxiety disorder, PTSD, and eating disorders, as compared to pre-pandemic years.


Subject(s)
13701 , 9956 , 24382 , 59585 , 37625 , 3886 , 1014 , 11124
3.
AORN J ; 115(2): P4-P6, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157688
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904550, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154831

ABSTRACT

Objective: After the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the health status of the general population has suffered a huge threat, and the mental health of front-line healthcare providers has also encountered great challenges. Therefore, this study aims to: (1) investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among healthcare providers, and (2) verify the moderating role of self-efficacy in the influence of PTSD on mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey of 1993 participants. The presence of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and PTSD was evaluated using screening tests from March 1. Sociodemographic and COVID-19-related data were also collected. A data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression. Results: The prevalence of PTSD among healthcare providers was 9.3%. PTSD was negatively correlated with self-efficacy (r = -0.265, P < 0.01), anxiety (r = -0.453, P < 0.01), and depression (r = 0.708, P < 0.01). Profession, daily working hours, maximum continuous working days, and daily sleep time were influencing factors of PTSD. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that physicians (OR = 2.254, 95% CI = 1.298, 3.914) and nurses (OR = 2.176, 95% CI = 1.337, 3.541) were more likely to experience PTSD than other healthcare providers. Conclusion: Self-efficacy has a moderating effect on the influence of PTSD on anxiety and depression. This suggests that health managers need to respond to the current psychological crisis of healthcare providers, implement appropriate psychological interventions, and minimize the psychological harm caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 28(5): 354-361, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has taken a significant toll on people worldwide, and in particular, on the health care workers (HCWs) who have worked on the frontlines in the fight against the pandemic. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors in HCWs in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study was conducted between September 15, and October 15, 2020, among HCWs in Turkey. The survey consisted of self-administered questionnaires, which included questions about sociodemographic variables, experiences caring for patients with COVID-19, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a trauma screening tool. The online survey was completed by 1833 HCWs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of PTSD. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 32.7±7.0 years; 81.9% were physicians, and 56.5% were female. The rates of COVID-19 history in the respondents, a family member, or a coworker were 13.6%, 32.3%, and 12.6%, respectively. Among the HCWs who participated, 39.9% met the criteria for PTSD. Compared with the physicians, the nonphysician HCWs had a higher rate of PTSD (49.5% vs. 36%) (P<0.001) and higher PCL-5 scores (53.31±19.6 vs. 42.5±20.3) (P<0.001). In addition, 9.7% of the surveyed HCWs reported having suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Independent predictors of PTSD in HCWs were working on a COVID-19 unit, feeling isolated, suicidal ideation, being a nonphysician HCW, fear of spreading coronavirus to family, female sex, and a history of having COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs were at risk for impairment in mental well-being in the era of COVID-19, with a significant number experiencing PTSD as well as suicidal ideation. Therefore, HCWs, especially those who are working on a COVID-19 unit and are female, should be monitored regularly for PTSD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277883, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dissociative experiences are psychological manifestations characterized by a loss of connection and continuity between thoughts, emotions, environment, behavior, and identity. Lebanon has been facing indescribable events in the last few years, including the COVID-19 pandemic, the Beirut explosion, a crushing economic crisis with the highest inflation rate the country has known in over three decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress symptoms from the economic crisis, the Beirut blast, the COVID-19 pandemic, and other mental health issues in a sample of Lebanese university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 419 active university students (18-35 years) from all over Lebanon (May and August 2021). The respondents received the online soft copy of a survey by a snowball sampling technique through social media and messaging apps. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES-II), the PTSD Checklist Specific Version (PCL-S), the Financial Wellbeing Scale, the Beirut Distress Scale, the Lebanese Anxiety Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the DES fitted best according to CFI, RMSEA and χ2/df values, but modestly according to TLI. The two factors were absorption and amnesia/depersonalization. Higher stress (Beta = 0.95) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.29) and from the economic crisis (Beta = 0.23) were significantly associated with more absorption. A personal history of depression (Beta = 6.03), higher stress (Beta = 0.36) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.27) and from the COVID-19 pandemic (Beta = 0.16) were significantly associated with more amnesia/depersonalization. CONCLUSION: Significant rates of dissociative experiences and their sub-manifestations (amnesia/depersonalization and absorption) were found among Lebanese university students, with remarkable co-occurrence of a traumatic/stressful pattern, whether on an individual (history of PTSD) or a collective level (Post-traumatic manifestations from Beirut blast, COVID-19 pandemic and/or economic crisis), or whether correlated to an acute single event or to certain chronic stressors, or even to a personal history of depression. Such findings must raise the attention to serious mental and psychosocial alteration in the Lebanese national identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Explosions , Economic Recession , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Amnesia , Students/psychology
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 706, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupation groups like police officers and fire fighters are exposed to a number of traumatic events which put them at a risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have found the prevalence of PTSD in police officers to vary between 7 and 19%. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in western setting with little research having been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among field police patrol officers serving in Kampala Metropolitan Police (KMP) North Region. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 392 field police patrol officers serving in KMP North Region. Diagnosis of PTSD was undertaken using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5. In order to assess for psychiatric comorbidities, the study used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of PTSD was 7.4%. An additional 62.5% had sub-threshold PTSD, which was defined as, the presence of at least one PTSD symptom but not meeting full criteria for PTSD diagnosis. The factors found to be significantly associated with PTSD were all related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidities, namely the presence of: a current major depressive episode (aOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.5- 14.8; p = .009); an alcohol use disorder (aOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 2.0-13.0; p = .001); and presence of dissociation symptoms (aOR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.0-22.2; p = .002). CONCLUSION: PTSD is one of the common psychiatric disorders experienced by serving police officers in Uganda. The tendency of PTSD in this group to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders means that any treatment program to address it should be part of a comprehensive multi-disorder mental health treatment programme in the police office.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Police/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 482, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133309

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk for physical illnesses and early mortality. However, we do not know if it also increases the risk for adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective cohort study, we examined associations of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders with risk for hospitalization and death in the 60 days following a COVID-19 infection in 228,367 U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) patients who tested positive for COVID-19 between February 2020 and August 2021 (age m = 60.6, 89.5% male). Generalized linear models estimated associations of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders with outcomes following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, adjusting for socio-demographic, medical, and behavioral factors. Among 228,367 VA patients, 25.6% had PTSD, and 28.2% had a psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. In the 60 days following a positive COVID-19 test, 15% of patients were hospitalized, and 6% died. Patients with PTSD had an increased risk for both hospitalization (adjusted relative risk, ARR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.15-1.21) and death (ARR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19) relative to those with no psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographics. Estimates remained significant when models were additionally adjusted for medical comorbidities and smoking. Patients with other psychiatric disorders also had an increased risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, with larger effect sizes than PTSD in older (≥65 years) but not younger patients. In this large-scale study of VA patients, individuals with PTSD, and other psychiatric disorders, had heightened vulnerability to severe adverse outcomes of COVID-19; thus, individuals with PTSD should also be considered at higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and potentially prioritized for vaccination, screening, and early treatment intervention for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 578-586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic, which still continues to affect the whole world, has led to an increase in PTSD symptoms in societies, especially individuals who have been diagnosed with the disease and recovered are at significant risk for PTSD have been reported. Although it has been observed that PTSD symptoms of individuals who were infected in the past epidemics such as SARS and Ebola continued for a long time even after the epidemic, it is noteworthy that the studies conducted during the COVID-19 process do not focus enough on people who survived the COVID-19 disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect impact of positivity on PTSD symptoms of individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 and the role of rumination and fear of COVID-19 as potential mediators in this effect. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the study, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Ruminative Response Scale, Positivity Scale, and Fear of COVID-19 Scale were applied to 551 Turkish participants, who survived the COVID-19 disease. SEM-based mediation analysis was used to test hypothesized relationships. RESULTS: Mediating roles of fear of COVID-19 and rumination between positivity and PTSD were tested. Results indicated that rumination and fear of COVID-19 had a full mediating role in the relationship between positivity and PTSD. CONCLUSION: These findings pointed out that positivity might be an indirect protective disposition against COVID-19-related PTSD and might reduce risk factors associated with PTSD among COVID-19 survivors. Mental health practices for COVID-19 patients should aim to increase positive thinking, since they have ruminative thoughts about transmission of the virus and hospitalization process and these thoughts may lead to negative mental health conditions. In this sense, positive psychology-focused implementations can be organized for COVID-19 patients and survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Survivors/psychology
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 210, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145203

ABSTRACT

Introduction: mental health nurses (MHNs) work in potentially high-stress settings, in particular in low-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic the risk might be high. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among Ugandan MHNs and investigated associations between these mental health outcomes and lifestyle factors. Methods: in this cross-sectional study, participants completed the Kessler-6 (K-6), PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), simple physical activity questionnaire (SIMPAQ), physical activity (PA) vital sign (PAVS), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI, and alcohol use disorder identification test-concise (AUDIT-C). Spearman Rho correlations and Mann Whitney U tests were applied. Results: of 108 included MHNs (age =34.8±10.0 years; 55.6% female) 92.6% had psychological distress (K-6≥13), 44.4% elevated PTSD symptoms (PCL-%≥41), 74.1% was physically inactive (less than 150min/week on PAVS), 75.9% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>-5) and 24.4% harmful drinking (AUDIT-C≥3 for women and -≥4 for men). SIMPAQ exercise correlated with K-6 (rho =-0.36, P<0.001) and PCL-5 (rho=-0.24, P=0.013), SIMPAQ walking with PCL-5 (rho =-0.31, P<0.001). Mental health nurses meeting the PA guidelines reported lower PCL-5 scores than those who did not (P<0.005). Conclusion: in Uganda, the mental health burden is high during the COVID-19 pandemic among MHNs and associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. The effectiveness and efficacy of resilience programs for MHNs focusing on unhealthy lifestyle patterns should be explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Uganda/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Life Style
12.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S27-S30, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144162

ABSTRACT

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally life threatening or horrifying events. People suffering from PTSD are vulnerable for both physical and mental health. Objectives: To find out sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and to plot receiver operating characteristic curve taking Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview-Kid (MINIKID) as the gold standard and Child PTSD Symptom Scale 5I (CPSS-5I) as the newer diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021 at R. L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Kolar, Karnataka through telephonic interviews. All the data entered in Microsoft office Excel sheet, analyzed using the SPSSv22 (IBM Corp). Results: Sensitivity of the CPSS-5I was 56% and specificity was 96% compared with MINIKID. 83% and 85%, respectively, was PPV and NPV of the CPSS-5I compared with MINIKID. Area under the curve is 83.9% with P < 0.001 (72.5-95.2) indicating CPSS-5I is 84% sensitive proving to be a very good diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Furthermore, scores of 9.5 or 10.5 from CPSS-5I can be used as cutoff in diagnosing PTSD using CPSS 51. Conclusion: CPSS-5I is extremely well designed, helpful and functional tool used in diagnosing PTSD. With the current study showing CPSS-5I can be used in post-COVID PTSD diagnosis, it also provides cutoff which can be helpful in mass screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuropsychiatry , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , India
13.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.14.22283406

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the impact of the postponement of the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games on expected participants careers, COVID-19 history and mental health using an e-survey. Thirty-nine participants (median age 37 years; 16 females) from five countries responded between July 20th and September 28th, 2021, of which 37 completed the survey, including 20 athletes and 11 coaches. All but two participants planned to attend the rescheduled Games in 2021 (95%). Ninety percent (35/39) had previously tested at least once for COVID-19, with six testing positive. While three had no symptoms, all six were moderately impacted. Scores (median; lower and upper quartiles; questionnaire) for depression (2; 0.75-4; PHQ-9) and anxiety (2; 0-5.25; GAD-7) were low. Scores for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (3.5; 1-11; IES-R) were also low, but four participants reported high scores indicative of clinical concern for PTSD. There was low emotional distress caused by postponement of the Games (2; 1-4.5), and moderately low fear of catching COVID-19 (3; 2-5.5) on 10-point (0 = none, 10 = extreme) rating scales. While overall this population appears relatively resilient, the postponement of the Games came at a cost for some athletes and coaches, specifically with regards to experiencing symptoms of PTSD.


Subject(s)
1273 , 13701 , 59585 , 37625 , 3886 , 1014
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1004558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123476

ABSTRACT

Background: Any infectious disease outbreak may lead to a negative detrimental psychological impact on individuals and the community at large, however; there was no systematic review nor meta-analysis that examined the relationship between the psychological/mental health impact of SARS and COVID-19 outbreak in Asia. Methods and design: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1/1/2000 to 1/6/2020. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the psychological impact on confirmed/suspected cases, healthcare workers and the general public during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemics. Primary outcomes included prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, aggression, sleeping problems and psychological symptoms. Result: Twenty-three eligible studies (N = 27,325) were included. Random effect model was used to analyze the data using STATA. Of these studies, 11 were related to the SARS outbreak and 12 related to COVID-19 outbreaks. The overall prevalence rate of anxiety during SARS and COVID-19 was 37.8% (95% CI: 21.1-54.5, P < 0.001, I2 = 96.9%) and 34.8% (95% CI: 29.1-40.4), respectively. For depression, the overall prevalence rate during SARS and COVID-19 was 30.9% (95% CI: 18.6-43.1, P < 0.001, I2 = 97.3%) and 32.4% (95% CI: 19.8-45.0, P < 0.001, I2 = 99.8%), respectively. The overall prevalence rate of stress was 9.4% (95% CI: -0.4 -19.2, P = 0.015, I2 = 83.3%) and 54.1% (95% CI: 35.7-72.6, P < 0.001, I2 = 98.8%) during SARS and COVID-19, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSD was 15.1% (95% CI: 8.2-22.0, P < 0.001) during SARS epidemic, calculated by random-effects model (P < 0.05), with significant between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 93.5%). Conclusion: The SARS and COVID-19 epidemics have brought about high levels of psychological distress to individuals. Psychological interventions and contingent digital mental health platform should be promptly established nationwide for continuous surveillance of the increasing prevalence of negative psychological symptoms. Health policymakers and mental health experts should jointly collaborate to provide timely, contingent mental health treatment and psychological support to those in need to reduce the global disease burden. Systematic review registration: CRD42020182787, identifier PROSPER.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Prevalence
16.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(11): 500-501, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113391

ABSTRACT

Recently, some high-profile athletes and other celebrities have raised the visibility and public discussion of issues of mental health. The dialogue about mental health and the most extreme effect of depression, increased suicide rates, is needed now more than ever. The level of moral distress that our health care workers are experiencing in this recent spike of corona-virus disease (COVID-19) infection is taking an incredible social, emotional, and professional toll. Some describe their experience as post-traumatic stress disorder, and others report experiencing numbness, fog, despair, and hopelessness. The intervention discussed here, R U OK?, is gaining traction on social media as a way that everyone can engage to help to address the effects on individuals. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(11):500-501.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): 934-941, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent did health care workers experience the pandemic as a severe stress event. METHODS: This cross-sectional evaluation of 8299 health care workers, representing a 22% response rate, utilized machine learning to predict high levels of escalating stress based on demographics and known predictors for adverse psychological outcomes after trauma. RESULTS: A third of health care workers experienced the pandemic as a potentially traumatic stress event; a greater proportion of health care workers experienced high levels of escalating stress. Predictive factors included sense of control, ability to manage work-life demands, guilt or shame, age, and level of education. Gender was no longer predictive after controlling for other factors. Escalating stress was especially high among nonclinical academics and clinical private practitioners. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest adverse effects on total worker health, care quality, professionalism, retention, and acute and chronic mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self-Assessment , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and alcohol, tobacco, or nicotine use are frequently associated conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a stressful situation globally and has worsened mental health conditions and addictions in the population. Our systematic review explores the links between PTSSs and (1) alcohol use and (2) tobacco or nicotine use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for studies published between January 2020 and 16 December 2021. We included studies published in English concerning adults or adolescents. Included articles dealt simultaneously with the COVID-19 pandemic, PTSSs, and alcohol, tobacco, or nicotine use. The reports included were cross-sectional, longitudinal, or cohort studies. We categorized the reports according to the population explored. Our main outcomes are the impacts of PTSSs on (1) alcohol use and (2) tobacco and nicotine use and their relation to COVID-19-related stressors (worries, exposure, lockdown, and infection, either of self or relatives). RESULTS: Of the 503 reports identified, 44 were assessed for eligibility, and 16 were included in our review, encompassing 34,408 participants. The populations explored were the general population, healthcare workers, war veterans, patients with substance use disorders, and other vulnerable populations. Most studies were online surveys (14) with cross-sectional designs (11). Every study explored alcohol use, while only two assessed tobacco use. In most populations explored, a high level of PTSSs was associated with alcohol use increase. COVID-19-related stress was frequently correlated with either high PTSSs or alcohol use. In healthcare workers, PTSSs and alcohol use were not associated, while COVID-19 worries were related to both PTSSs and alcohol use. DISCUSSION: 1. PTSSs and increased alcohol use are frequently associated, while COVID-19 worries might trigger both conditions and worsen their association. Alcohol use increase may represent either an inadequate way of coping with PTSSs or a vulnerability amid the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to PTSSs. As most studies were cross-sectional online surveys, longitudinal prospective studies are needed to ascertain the direction of the associations between these conditions. These studies need to be sufficiently powered and control for potential bias and confounders. 2. Our review highlighted that research about PTSSs and tobacco or nicotine use is scarce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tobacco , Nicotine , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Birth-related post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in 4.7% of mothers. No previous study focusing precisely on the stress factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic regarding this important public mental health issue has been conducted. However, the stress load brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic could have influenced this risk. METHODS: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of traumatic childbirth and birth-related PTSD and to analyze the risk and protective factors involved, including the risk factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a prospective cohort study of women who delivered at the University Hospitals of Geneva between 25 January 2021 and 10 March 2022 with an assessment within 3 days of delivery and a clinical interview at one month post-partum. RESULTS: Among the 254 participants included, 35 (21.1%, 95% CI: 15.1-28.1%) experienced a traumatic childbirth and 15 (9.1%, 95% CI: 5.2-14.6%) developed a birth-related PTSD at one month post-partum according to DSM-5. Known risk factors of birth-related PTSD such as antenatal depression, previous traumatic events, neonatal complications, peritraumatic distress and peritraumatic dissociation were confirmed. Among the factors related to COVID-19, only limited access to prenatal care increased the risk of birth-related PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the challenges of early mental health screening during the maternity stay when seeking to provide an early intervention and reduce the risk of developing birth-related PTSD. We found a modest influence of stress factors directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic on this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Parturition/psychology
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