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1.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S2): e2021428, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625057

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically synthesize evidence regarding burnout and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among nurses engaged in the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting their risk and protective factors. The specific literature on nurses' mental health outcomes still remains not synthesized. A systematic review was performed (PROSPERO: CRD42021227939), searching literature published in 2020 on Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycInfo. We quantitatively pooled means of included studies measuring burnout and PTSD with the same tools. Twenty-five studies were included in this review. Seven (3766 nurses) were included in the meta-analysis for estimating means of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, respectively: 7,40 (95%CI=6,00-8,80) and 22,82 (95%CI=19,24-26,41). Likely, 12 studies were used to estimate two pooled means for PTSD, one for six studies adopting the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (1551 nurses), and six adopting the PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (8547 nurses). The main risk and protective factors of both outcomes were female sex and younger age, work-related variables, and physical and mental factors, such as concerns, skin lesions from wearing personal protective equipment. This systematic review portrayed the situation described in literature during 2020 on nurses' burnout and PTSD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the outcomes' levels described in the included studies are diverse, the broad situation appears alarming, and supportive multi-level strategies, considering individual and system-level, should be planned to decrease the described worsening scenario within the clinical settings avoid middle and long-term negative consequences.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e047753, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of peritraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), perceived threat, social support and factors contributing to clinically significant PTSS among frontline COVID-19 healthcare workers (HCWs) in China. DESIGN AND SETTING: An online survey through self-administered questionnaires was conducted from 18 February to 4 March 2020, during the outbreak of COVID-19. OUTCOMES MEASURES: PTSS was assessed using the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) self-rating scale. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, self-reported health, physical/psychological symptoms, perceived threat from frontline work and perceived social support were investigated. Multivariable line regression analysis distinguished factors associated with HCWs' PTSS scores. RESULTS: A total of 676 (58.1%) HCWs have shown clinically significant high levels of PTSS. Only 441 (37.9%) self-reported good health. Most had physical symptom(s) (915 (78.7%)), psychological symptom(s) (906 (77.9%)), inability to vent emotions (284 (24.4%)), emotional exhaustion (666 (57.3%)) and 1037 (89.2%) needed professional respect. Moreover, social support received was less than expected, and the receipt of psychological services/help scored the lowest (3.11±1.73). Combined psychological and physical symptoms, difficulty in releasing tension and venting emotions timely, fear of infection, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are significantly associated with PTSS scores among frontline HCWs. Working ≥8 hours, having the senior professional title, self-reported health, enjoying perfect protection and control measures, economic subsidy and control policy on reducing discriminatory practices are negatively correlated with PTSS scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak of COVID-19, frontline HCWs experienced clinically significant high levels of PTSS and heavy workload, and the emergency resulted in their inadequate psychosocial support. If this is left unchecked, HCWs have a higher risk of developing PTSD. Early detection, identification and person-directed, targeted multidisciplinary interventions should be undertaken to address various influencing factors. Comprehensive measures, including setting up emotional release channels, as well as providing psychological and social support intervention for HCWs globally, are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619982

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055696, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature shows profound effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, among which increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD). However, current research efforts have largely been unilateral, focusing on psychopathology and not including well-being, and are dominated by examining average psychopathology levels or on disorder absence/presence, thereby ignoring individual differences in mental health. Knowledge on individual differences, as depicted by latent subgroups, in the full spectrum of mental health may provide valuable insights in how individuals transition between health states and factors that predict transitioning from resilient to symptomatic classes. Our aim is to (1) identify longitudinal classes (ie, subgroups of individuals) based on indicators of PTSD, AD and well-being in response to the pandemic and (2) examine predictors of transitioning between these subgroups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a three-wave longitudinal online survey study of n≥2000 adults from the general Dutch population. The first measurement occasion takes place 6 months after the start of the pandemic, followed by two follow-up measurements with 6 months of intervals. Latent transition analysis will be used for data analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from four Dutch universities. Longitudinal study designs are vital to monitor mental health (and predictors thereof) in the pandemic to develop preventive and curative mental health interventions. This study is carried out by researchers who are board members of the Dutch Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and is part of a pan-European study (initiated by the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies) examining the impact of the pandemic in 11 countries. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at conferences, via newsletters, and media appearance among (psychotrauma) professionals and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adjustment Disorders , Adult , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of Italian citizens during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, housing conditions, and lifestyles modifications. DESIGN: cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: between 21st April and 7th June 2020, a self-administered online questionnaire aiming at investigating mental well-being and lifestyle habits during the lockdown period was disseminated online. Respondents were recruited through a snowball sampling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PTSD symptoms were assessed using a validated screening tool, the SPAN (Startle, Physiological arousal, Anger, Numbness) questionnaire. RESULTS: the study population is composed of 6,687 participants, of whom 71.5% were females. The mean age of the sample was 48.7 years. Globally, 43.8% of the participants reported symptoms of PTSD, especially females. PTSD prevalence showed a decreasing trend across age groups. The likelihood of PTSD symptoms was higher among those who increased alcohol consumption, decreased physical activity, and experienced restless sleep. CONCLUSIONS: a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms emerged from this survey, especially among women and younger subjects. Preventive strategies should be implemented to protect the mental health of the most vulnerable citizens in a period of emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
7.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: College students are vulnerable and may experience high stress due to COVID-19, especially girls. This study aims to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors among the target population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In the initial phase of COVID-19 epidemic (February 23 to March 5, 2020), 2205 female college students from six provinces in mainland China were enrolled in this study and completed the online survey about the cognitive status of COVID-19, including the Impact of Event Scale-6, the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and a self-developed 10-item Perceived threat scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using SPSS software to explore the determinants of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms were prevalent in female college students, and 34.20% met the cut-off for PTSD. Self-reported fair or poor health (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.22-2.59), high concern about COVID-19 (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.35-2.03), beliefs that "COVID-19 can cause a global outbreak" (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), the perception of "risk of infection" (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 2.16-2.81), beliefs that "closed management" and "COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern" would have an impact, and the fear of "impact on life planning" were all positively associated with PTSD (AOR = 1.37, 1.22, and 1.29, respectively); however, perceived social support from family (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93) was negatively associated with PTSD. Among the significant variables at the bivariate level, multivariate logistic regression revealed that the greatest protector for PTSD was the high knowledge score (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), while had confirmed cases among relatives and friends (AOR = 7.70, 95% CI: 1.28-46.25) was the strongest predictor of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PTSD symptoms were prevalent among female college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeting vulnerable populations to improve their knowledge about COVID-19 and create an atmosphere of social support would be beneficial. Moreover, the joint efforts from family, school administrators, and policymakers are essential to improve the mental health of the female students during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at follow-up among healthcare workers after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. METHODS: A web survey invitation was sent to healthcare worker listservs at a NYC medical center (April, 2020). The Primary Care (PC)-PTSD questionnaire was used to screen for PTSD symptoms at baseline and then every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Incidence and prevalence of PTSD symptoms were determined at each time point. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models were performed to investigate the factors associated with a positive PC-PTSD screen at follow-up. RESULTS: Median age (interquartile range) of N = 230 participants was 36 (31-48) years; 79.6% were women; 82.6% worked in COVID-19-focused settings. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms decreased from 55.2% at baseline to 25.0% at 10 weeks (p < 0.001). Among participants who had a baseline negative screen for PTSD symptoms, the incidence of PTSD at 10 weeks was 12.2% (p-trend 0.034). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, being a nurse (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.71), female (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.59, 5.72), and working in a COVID-19-focused location (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.21) were associated with increased odds of PTSD symptoms at 10-weeks. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD symptoms improved over 3 months following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, one out of four NYC healthcare workers still had an increased risk for PTSD at 10-weeks. Screening healthcare workers for PTSD symptoms should be considered during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580791

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to investigate the changes in the maternal healthcare system during the pandemic and their associations with maternal mental health in Russia. A sample of Russian women who gave birth during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 1645) and matched controls, i.e., women who gave birth before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 611), completed an anonymous Internet survey about recent childbirth. They were assessed for childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and postpartum depression (PPD). Clinically relevant symptoms of PPD and PTSD were high before the pandemic and showed no significant change during the pandemic (p = 0.48 and p = 0.64, respectively). We found a notable increase in the frequency of obstetric violence (p = 0.015) during the pandemic, which, in turn, has a strong correlation with birth-related PTSD and PPD. The problem of ethical communication with patients among maternal healthcare professionals is acute in Russia, and it has been exacerbated by the pandemic. Family and doula support during labor can be a potential protective factor against obstetric violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fort McMurray, a city in northern Alberta, Canada, has experienced multiple traumas in the last five years, including the 2016 wildfire, the 2020 floods, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Eighteen months after the wildfire, major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms were elevated among school board employees in the city. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare employees of the school board and other employees of Fort McMurray in respect to the impact the 2016 wildfires, the 2019 COVID pandemic, and the 2020 floods had on their mental health. METHODOLOGY: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in Fort McMurray from 24 April to 2 June 2021. Online questionnaires were administered through REDCap and were designed to capture socio-demographic characteristics, clinical as well as wildfire, COVID-19, and flooding-related variables. Mental health outcome variables were captured using self-reported standardized assessment scales. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square/Fisher's Exact tests, and binary regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 249 residents who accessed the online survey, 186 completed the survey, giving a response rate of 74.7%. Of these respondents, 93.5% (174) indicated their employment status and were included in the Chi-square analysis. Most of the respondents were female (86.2%, (150)), above 40 years (53.4%, (93)), and were in a relationship (71.3%, (124)). The prevalence values for MDD, GAD and PTSD among respondents were 42.4%, 41.0, and 36.8%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between employees of the school board and other employees with respect to likely PTSD prevalence (28% vs. 45%, respectively, p < 0.05), although with other factors controlled for, in a binary logistic regression model, employer type did not significantly predict likely PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: The study has established that likely PTSD symptoms were significantly higher in other employees compared to those of school board employees. Greater exposure to the traumatic events and a greater perceived lack of support from other employers might have contributed to the significantly higher prevalence of PTSD in other employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Wildfires , Alberta/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Floods , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
11.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(5): 1061-1067, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568217

ABSTRACT

The papers in this Journal of Traumatic Stress special issue on disproportionate adversity cover the gamut of discrimination traumas and stressors, including microaggressions, a more insidious forms of discrimination, and their often-devastating and wide-ranging mental health sequelae, in disproportionately affected disenfranchised groups. Discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation commonly confers cumulative and chronic effects. In the field of traumatic stress studies, several types of identity-linked traumatic events have been identified and empirically investigated as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-producing experiences. Collectively, the 13 papers included in this special issue raise questions about the definition, conceptualization, and categorization of various forms of explicit and implicit identity-linked trauma. These papers highlight the need for acceptance of a shared nomenclature and better differentiation of both causal and correlational associations with acute and chronic PTSD, depression, suicide risk, alcohol misuse, and other mental health outcomes. In this commentary, the discussion is extended to COVID-19, a disease that has been globally devastating for many. On multiple levels (i.e., physical, mental, emotional, economic, and social), COVID-19 has magnified the prepandemic fault lines of race, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. Applying a syndemic framework to the health impact of COVID-19 and, arguably, the most pervasive identity linked epidemic worldwide-systemic racism-brings perspective to the biological and social forces that are likely to be driving the convergence of COVID-19, systemic racism, and chronic health inequities, and may be informative in guiding evidence-based strategies for managing racial trauma in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Crime Victims/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Social Discrimination/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 176, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561998

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the "Impact of Event Scale - Revised" (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of thirty mothers (mean age 43.0 ± 4.2 years) and 25 fathers (mean age 45.6 ± 5.9 years) participated in the survey and completed the questionnaires. 29.1% of parents had a score that allows to define a clinically relevant level of PTSD; ten mothers and 6 fathers had a PTSD clinically relevant score, corresponding, respectively, to 28.4 and 24% of total mothers and fathers. Finally, mothers and fathers, both express PTSD symptoms mainly in the form of intrusion and hyperarousal. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms a high prevalence symptoms related to PTSD in mothers and fathers of children with Type 1 Diabetes. We believe that psychosocial outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic should be taken into account in the planning of the next future assistance for children with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Fathers/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment
13.
Nursing ; 51(7): 52-56, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Little is known about the psychological impact of trauma from pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This article explores a descriptive study on the impact of COVID-19 and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among RNs caring for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nurses/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Self Report
15.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1997181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559184

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Prevalent Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) negatively affected individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using network analyses, this study explored the construct of PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in China to identify similarities and differences in PTSD symptom network connectivity between the general Chinese population and individuals reporting PTSD. Methods: We conducted an online survey recruiting 2858 Chinese adults. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PCL-5 and PTSD was determined according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results: In the general population, self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average the most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) avoidance of thoughts and avoidance of reminders, 2) concentration difficulties and sleep disturbance, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours, and 5) hypervigilance and exaggerated startle responses. Besides, negative connections were found between intrusive thoughts and trauma-related amnesia and between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Among individuals reporting PTSD, symptoms such as flashbacks and self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, 2) intrusive thoughts and emotional cue reactivity, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviour, and 5) detachment and restricted affect. In addition, a negative connection was found between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Conclusion: Our results indicate similarly positive connections between concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, and irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours in the general and PTSD-reported populations. We argue that self-destructive/reckless behaviours are a core symptom of COVID-19 related PTSD, worthy of more attention in future psychiatric programmers.


Antecedentes y Objetivos: El Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) prevalente afectó negativamente a los individuos durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Usando análisis de redes, este estudio exploró el constructo de síntomas de TEPT durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en China para identificar las similitudes y diferencias en la conectividad de red de síntomas de TEPT entre la población general china y los individuos que reportan TEPT.Métodos: Realizamos una encuesta en línea que reclutó 2.858 adultos chinos. Los síntomas de TEPT se midieron usando el PCL-5 y el TEPT se determinó de acuerdo a los criterios del DSM-5.Resultados: En la población general, las conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes fueron, en promedio, las más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) evitación de pensamientos y evitación de recordatorios, 2) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes y 5) hipervigilancia y respuestas de sobresalto exageradas. Además, se encontraron conexiones negativas entre pensamientos intrusivos y amnesia relacionada con el trauma y entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes. Entre los individuos que reportaron TEPT, los síntomas como flashbacks y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes estuvieron, en promedio, más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 2) pensamientos intrusivos y reactividad emocional a ciertas señales, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes, y 5) desapego y afecto restringido. Además, se encontró una conexión negativa entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes.Conclusión: Nuestros resultados indican conexiones igualmente positivas entre dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, e irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes en la población general y la que reporto TEPT. Argumentamos que las conductas autodestructivas/imprudentes son un síntoma central de TEPT relacionado con COVID-19, que merece más atención en futuros programas psiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114337, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562014

ABSTRACT

The study's objective was to study the association of perceived discrimination with depression, insomnia and post-traumatic stress in people recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Santa Marta, Colombia. COVID-19 survivors were invited to participate. The authors measured perceived discrimination related to COVID-19 (COVID-19 Perceived Stigma Scale), depression (PHQ-9), insomnia (Athens Insomnia Scale), and post-traumatic stress (Brief Davidson Trauma Scale). Three hundred thirty COVID-19 survivors participated in the research; the participants were between 18 and 89 years; 61.52% were females. 32.12% of the participants reported high perceived discrimination; 49.70%, depression; 60.61%, insomnia; and 13.33% post-traumatic stress. After adjusting for age, gender, and income, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress were associated significantly with discrimination perceived by COVID-19. Perceived discrimination is a social stressor that affects the psychological well-being of people recovered from COVID-19. In the follow-up of this group of patients, it is important to consider the impact of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
17.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(11): 500-501, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551670

ABSTRACT

Recently, some high-profile athletes and other celebrities have raised the visibility and public discussion of issues of mental health. The dialogue about mental health and the most extreme effect of depression, increased suicide rates, is needed now more than ever. The level of moral distress that our health care workers are experiencing in this recent spike of corona-virus disease (COVID-19) infection is taking an incredible social, emotional, and professional toll. Some describe their experience as post-traumatic stress disorder, and others report experiencing numbness, fog, despair, and hopelessness. The intervention discussed here, R U OK?, is gaining traction on social media as a way that everyone can engage to help to address the effects on individuals. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(11):500-501.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 95: 27-30, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since February 2020, many governments of the world ordered strict social distancing rules to try to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, with a reported consequent increase in levels of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the aforementioned psychiatric symptoms across a sample of individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HF-ASDs) with respect to a group of neurotypical adults (NA), during the first two months of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. METHOD: 45 adults with HF-ASDs and 45NA completed a structured online questionnaire, including; the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 items (DASS-21); the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R); the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). We also explored some specific aspects of participants' psychological well-being through an ad-hoc questionnaire. RESULTS: Subjects with HF-ASDs scored significantly higher than NA at the DASS-21, the IES-R Total Score and the PSS; NA reported a higher perceived change of their lifestyle during the lockdown than individuals with HF-ASDs, and subjects with HF-ASDs reported to feel more comfortable and less tired during the lockdown period, in relation to the social distancing measures adopted by Italian authorities. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with HF-ASDs presented higher rates of depression, anxiety, stress and PTSD-related symptoms than NA during the first two months of COVID-19 pandemic. However, they also reported to feel subjectively more comfortable and less tired during the lockdown than before, in relation to the social distancing measures.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 560, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to having a negative impact on the physical and emotional health of the population, the global Covid-19 pandemic has necessitated psychotherapists moving their practice to online environments. This service evaluation examines the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy delivered via the internet. METHODS: A real-world service evaluation was conducted from a self-selecting group of EMDR therapists that subscribe to either a JISCMail discussion list or either the UK or All Ireland National EMDR Associations. Author designed questionnaires were used to gather information on the efficacy of EMDR delivered online as well as client and therapist characteristics. RESULTS: Thirty-three therapists provided efficacy data on a total of 93 patients. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions were found in all four-psychometrics used both in adult and children and young people populations. Client outcome was not related to therapist experience. CONCLUSIONS: EMDR delivered via the internet can be an effective treatment for clients experiencing mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Eye Movements , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(10): 1007-1017, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the relationship between moral distress and mental health problems. We examined moral distress in 2579 frontline healthcare workers (FHCWs) caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the height of the spring 2020 pandemic surge in New York City. The goals of the study were to identify common dimensions of COVID-19 moral distress; and to examine the relationship between moral distress, and positive screen for COVID-19-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, burnout, and work and interpersonal functional difficulties. METHOD: Data were collected in spring 2020, through an anonymous survey delivered to a purposively-selected sample of 6026 FHCWs at Mount Sinai Hospital; 2579 endorsed treating COVID-19 patients and provided complete survey responses. Physicians, house staff, nurses, physician assistants, social workers, chaplains, and clinical dietitians comprised the sample. RESULTS: The majority of the sample (52.7%-87.8%) endorsed moral distress. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions of COVID-19 moral distress: negative impact on family, fear of infecting others, and work-related concerns. All three factors were significantly associated with severity and positive screen for COVID-19-related PTSD symptoms, burnout, and work and interpersonal difficulties. Relative importance analyses revealed that concerns about work competencies and personal relationships were most strongly related to all outcomes. CONCLUSION: Moral distress is prevalent in FHCWs and includes family-, infection-, and work-related concerns. Prevention and treatment efforts to address moral distress during the acute phase of potentially morally injurious events may help mitigate risk for PTSD, burnout, and functional difficulties.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Morals , Pandemics , Psychosocial Functioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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