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1.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 28(5): 354-361, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has taken a significant toll on people worldwide, and in particular, on the health care workers (HCWs) who have worked on the frontlines in the fight against the pandemic. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors in HCWs in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study was conducted between September 15, and October 15, 2020, among HCWs in Turkey. The survey consisted of self-administered questionnaires, which included questions about sociodemographic variables, experiences caring for patients with COVID-19, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a trauma screening tool. The online survey was completed by 1833 HCWs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of PTSD. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 32.7±7.0 years; 81.9% were physicians, and 56.5% were female. The rates of COVID-19 history in the respondents, a family member, or a coworker were 13.6%, 32.3%, and 12.6%, respectively. Among the HCWs who participated, 39.9% met the criteria for PTSD. Compared with the physicians, the nonphysician HCWs had a higher rate of PTSD (49.5% vs. 36%) (P<0.001) and higher PCL-5 scores (53.31±19.6 vs. 42.5±20.3) (P<0.001). In addition, 9.7% of the surveyed HCWs reported having suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Independent predictors of PTSD in HCWs were working on a COVID-19 unit, feeling isolated, suicidal ideation, being a nonphysician HCW, fear of spreading coronavirus to family, female sex, and a history of having COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs were at risk for impairment in mental well-being in the era of COVID-19, with a significant number experiencing PTSD as well as suicidal ideation. Therefore, HCWs, especially those who are working on a COVID-19 unit and are female, should be monitored regularly for PTSD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 210, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145203

ABSTRACT

Introduction: mental health nurses (MHNs) work in potentially high-stress settings, in particular in low-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic the risk might be high. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among Ugandan MHNs and investigated associations between these mental health outcomes and lifestyle factors. Methods: in this cross-sectional study, participants completed the Kessler-6 (K-6), PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), simple physical activity questionnaire (SIMPAQ), physical activity (PA) vital sign (PAVS), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI, and alcohol use disorder identification test-concise (AUDIT-C). Spearman Rho correlations and Mann Whitney U tests were applied. Results: of 108 included MHNs (age =34.8±10.0 years; 55.6% female) 92.6% had psychological distress (K-6≥13), 44.4% elevated PTSD symptoms (PCL-%≥41), 74.1% was physically inactive (less than 150min/week on PAVS), 75.9% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>-5) and 24.4% harmful drinking (AUDIT-C≥3 for women and -≥4 for men). SIMPAQ exercise correlated with K-6 (rho =-0.36, P<0.001) and PCL-5 (rho=-0.24, P=0.013), SIMPAQ walking with PCL-5 (rho =-0.31, P<0.001). Mental health nurses meeting the PA guidelines reported lower PCL-5 scores than those who did not (P<0.005). Conclusion: in Uganda, the mental health burden is high during the COVID-19 pandemic among MHNs and associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. The effectiveness and efficacy of resilience programs for MHNs focusing on unhealthy lifestyle patterns should be explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Uganda/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Life Style
3.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S27-S30, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144162

ABSTRACT

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally life threatening or horrifying events. People suffering from PTSD are vulnerable for both physical and mental health. Objectives: To find out sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and to plot receiver operating characteristic curve taking Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview-Kid (MINIKID) as the gold standard and Child PTSD Symptom Scale 5I (CPSS-5I) as the newer diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021 at R. L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Kolar, Karnataka through telephonic interviews. All the data entered in Microsoft office Excel sheet, analyzed using the SPSSv22 (IBM Corp). Results: Sensitivity of the CPSS-5I was 56% and specificity was 96% compared with MINIKID. 83% and 85%, respectively, was PPV and NPV of the CPSS-5I compared with MINIKID. Area under the curve is 83.9% with P < 0.001 (72.5-95.2) indicating CPSS-5I is 84% sensitive proving to be a very good diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Furthermore, scores of 9.5 or 10.5 from CPSS-5I can be used as cutoff in diagnosing PTSD using CPSS 51. Conclusion: CPSS-5I is extremely well designed, helpful and functional tool used in diagnosing PTSD. With the current study showing CPSS-5I can be used in post-COVID PTSD diagnosis, it also provides cutoff which can be helpful in mass screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuropsychiatry , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , India
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 706, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupation groups like police officers and fire fighters are exposed to a number of traumatic events which put them at a risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have found the prevalence of PTSD in police officers to vary between 7 and 19%. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in western setting with little research having been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among field police patrol officers serving in Kampala Metropolitan Police (KMP) North Region. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 392 field police patrol officers serving in KMP North Region. Diagnosis of PTSD was undertaken using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5. In order to assess for psychiatric comorbidities, the study used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of PTSD was 7.4%. An additional 62.5% had sub-threshold PTSD, which was defined as, the presence of at least one PTSD symptom but not meeting full criteria for PTSD diagnosis. The factors found to be significantly associated with PTSD were all related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidities, namely the presence of: a current major depressive episode (aOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.5- 14.8; p = .009); an alcohol use disorder (aOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 2.0-13.0; p = .001); and presence of dissociation symptoms (aOR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.0-22.2; p = .002). CONCLUSION: PTSD is one of the common psychiatric disorders experienced by serving police officers in Uganda. The tendency of PTSD in this group to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders means that any treatment program to address it should be part of a comprehensive multi-disorder mental health treatment programme in the police office.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Police/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 521-526, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China and has spread all over the world and affected global mental health. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and experience high levels of distress during an infectious disease outbreak. The aim of this study was to determine anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed a total of 283 pregnant women within the period of May 11 to May 28,2020. During their regular antenatal visit, pregnant women were invited to participate in the study. The self-created personal information form was used to assess the main characteristics of the participants. Anxiety and PTSD symptoms of the pregnant women were measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.20±5.55 years. Regarding gestational age, 72 (25.4%), 86 (30.4) and 125 (44.2) were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The mean gestational age was 23.82±11.05 weeks. The mean STAI-S and STAI-T scores were 39.52±10.56 within the cut-off value (39-40) of the instrument and 42.74±8.33, respectively. Furthermore, the mean total IES-R score was 36.60±15.65 within the cut-off value (24) of the instrument. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pregnancy complication (p=0.01) and employment status of husband (p=0.04) were the best predictors of state anxiety. Additionally, the presence of COVID-19-related symptoms (p=0.01) and educational level (p=0.01) were found to predict PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women would be likely to experience high levels of anxiety and PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic's delay phase. The results should sensitize the medical team to increased anxiety and PTDS symptoms of the pregnant women in order to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 602-605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081409

ABSTRACT

An increase of psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is described in patients affected with COVID-19 that stayed at an intensive care unit (ICU). However, data on follow-up and on impact of contextual factors are limited. In a single-center, observational study, PTSD symptomatology was prevalent among 38% of participants (n=8), persisting in clinical PTSD in 2 participants after one year. In patients with initial PTSD symptoms, scores on depression, anxiety and insomnia scales were significantly higher. A higher mental burden due to avoidance of contact and a reduced quality of life was also retained in patients with PTSD symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Critical Care , Anxiety/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Depression
7.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study between March and May 2020 at the Lille University Hospital (France), including all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Psychological distress symptoms were measured 3 weeks after onset of COVID-19 symptoms using the Impact of Event Scale-6 items (IES-6). The evaluation of PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) took place 1 month later. Bivariate analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between PCL-5 scores and the demographic and health variables. The significant variables were then introduced into a multivariable linear regression analysis to establish their relative contributions to the severity of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: 180 patients were included in this study, and 138 patients completed the 2 evaluations. Among the 180 patients, 70.4% patients required hospitalization, and 30.7% were admitted to the intensive care unit. The prevalence of PTSD was 6.5%, and the predictive factors of PTSD included psychological distress at the onset of the illness and a stay in an intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PTSD in patients with COVID-19 is not as high as that reported among patients during previous epidemics. Initial psychological responses were predictive of a PTSD diagnosis, even though most patients showing acute psychological distress (33.5% of the sample) improved in the following weeks. PTSD symptoms also increased following a stay in an intensive care unit. Future studies should assess the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on patients' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 638, 2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The context of the COVID-19 pandemic has harmed the mental health of the population, increasing the incidence of mental health problems such as depression, especially in those who have had COVID-19. Our study puts forward an explanatory model of depressive symptoms based on subjective psychological factors in those hospitalized for COVID-19 with and without biological markers (i.e., inflammatory markers). Therefore, we aim to evaluate the hypotheses proposed in the model to predict the presence of depressive symptoms. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a simple random sampling. Data from 277 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Lima-Peru, were collected to assess mental health variables (i.e., depressive, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and somatic symptoms), self-perception of COVID-19 related symptoms, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) such as inflammatory marker. We performed a structural equation modeling analysis to evaluate a predictive model of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The results showed a prevalence of depressive symptoms (11.2%), anxiety symptoms (7.9%), somatic symptoms (2.2%), and symptoms of post-traumatic stress (6.1%) in the overall sample. No association was found between the prevalence of these mental health problems among individuals with and without severe inflammatory response. The mental health indicators with the highest prevalence were sleep problems (48%), low energy (47.7%), nervousness (48.77%), worry (47.7%), irritability (43.7%) and back pain (52%) in the overall sample. The model proposed to explain depressive symptoms was able to explain more than 83.7% of the variance and presented good goodness-of-fit indices. Also, a different performance between the proposed model was found between those with and without severe inflammatory response. This difference was mainly found in the relationship between anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms, and between the perception of COVID-19 related symptoms and somatic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrated that our model of mental health variables may explain depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients of COVID-19 from a third-level hospital in Peru. In the model, perception of symptoms influences somatic symptoms, which impact both anxiety symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Thus, anxiety symptoms could directly influence depressive symptoms or through symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Our findings could be useful to decision-makers for the prevention of depression, used to inform the creation of screening tools (i.e., perception of symptoms, somatic and anxiety symptoms) to identify vulnerable patients to depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/psychology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
9.
Riv Psichiatr ; 57(5): 212-223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054637

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study has been to measure the distress of workers at a large hospital in Rome, immediately after the lockdown with relaxed national restrictions except the indication to wear masks FP2 and to maintain the interpersonal distance of at least one meter. METHOD: A web-based anonymous survey has been conducted. Of the 324 responders (23-69 years; 78.09% females), 41.05% was nurse, 31.17% medical doctor, 7.72% employee with administrative function, 3.09% psychologist, 1.54% biologist, 13.58% grouped in the "other" category. 60.49% worked in a no-covid-19 ward, 20.37% in the covid-19 ward, 13.58% in outpatient clinics, and 5.56% outside the hospital. 45.06% have been exposed to covid-19 and 7.72% tested positive for covid-19. 66.67% were satisfied with the safety measures taken by the hospital. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, as measured by IES-R, and peritraumatic distress, measured by CPDI, were frequently reported (41.05% and 43.21%, respectively). PTSD resulted independently associated with peritraumatic distress (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR 49.83), perception of being avoided by family and/or friends due to work performed (AOR= 4.05), low hope for the future (AOR= 2.25) and female gender (AOR= 2.90). Age and profession were considered confounding variables. RESULTS: These results showed that even in times of reduced restrictions, the prevalence of peritraumatic distress and PTSD is high, regardless of work and professional specialization, length of service, more or less direct contact with covid-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Since the biological damage resulting from a PTSD is known, it is important to activate screening programs followed by specific interventions to reduce long-term risks to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Rome/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
10.
Aten Primaria ; 54(10): 102460, 2022 10.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of post-COVID-19 patients in primary care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, multicenter, random probability sampling study. LOCATION: Primary care centers in Ica-Peru. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred and thirty-six patients with previous diagnosis of COVID-19. MAIN MEASURES: The variable PTSD symptoms was measured with the COVID-19-PTSD questionnaire and HRQOL with the EuroQol scale (EQ-5D). Sociodemographic and health factors including post-COVID-19 syndrome were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using generalized linear models of the Poisson family to search for associations between variables. RESULTS: Of the participants, 21.4% presented symptoms of PTSD; 33.6% symptoms of dysphoric and anxious arousal; 22.3% intrusion, avoidance and negative affect; 22.6% anhedonia; and 23.6% externalizing behavior. 50.3% revealed at least one component of HRQoL affected; 35.5% problems linked to anxiety/depression; 34.9% pain/discomfort; 11% daily activity; 10.7% mobility and 6.6% self-care. The presence of PTSD symptoms was associated with the HRQoL affected (PR=2.46: 95% CI: 2.19-2.78). Also, certain sociodemographic and health variables were associated with PTSD symptoms and affected HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD symptoms, increase the probability of affecting the patient's HRQoL post COVID-19. There are potentially modifiable sociodemographic and health variables that could decrease PTSD symptoms and improve HRQoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
11.
J Trauma Nurs ; 29(5): 228-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature documenting whether trauma patients with different mechanisms of injury have different rates of hazardous alcohol use and/or risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to determine whether there are associations between mechanism of injury, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Secondary objectives were to examine associations prior to and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 5 years of trauma registry data of adult trauma patients (older than 18 years) admitted to a Midwestern Level I trauma center conducted from January 2016 to November 2020. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of gender, race, and mechanism of injury on hazardous drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. RESULTS: A total of 9,392 trauma patients completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption Items to identify hazardous drinking, and 5,012 completed the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen to identify risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder and/or depression. The proportion of patients screening positive for hazardous drinking was higher for motor vehicle collisions (21.9%) than for gunshot wounds (17.6%) or falls (18.8%; χ2(2) = 14.311, p < .001). Those involved in motor vehicle collisions were also at a higher risk for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (54.5%) relative to falls (33.5%) but not gunshot wounds (50.7%; χ2(2) = 200.185, p < .001). The impact of COVID-19 revealed increased hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with falls and motor vehicle collisions but not gunshot wounds. CONCLUSIONS: Motor vehicle collision patients are at most risk for hazardous drinking concomitant with risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. These results help focus future research efforts toward interventions that can reduce these risks.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
12.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 54-61, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychological adaptability, or the reduction of psychiatric symptoms in the context of ongoing stressors, is well-documented. The present study assessed relationships between COVID-19 related stressors and depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS) during April and July 2020. METHODS: Prevalence of, and changes in, symptom severity levels in April vs. July were measured with ANOVA F-tests. Logistic regressions were used to assess the odds of probable diagnosis. RESULTS: Symptom distributions skewed lower in July, as compared to April for all three diagnostic categories. From April to July, prevalence of probable anxiety and depression decreased across all levels of stress, prevalence of PTS increased for high stress, and decreased for medium and low stress levels. In July, only high stress related to higher odds of probable diagnoses, as compared to April when both medium and high stress did. LIMITATIONS: Due to use of cross-sectional self-report data, the present findings could not establish causality between variables, and provide probable, rather than clinical, diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Findings emphasize adaptability phenomena during COVID-19 and highlight the nuanced impact of ongoing stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
13.
J Anxiety Disord ; 90: 102604, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983340

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed healthcare workers (HCW) to traumatic situations that might lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An important vulnerability factor for PTSD is the peritraumatic tonic immobility (TI) reaction, an involuntary and reflexive defensive response evoked by an intense and inescapable threat. TI is largely understudied in humans and has not been investigated during trauma related to COVID-19. For HCW, the pandemic context might be experienced as an intense and potentially inescapable threat, i.e., an overwhelming situation. Here, we investigated if TI response occurred during traumatic events related to the pandemic and its association with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). An online survey of 1001 HCW investigated COVID-19-related traumatic experiences, TI and PTSS. TI was reported for all types of traumatic events, and multivariate regression models revealed that TI was significantly associated with PTSS severity. HCW who reported high TI scores exhibited an increase of 9.08 times the probability of having a probable diagnosis of PTSD. Thus, TI was evoked by pandemic-related traumatic situations and associated with PTSS severity and higher odds of a PTSD diagnosis. Tonic immobility occurrence should be screened, and psychoeducation about its reflexive biological nature should be introduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Immobility Response, Tonic/physiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 316: 114786, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977748

ABSTRACT

Subjective age, the personal sense of how old one feels, is an important concomitant of posttraumatic outcomes in the second half of life. The present study aims to disentangle the interrelationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) and subjective age, during the COVID-19 pandemic, among a sample of Israeli older adults who are veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Participants were interviewed in 2015 (T1; N = 259; mean age = 65.23, SD = 5.32) and in 2020, during the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel (T2). We assessed subjective age, PTSS, fear of COVID-19, self-rated health, and COVID-19 related accelerated subjective aging. A cross-lagged path analysis showed that while higher PTSS at T1 were associated with an increase in subjective age from T1 to T2, subjective age at T1 was not associated with PTSS at T2. PTSS at T1, but not subjective age, were associated with higher COVID-19 related accelerated subjective aging at T2. Older adults with continued PTSS due to past traumas, might be susceptible to the stressors of COVID-19 expressed in the personal subjective experience of having aged quickly in a short period of time. Our findings also suggest that in the context of stress and trauma, subjective age is more appropriately conceived as an outcome variable rather than a predictor of PTSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Veterans , Aged , Aging , Humans , Infant , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4512-4517, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929885

ABSTRACT

Studies on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 have shown long-term effects on health, rehabilitation, and quality of life in patients.To evaluate effects on recovery and mental health in COVID-19 survivors.A single center, retrospective cohort study in (non-ICU admitted) adult patients with COVID-19 infection was conducted. Next to baseline characteristics during hospital admission, data on remaining symptoms and radiographic abnormalities were extracted at the 8-week follow-up at the outpatient clinic. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to detect anxiety and depression.Resulting in two hundred and eleven patients were included, median age of 63 years, 61% male, with overweight (average body mass index 28.6 kg/m2 ). At the outpatient clinic 13% of the patients were symptom free, whereas 25% reported more than three symptoms. Persisting physical symptoms were mainly fatigue 68%, dyspnea 56%, and cough 26%. Most patients had normalization of chest X-ray (61.1%) and oxygen saturation (89.9%). Interestingly, 33% reported memory impairment and concentration problems 28%. 7.8% scored for anxiety and 7.1% for depression on the HADS. Correlations were found between the number of physical symptoms and scores on the HADS.In conclusion, only 13% had symptom-free recovery after 8 weeks. Besides physical symptoms memory problems were frequently seen. The number of mental and physical symptoms were correlated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Survivors
16.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2087979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915468

ABSTRACT

Background: Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disorders often experience potentially traumatic events while caring for their children. Heightened posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) have been found in this population. Objective: We aimed to explore risk and protective factors for their PTS and PTG. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 385 parents (average age M = 43.14 years, SD = 7.40; 95.3% mothers). Results: Parenting trauma showed an adverse effect on developing PTS (beta = 0.25, p < .01) and a positive role in promoting PTG (beta = 0.16, p < .01). Social support was protective in its correlation with lower levels of PTS (beta = -0.12, p < .01) and higher levels of PTG (beta = 0.22, p < .01). Barriers to care were associated with increased PTS (beta = 0.23, p < .01), but unrelated to PTG (beta = .01, p = .855). Negative parenting showed a significant, but small, correlation with more severe PTS (beta = 0.11, p < .05), and was unrelated to PTG (beta = -0.09, p = .065). Conclusions: Our study increases the understanding of posttraumatic reactions in parents, predominantly mothers, of children with IDD and identified parenting-related trauma, social support, and barriers to mental health care as predictive factors of the reactions. More research is needed to confirm and validate the effects of the discussed factors. Although causation can not be inferred, prompt and adequate screening and therapeutic resources should be provided to those mothers who were exposed to multiple stressful caregiving events and had limited healthcare access and less support from their spouses, peers, and caregiving partners. HIGHLIGHTS: Parents of a child with Intellectual and Developmental Disorders with parenting trauma had higher posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG).Social support was related to lower PTS and higher PTG.Barriers to care were related to higher PTS but unrelated to PTG.


Antecedentes: Los padres de niños con trastornos intelectuales y del desarrollo a menudo experimentan eventos potencialmente traumáticos mientras cuidan a sus hijos. En esta población se han encontrado un elevado estrés postraumático (PTS por sus siglas en ingles) y crecimiento postraumático (PTG por sus siglas en ingles).Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue explorar los factores protectores y de riesgo para PTS y PTG.Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal con 385 padres (con edad promedio M = 43,14 años, DS = 7,40; 95,3% madres).Resultados: El trauma parental mostró ser un efecto adverso en el desarrollo de PTS (beta = 0.25, p < 0.01) y un papel positivo en la promover el PTG (beta = 0.16, p < 0,01). El apoyo social fue protector en su correlación con niveles más bajos de PTS (beta = −0.12, p < .01) y niveles más altos de PTG (beta = 0.22, p < .01). Las barreras a la atención se asociaron con un aumento de PTS (beta = 0.23, p < 0.01), pero no se relacionaron con PTG (beta = 0.01, p = 0,855). La crianza negativa mostró una correlación significativa, pero pequeña, con PTS más severos (beta = 0.11, p < 0,05) y no estuvo relacionado con el PTG (beta = −0.09, p = 0.065).Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio aumenta la comprensión de las reacciones postraumáticas en los padres, predominantemente madres, de niños con IDD e identificó el trauma relacionado con la crianza, el apoyo social y las barreras para la atención de la salud mental como factores predictivos de estas reacciones. Se necesita más investigación para confirmar y validar los efectos de los factores discutidos. Si bien no se puede inferir causalidad, se deben proporcionar recursos terapéuticos y de detección, rápidos y adecuados, a aquellas madres que estuvieron expuestas a múltiples eventos estresantes del cuidado y tuvieron acceso limitado a la atención médica y menos apoyo de sus cónyuges, compañeros y cuidadores.


Subject(s)
Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developmental Disabilities , Humans , Parenting , Parents/psychology , Protective Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis
17.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(6): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Of the work is a cross-cultural analysis of the characteristics of student response in a pandemic situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of students of NSMU and the Kazakh National University. Al-Farabi in the amount of 37 people aged 20 to 23; The battery of psychological methods was compiled by Spielberger and Khanina; Mississippi Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (civil version) and PSM-25 Psychological Stress Scale. RESULTS: 52.7% of respondents showed an average level of stress, 47.3% - a low level, which indicates insufficient psychological adaptation to psychological stress. High rates of personal and situational anxiety were diagnosed in 67.57% of cases; the average level of reactive anxiety - in 29.73% of cases and personal - in 27.03% of respondents. The majority of respondents showed average levels of post-traumatic stress reactions (50%, n=37), while a low level of post-traumatic stress reactions occurs in 11 (14.87%) people, a low level - in 17 (22.97%) people and increased - in 9 (12.16%) people. Stress level indicators tend to have significant differences: the frequency of occurrence of average stress indicators in the sample of students from Kazakhstan is higher (75.6%) compared to Russian students (24.32%) (p<0.05).Adapting to changing academic workloads in a pandemic situation does not contribute to the psychological well-being of students, as evidenced by the results of diagnosing anxiety and post-traumatic stress reactions. The results obtained emphasize the importance of taking into account cultural factors in stressful situations. CONCLUSION: Cross-cultural differences in the level of emotional response of students in a pandemic situation were revealed.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 180, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890157

ABSTRACT

The long-term health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers (HCWs) are largely unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in HCWs in a longitudinal manner. Additionally, we further explored the role of risk perception in the evolution of PTSD over time based on a one-year follow-up study. HCWs were recruited from hospitals in Guangdong, China. Demographic information, the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the risk perception questionnaire were obtained online at two different time points: May to June 2020 (T1), with 317 eligible responses, and June 2021 (T2), with 403 eligible responses. Seventy-four HCWs participated in the survey at both T1 and T2. The results revealed that (1) the PTSD prevalence rate in the HCWs (cut-off = 33) increased from 10.73% at T1 to 20.84% at T2, and the HCWs reported significantly higher PTSD scores at T2 than at T1 (p < 0.001); (2) risk perception was positively correlated with PTSD (p < 0.001); and (3) PTSD at T1 could significantly positively predict PTSD at T2 (ß = 2.812, p < 0.01), and this longitudinal effect of PTSD at T1 on PTSD at T2 was mediated by risk perception at T2 (coefficient = 0.154, 95% CI = 0.023 to 0.297). Our data provide a snapshot of the worsening of HCWs' PTSD along with the repeated pandemic outbreaks and highlight the important role of risk perception in the development of PTSD symptoms in HCWs over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has induced demanding work situations in intensive care units (ICU). The objective of our study was to survey psychological reactions, the disturbance of social life, work effort, and support in ICU nurses, physicians, and leaders. METHODS: From May to July 2020, this cross-sectional study included 484 ICU professionals from 27 hospitals throughout Norway. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured on Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 (HSCL-10). Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were measured on the PCL-5. RESULTS: The study population were highly educated and experienced professionals, well prepared for working with COVID-ICU patients. However, 53% felt socially isolated and 67% reported a fear of infecting others. Probable cases of anxiety and depression were found in 12.5% of the registered nurses, 11.6% of the physicians, and 4.1% of the leaders. Younger age and <5 years previous work experiences were predictors for high HSCL-10 scores. Reported symptom-defined PTSD for nurses 7.1%; the leaders, 4.1%; and 2.3% of physicians. CONCLUSIONS: ICU health care professionals experienced talking with colleagues as the most helpful source of support. The COVID-ICU leaders reported a significantly higher mean score than physicians and nurses in terms of pushing themselves toward producing high work effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
20.
Trials ; 23(1): 243, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder occurs in as many as one in five combat veterans and is associated with a host of negative, long-term consequences to the individual, their families, and society at large. Trauma-focused treatments, such as Prolonged Exposure, result in clinically significant symptom relief for many. Adherence to these treatments (i.e., session attendance and homework compliance) is vital to ensuring recovery but can be challenging for patients. Engaging families in veterans' treatment could prove to be an effective strategy for promoting treatment adherence while also addressing long-standing calls for better family inclusion in treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. This paper describes the methods of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate if family inclusion in Prolonged Exposure can improve treatment adherence. METHODS: One hundred fifty-six veterans, with clinically significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, will be randomized to receive either standard Prolonged Exposure or Prolonged Exposure enhanced through family inclusion (Family-Supported Prolonged Exposure) across three different VA facilities. Our primary outcomes are session attendance and homework compliance. Secondary outcomes include posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depression, quality of life, and relationship functioning. The study includes a concurrent process evaluation to identify potential implementation facilitators and barriers to family involvement in Prolonged Exposure within VA. DISCUSSION: While the importance of family involvement in posttraumatic stress disorder treatment is non-controversial, there is no evidence base supporting best practices on how to integrate families into PE or any other individually focused trauma-focused treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. This study is an important step in addressing this gap, contributing to the literature for both retention and family involvement in trauma-focused treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03256227 . Registered on August 21, 2017.


Subject(s)
Implosive Therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Veterans , Evidence-Based Practice , Humans , Implosive Therapy/methods , Quality of Life , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
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