Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 49
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1924-1934, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced healthcare providers to reorganize their activities to protect the population from infection, postponing or suspending many medical procedures. Patients affected by chronic conditions were among the most affected. In the case of catastrophes, women have a higher lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those with endometriosis have higher anxiety levels, making them fragile in such circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in May 2020, we considered all women aged ≥18 years, followed up at our referral centre for endometriosis. Patients were sent an anonymous 6-section questionnaire via email, containing different validated tools for the evaluation of anxiety levels and the risk of PTSD. A multivariable linear regression was performed to assess the impact of patients' characteristics on the distress caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 468 women recruited, 68.8% were quite-to-extremely worried about not being able to access gynaecologic care, with almost one-third of them scoring ≥33 on the IES-R. Older age and increased levels of anxiety were associated with higher risks of PTSD (age: b = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.44; GAD-7: b = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.38 - 2.05), with up to 71.8% of patients with severe anxiety (GAD-7 > 15) having an IES-R score ≥33 suggestive for PTSD. Women who could leave home to work showed lower levels of PTSD (b = -4.79, 95% CI = -8.44 to - 1.15, ref. unemployed women). The implementation of telemedicine in routine clinical practice was favourably viewed by 75.6% of women. DISCUSSION: Women with endometriosis are particularly exposed to the risk of PTSD during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially if they are older or have higher levels of anxiety. Gynaecologists should resort to additional strategies, and telemedicine could represent a feasible tool to help patients cope with this situation.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the lives of women with endometriosis, who appeared to have a considerable risk of PTSD.Older age, higher anxiety levels and unemployment were independently associated with the risk of developing PTSD.Clinicians should develop successful alternative strategies to help patients cope with this situation, and telemedicine might represent an applicable and acceptable solution.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endometriosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometriosis/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488562

ABSTRACT

Nurses working amid the COVID-19 pandemic are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), one of the most used tools for assessing trauma. Secondary data of 249 nurses who performed face-to-face nursing tasks during the COVID-19 pandemic, collected through an online survey, were analyzed by conducting a factor analysis of the K-IES-R and testing the internal consistency and concurrent validity with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7), and Dimensions of Anger Reactions-5 (DAR-5). The result of an exploratory factor analysis of the K-IES-R supported a three-factor structure of intrusion, avoidance, and sleep disturbance, with CMIN/DF = 2.98, RMSEA = 0.09, SRMR = 0.03, CFI = 0.93, and TLI = 0.90. The Cronbach's alpha of each subscale was 0.88-0.94. The total K-IES-R score and each factor's value showed a significant correlation (moderate or higher) with the PSS, GAD-7, and DAR-5. The K-IES-R was verified as a useful tool for assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms in nurses who directly perform nursing tasks in crises such as COVID-19. This study suggests the tool be used for early assessment of post-traumatic stress symptoms in nurses and providing appropriate interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 209-216, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) deployed to the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic are at risk for developing mental disorders, with a possible impact on their wellbeing and functioning. The present study aimed at investigating post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), anxiety and depressive symptoms and their relationships with impairment in the functioning impairment among frontline HCWs from three Italian regions differently exposed to the first wave of the COVID-19 emergency: Tuscany (low), Emilia-Romagna (medium) and Lombardy (high). METHODS: 514 frontline HCWs were consecutively enrolled in hospital units devoted to the treatment of COVID-19 patients. They completed the IES-R, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 to assess PTSS, depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, and the WSAS to investigate functioning impairment. RESULTS: A total of 23.5% of HCWs reported severe PTSS, 22.4% moderate-severe anxiety symptoms, 19.3% moderate-severe depressive symptoms and 22.8% impairment in global functioning. HCWs from the higher-exposure regions reported significantly higher scores in all instruments than those from lower-exposure regions. In a multiple linear regression model, PTSS, depressive and anxiety symptoms presented a significant positive association with the functioning impairment. Both PTSS and depression resulted to be independently related to functioning impairment. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and the use of self-report instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and PTSS appear to be the greatest contributors to functioning impairment in HCWs exposed to a massive stressful sanitary event as the COVID-19 pandemic. A more accurate assessment of work-related mental health outcomes in such population could help planning effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049472, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly experienced in the aftermath of major incidents such as terrorism and pandemics. Well-established principles of response include effective and scalable treatment for individuals affected by PTSD. In England, such responses have combined proactive outreach, screening and evidence-based interventions (a 'screen-and-treat' approach), but little is known about its cost-effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to report the first systematic attempt to assess the cost-effectiveness of this approach. METHODS: A decision modelling analysis was undertaken to estimate the costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained from a screen-and-treat approach compared with treatment-as-usual, the latter involving identification of PTSD by general practitioners and referral to psychological therapy services. Model input variables were drawn from relevant empirical studies in the context of terrorism and the unit costs of health and social care in England. The model was run over a 5-year time horizon for a hypothetical cohort of 1000 exposed adults from the perspective of the National Health Service and Personal Social Services in England. RESULTS: The incremental cost per QALY gained was £7931. This would be considered cost-effective 88% of the time at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained, the threshold associated with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England. Sensitivity analysis confirmed this result was robust. CONCLUSIONS: A screen-and-treat approach for identifying and treating PTSD in adults following terrorist attacks appears cost-effective in England compared with treatment-as-usual through conventional primary care routes. Although this finding was in the context of terrorism, the implications might be translatable into other major incident-related scenarios including the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
6.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
7.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 27(1): 184-190, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) in family medicine (FM) in Croatia work in a demanding environment caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Besides particular circumstances in healthcare, an unknown virus, social distancing, and homeschooling, the capital was hit with the earthquake during the lockdown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of demographic characteristics, professional differences, medical history, and specific stressors on the psychological outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the online questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was conducted from 1st to 15 May 2020 in FM. RESULTS: HCPs (534, 35% response rate), predominantly female (84.5%), participated in the research. High prevalence of stress (30.9%), anxiety (33.1%), depression (30.7%), and PTSD (33.0%) were found. Female participants had higher results in the anxiety subscale of DASS-21 and IES-R scores. Pre-existing conditions were associated with higher levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. The IES-R score for PTSD showed borderline correlation (p = 0.053) with working in regions with the highest incidence of COVID-19. Having schoolchildren made a difference on a stress subscale in DASS-21 (p < 0.043), but the earthquake did not have an impact. CONCLUSION: Family physicians and nurses in FM in Croatia are under a great mental load during the COVID-19 outbreak. Results suggest that HCPs of the female sex, with pre-existing chronic conditions, work in regions with a high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 or have schoolchildren at greater risk of the poor psychological outcome.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Physicians, Family/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Disasters , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Earthquakes , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/diagnosis , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003621, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, 235 million people are impacted by humanitarian emergencies worldwide, presenting increased risk of experiencing a mental disorder. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a brief group psychological treatment delivered by trained facilitators without prior professional mental health training in a disaster-prone setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) from November 25, 2018 through September 30, 2019. Participants in both arms were assessed at baseline, midline (7 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 1 week after treatment in the experimental arm), and endline (20 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 3 months posttreatment). The intervention was Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a psychological treatment of 5 weekly sessions, which was compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) consisting of a family psychoeducation meeting with a referral option to primary care providers trained in mental healthcare. The setting was 72 wards (geographic unit of clustering) in eastern Nepal, with 1 PM+ group per ward in the treatment arm. Wards were eligible if they were in disaster-prone regions and residents spoke Nepali. Wards were assigned to study arms based on covariate constrained randomization. Eligible participants were adult women and men 18 years of age and older who met screening criteria for psychological distress and functional impairment. Outcomes were measured at the participant level, with assessors blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was psychological distress assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, "heart-mind" problems, social support, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment. The hypothesized mediator was skill use aligned with the treatment's mechanisms of action. A total of 324 participants were enrolled in the control arm (36 wards) and 319 in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). The overall sample (N = 611) had a median age of 45 years (range 18-91 years), 82% of participants were female, 50% had recently experienced a natural disaster, and 31% had a chronic physical illness. Endline assessments were completed by 302 participants in the control arm (36 wards) and 303 participants in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). At the midline assessment (immediately after Group PM+ in the experimental arm), mean GHQ-12 total score was 2.7 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 1.7, 3.7, p < 0.001), with standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.4 (95% CI: -0.5, -0.2). At 3 months posttreatment (primary endpoint), mean GHQ-12 total score was 1.4 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 0.3, 2.5, p = 0.014), with SMD of -0.2 (95% CI: -0.4, 0.0). Among the secondary outcomes, Group PM+ was associated with endline with a larger proportion attaining more than 50% reduction in depression symptoms (29.9% of Group PM+ arm versus 17.3% of control arm, risk ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.002). Fewer participants in the Group PM+ arm continued to have "heart-mind" problems at endline (58.8%) compared to the control arm (69.4%), risk ratio = 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0, p = 0.042). Group PM+ was not associated with lower PTSD symptoms or functional impairment. Use of psychosocial skills at midline was estimated to explain 31% of the PM+ effect on endline GHQ-12 scores. Adverse events in the control arm included 1 suicide death and 1 reportable incidence of domestic violence; in the Group PM+ arm, there was 1 death due to physical illness. Study limitations include lack of power to evaluate gender-specific effects, lack of long-term outcomes (e.g., 12 months posttreatment), and lack of cost-effectiveness information. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a 5-session group psychological treatment delivered by nonspecialists modestly reduced psychological distress and depression symptoms in a setting prone to humanitarian emergencies. Benefits were partly explained by the degree of psychosocial skill use in daily life. To improve the treatment benefit, future implementation should focus on approaches to enhance skill use by PM+ participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03747055.


Subject(s)
Depression/therapy , Mental Health , Natural Disasters , Problem Solving , Psychotherapy, Brief , Psychotherapy, Group , Relief Work , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(4): 701-710, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303282

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals have experienced disruptions in social, occupational, and daily life activities. Individuals with mental health difficulties, particularly those with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), may be especially vulnerable to increased impairment as a result of COVID-19. Additionally, demographic factors, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity, may impact individual difficulties related to the pandemic. The current study examined the concurrent and prospective associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, broader anxiety and depression symptoms, and COVID-19-related disability. Participants recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 136) completed questionnaire batteries approximately 1 month apart during the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., Wave 1 and Wave 2). The results indicated that PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were all associated with increased COVID-19-related disability across assessment points, rs = .44-.68. PTSD symptoms, specifically negative alterations in cognition and mood, significantly predicted COVID-19-related disability after accounting for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as demographic factors, ßs = .31-.38. Overall, these findings suggest that individuals experiencing elevated PTSS are particularly vulnerable to increased functional impairment as a result of COVID-19 and suggest a need for additional outreach and clinical care among individuals with elevated PTSD symptoms during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Crowdsourcing/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13535, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287821

ABSTRACT

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread globally, a significant portion of pregnant and delivering women were infected with COVID-19. While emerging studies examined birth outcomes in COVID-19 positive women, knowledge of the psychological experience of childbirth and maternal wellness remains lacking. This matched-control survey-based study included a sample of women recruited during the first wave of the pandemic in the US who gave birth in the previous six months. Women reporting confirmed/suspected COVID-19 (n = 68) during pregnancy or childbirth were matched on background factors with women reporting COVID-19 negativity (n = 2,276). We found nearly 50% of COVID positive women endorsed acute traumatic stress symptoms at a clinical level in response to childbirth. This group was more than twice as likely to endorse acute stress and to have no visitors during maternity hospitalization than COVID negative women; they were also less likely to room-in with newborns. The COVID positive group reported higher levels of pain in delivery, lower newborn weights, and more infant admission to neonatal intensive care units. Our findings suggest COVID-19 affected populations are at increased risk for traumatic childbirth and associated risk for psychiatric morbidity. Attention to delivering women's wellbeing is warranted during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Parturition/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Birth Weight , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pain/pathology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929454, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) broke out in China. This study was to investigate the situation of mental health status among medical staff following COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted through structured questionnaires to collect the demographical information of the participating medical staff via WeChat following COVID-19 crisis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), impact of events scale revised (IES-R), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale were used to evaluate depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and sleep quality, respectively. 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 597 medical staff's information was included for the statistical analysis, and found 45.23% of subjects had PTSD symptoms, the mean PSQI score was 6.320±3.587. The results of multivariable analysis implied that medical workers who did not participate in the Hubei aid program (ß=4.128; 95% CI, 0.983-7.272; P=0.010) and PTSD symptoms (ß=7.212; 95% CI, 4.807-9.616; P<0.001) were associated with a higher tendency to depression. The PSQI score was linearly related to the CES-D score (ß=1.125; 95% CI, 0.804-1.445; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that medical workers who did not participate in the Hubei aid program, no traumatic experience before COVID-19 outbreaks, and PTSD symptoms may affect the tendency to depression in females, but not in males. PSQI score was linearly related to the CES-D score both in males and females. CONCLUSIONS The medical staff with PTSD symptoms and higher PSQI score may have a higher tendency to depression following COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Medical Staff , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff/psychology , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(6): 577-585, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231204

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The co-occurrence of different classes of population-level stressors, such as social unrest and public health crises, is common in contemporary societies. Yet, few studies explored their combined mental health impact. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of repeated exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events (TEs), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related events (PEs), and stressful life events (SLEs) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, and the potential mediating role of event-based rumination (rumination of TEs-related anger, injustice, guilt, and insecurity) between TEs and PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Community members in Hong Kong who had utilized a screening tool for PTSD and depressive symptoms were invited to complete a survey on exposure to stressful events and event-based rumination. RESULTS: A total of 10,110 individuals completed the survey. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that rumination, TEs, and SLEs were among the significant predictors for PTSD symptoms (all P < 0.001), accounting for 32% of the variance. For depression, rumination, SLEs, and PEs were among the significant predictors (all P < 0.001), explaining 24.9% of the variance. Two-way analysis of variance of different recent and prior TEs showed significant dose-effect relationships. The effect of recent TEs on PTSD symptoms was potentiated by prior TEs (P = 0.005). COVID-19 PEs and prior TEs additively contributed to PTSD symptoms, with no significant interaction (P = 0.94). Meanwhile, recent TEs were also potentiated by SLEs (P = 0.002). The effects of TEs on PTSD symptoms were mediated by rumination (ß = 0.38, standard error = 0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.36 to 0.41), with 40.4% of the total effect explained. All 4 rumination subtypes were significant mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Prior and ongoing TEs, PEs, and SLEs cumulatively exacerbated PTSD and depressive symptoms. The role of event-based rumination and their interventions should be prioritized for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Rumination, Cognitive/classification , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Life Change Events , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mental Health , Psychological Techniques , Public Health , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociological Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the dramatic measures accompanying isolation and the general uncertainty and fear associated with COVID-19, patients and relatives may be at high risk for adverse psychological outcomes. Until now there has been limited research focusing on the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in COVID-19 patients and their relatives. The objective of our study was to assess psychological distress in COVID-19 patients and their relatives 30 days after hospital discharge. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study at two Swiss tertiary-care hospitals we included consecutive adult patients hospitalized between March and June 2020 for a proven COVID-19 and their relatives. Psychological distress was defined as symptoms of anxiety and/or depression measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), i.e., a score of ≥8 on the depression and/or anxiety subscale. We further evaluated symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined as a score of ≥1.5 on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: Among 126 included patients, 24 (19.1%) had psychological distress and 10 (8.7%) had symptoms of PTSD 30 days after hospital discharge. In multivariate logistic regression analyses three factors were independently associated with psychological distress in patients: resilience (OR 0.82; 95%CI 0.71 to 0.94; p = 0.005), high levels of perceived stress (OR 1.21; 95%CI 1.06 to 1.38; p = 0.006) and low frequency of contact with relatives (OR 7.67; 95%CI 1.42 to 41.58; p = 0.018). The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.92. Among 153 relatives, 35 (22.9%) showed symptoms of psychological distress, and 3 (2%) of PTSD. For relatives, resilience was negatively associated (OR 0.85; 95%CI 0.75 to 0.96; p = 0.007), whereas perceived overall burden caused by COVID-19 was positively associated with psychological distress (OR 1.72; 95%CI 1.31 to 2.25; p<0.001). The overall model also had good discrimination, with an AUC of 0.87. CONCLUSION: A relevant number of COVID-19 patients as well as their relatives exhibited psychological distress 30 days after hospital discharge. These results might aid in development of strategies to prevent psychological distress in COVID-19 patients and their relatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Family/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological
19.
J Trauma Stress ; 33(5): 864-865, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196547

ABSTRACT

A recent study published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates in Ireland are as high as 17.7% and that this could be related to the COVID-19 pandemic (Karatzias et al., 2020). However, this number is probably skewed, as the fundamental requirement for a PTSD diagnosis-namely, a life-threatening or severely stressful event-was not fulfilled. In this comment, the consideration of COVID-19-related PTSD to represent a diagnosis is questioned based on the definitions of PTSD in the ICD-11 and DSM-5.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Ireland , Life Change Events , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
20.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(1): 35-43.e2, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179227

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Among a comprehensive range of frontline emergency department health care personnel, we assessed symptoms of anxiety and burnout, specific coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) work-related stressors, and risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also determined whether COVID-19 serologic testing of HCP decreased their self-reported anxiety. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study from May 13, 2020, to July 8, 2020, we used electronic surveys to capture participant self-reported symptoms before and after serologic testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies. Participants were physicians, nurses, advanced practice providers, and nonclinical ED personnel at 20 geographically diverse United States EDs. We evaluated these domains: 1) the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on overall stress and anxiety; 2) COVID-19-related work stressors; 3) burnout; and 4) PTSD risk (measured using the Primary Care-PTSD Screen for DSM-5, a 5-item screening instrument in which a score of ≥3 signifies high risk for PTSD). We also assessed perceptions of whether results of COVID-19 antibody testing decreased participants' self-reported anxiety. RESULTS: Of 1,606 participants, 100% and 88% responded to the baseline and follow-up surveys, respectively. At baseline, approximately half (46%) reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion and burnout from their work, and 308 (19.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.3% to 21.1%) respondents screened positive for increased PTSD risk. Female respondents were more likely than males to screen positive (odds ratio [OR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.78). Common concerns included exposing their family and the health of coworkers diagnosed with COVID-19. After receiving antibody test results, 54% (95% CI 51.8 to 56.7) somewhat agreed, agreed, or strongly agreed that knowledge of their immune status had decreased their anxiety. A positive serology result indicating prior SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting decreased anxiety (2.83, 95% CI 1.37 to 5.83). CONCLUSION: Symptoms of anxiety and burnout were prevalent across the spectrum of ED staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. One-fifth of ED personnel appeared to be at risk for PTSD. Increased provision of serologic testing may help to mitigate anxiety.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...