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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(6): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Of the work is a cross-cultural analysis of the characteristics of student response in a pandemic situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of students of NSMU and the Kazakh National University. Al-Farabi in the amount of 37 people aged 20 to 23; The battery of psychological methods was compiled by Spielberger and Khanina; Mississippi Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (civil version) and PSM-25 Psychological Stress Scale. RESULTS: 52.7% of respondents showed an average level of stress, 47.3% - a low level, which indicates insufficient psychological adaptation to psychological stress. High rates of personal and situational anxiety were diagnosed in 67.57% of cases; the average level of reactive anxiety - in 29.73% of cases and personal - in 27.03% of respondents. The majority of respondents showed average levels of post-traumatic stress reactions (50%, n=37), while a low level of post-traumatic stress reactions occurs in 11 (14.87%) people, a low level - in 17 (22.97%) people and increased - in 9 (12.16%) people. Stress level indicators tend to have significant differences: the frequency of occurrence of average stress indicators in the sample of students from Kazakhstan is higher (75.6%) compared to Russian students (24.32%) (p<0.05).Adapting to changing academic workloads in a pandemic situation does not contribute to the psychological well-being of students, as evidenced by the results of diagnosing anxiety and post-traumatic stress reactions. The results obtained emphasize the importance of taking into account cultural factors in stressful situations. CONCLUSION: Cross-cultural differences in the level of emotional response of students in a pandemic situation were revealed.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology
2.
Health Promot Int ; 38(3)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234591

ABSTRACT

Research has been focussing on protective and resistance-related factors that may help people face the long-lasting psychological challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sense of coherence allows to remain healthy and to recover after stressful or traumatic life experiences. We aimed at investigating whether, and the extent to which, social support, in terms of both family and friends support, mediated the well-established link between sense of coherence and mental health as well as that between sense of coherence and COVID-19-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In May 2021, 3048 Italian respondents (51.5% women) aged between 18 and 91 (Mage = 48.33, SD = 14.04) filled in a self-report questionnaire. The mediation analyses we carried out on their responses showed a difference between focussing on mental health or on a psychological disorder. Indeed, despite the respectively positive and negative relation between sense of coherence and mental health and PTSD symptoms, this confirming the protective role of sense of coherence more than 1 year after the beginning of the pandemic, social support only mediated, partially, the former link. We also discuss practical implications and further expansion of the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sense of Coherence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Pandemics , Mental Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
3.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 91(5): 267-279, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Measurement-based care is designed to track symptom levels during treatment and leverage clinically significant change benchmarks to improve quality and outcomes. Though the Veterans Health Administration promotes monitoring progress within posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clinical teams, actionability of data is diminished by a lack of population-based benchmarks for clinically significant change. We reported the state of repeated measurement within PTSD clinical teams, generated benchmarks, and examined outcomes based on these benchmarks. METHOD: PTSD Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition data were culled from the Corporate Data Warehouse from the pre-COVID-19 year for Veterans who received at least eight sessions in 14 weeks (episode of care [EOC] cohort) and those who received sporadic care (modal cohort). We used the Jacobson and Truax (1991) approach to generate clinically significant change benchmarks at clinic, regional, and national levels and calculated the frequency of cases that deteriorated, were unchanged, improved, or probably recovered, using our generated benchmarks and benchmarks from a recent study, for both cohorts. RESULTS: Both the number of repeated measurements and the cases who had multisession care in the Corporate Data Warehouse were very low. Clinically significant change benchmarks were similar across locality levels. The modal cohort had worse outcomes than the EOC cohort. CONCLUSIONS: National benchmarks for clinically significant change could improve the actionability of assessment data for measurement-based care. Benchmarks created using data from Veterans who received multisession care had better outcomes than those receiving sporadic care. Measurement-based care in PTSD clinical teams is hampered by low rates of repeated assessments of outcome. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Veterans , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Benchmarking , Metadata
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318309

ABSTRACT

The current study examined the psychometric properties of a short form of the trait scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants consisted of a convenience sample of students (n = 322) who completed the five-item version of the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, the nine-item version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. We used classical test theory and item response theory (Rasch and Mokken analyses) to examine the psychometric properties of a previously proposed five-item version of this scale. These approaches confirmed that the five-item measure of anxiety had satisfactory reliability and validity, and also confirmed that the five items comprised a unidimensional scale.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , South Africa , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Psychometrics/methods
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300133

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in survivors of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome that needed ICU care; to investigate risk factors and their impact on the Health-Related Quality of life (HR-QoL). Materials and Methods: This multicenter, prospective, observational study included all patients who were discharged from the ICU. Patients were administered the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 5 Level Version (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, the Short-Form Health Survey 36Version 2 (SF-36v2), a socioeconomic question set and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to assess PTSD. Results: The multivariate logistic regression model found that an International Standard Classification of Education Score (ISCED) higher than 2 (OR 3.42 (95% CI 1.28-9.85)), monthly income less than EUR 1500 (OR 0.36 (95% CI 0.13-0.97)), and more than two comorbidities (OR 4.62 (95% CI 1.33-16.88)) are risk factors for developing PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD symptoms are more likely to present a worsening in their quality of life as assessed by EQ-5D-5L and SF-36 scales. Conclusion: The main factors associated with the development of PTSD-related symptoms were a higher education level, a lower monthly income, and more than two comorbidities. Patients who developed symptoms of PTSD reported a significantly lower Health-Related Quality of life as compared to patients without PTSD. Future research areas should be oriented toward recognizing potential psychosocial and psychopathological variables capable of influencing the quality of life of patients discharged from the intensive care unit to better recognize the prognosis and longtime effects of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Quality of Life/psychology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Survivors/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 284, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Lebanon has witnessed its worst economic crisis, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and a massive explosion of its capital. Amidst these stressors, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing hemodialysis in an academic hospital destroyed by the explosion. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted 6 months after the blast included adults on hemodialysis, with no previous diagnoses of dementia or intellectual disability. It explores prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, in addition to other medical and psychosocial variables such as frailty, malnutrition, sarcopenia, quality of life and religiosity. RESULTS: Forty two patients (mean age 66.1; SD: 11.2 years) undergoing hemodialysis for 6.12 years (SD:7.22 years) were included. Anxiety and depression rates reached 54.8% and 57.1% using cut-offs of 6 and 7 respectively on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale. 9.5% of the patients reported being in the hospital at the time of the blast and 7.1% reported being injured. 33.3% screened positively for PTSD using a cut-off of 23 on the PCL-5. 26.2% had passive death wishes and 7.1% had suicide plans, however no one had attempted it. 23.8% were found cognitively impaired as shown by the Mini-Cog (<3). Around two-third of participants were moderately to severely malnourished per the GLIM criteria. One third suffered from frailty, according to the FRAIL screening tool. Around 60% suffered from sarcopenia, based on handgrip strength measures. These findings contrast with "acceptable to good" quality of life subjectively reported by participants on the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. While one-third of participants participated in organizational religious activities, 88% reported significant subjective meaning of religion in their heart. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD, suicidality, and cognitive impairment were found to be alarming in the setting of an urban dialysis unit following a major explosion. Psychiatric disorders were found to be compounded with increased prevalence of malnutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. These findings urge healthcare providers to implement early diagnostic and intervention strategies to improve both mental and physical wellbeing of this vulnerable population, in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis
8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 14(2): 2202058, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disrupted sleep and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are bi-directionally linked and have been found to mutually reinforce each other on a day-to-day basis. However, most of the previous research has focused on subjective measures of sleep only. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the temporal relationship between sleep and PTSD symptoms using both subjective (sleep diary) and objective measures of sleep (actigraphy). METHODS: Forty-one non-treatment seeking, trauma exposed young adults (age M = 24.68, SD = 8.15) with a range of PTSD symptom severities (PTSS, 0-53 on PCL-5) were recruited. Participants completed two surveys per day over four weeks to measure day-time PTSD symptoms (i.e. PTSS and number of intrusions) and night-time sleep subjectively, while wearing an actigraphy watch to measure sleep objectively. RESULTS: Linear mixed models revealed that subjectively reported sleep disruptions were associated with elevated next-day PTSS and increasing number of intrusive memories both within and between participants. Similar results were found for daytime PTSD symptoms on night-time sleep. However, these associations were not found using objective sleep data. Exploratory moderator analyses including sex (male vs. female) found that these associations differed in strength between sexes but were generally in the same direction. DISCUSSION: These results were in line with our hypothesis with regards to the sleep diary (subjective sleep), but not actigraphy (objective sleep). Several factors which have implications on both PTSD and sleep, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and/ or sleep-state misperception, may be potential reasons behind those discrepancies. However, this study had limited power and needs to be replicated in larger samples. Nonetheless, these results add to the current literature about the bi-directional relationship between sleep and PTSD and have clinical implications for treatment strategies.


Elevated day-time PTSD symptom severity (PTSS) and more frequent intrusive memories were generally associated with subjectively reported disruptions in sleep and vice versa, but not with objective measures of sleep.While longer subjective sleep duration predicted reductions in PTSS and shorter sleep onset latency predicted reduced numbers of intrusions the next day, reduced daytime PTSS was only associated with reductions in distress associated with nightmares during the following night.Exploratory analyses showed that sex (men vs. women) moderated the bi-directional relationships between night-time sleep and day-time PTSD symptoms with longer sleep onset latency and lower sleep efficiency being related to worse PTSD symptoms the next day in women, but was not associated with men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Pandemics , Sleep
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1411: 135-160, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301272

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have investigated the role of inflammation in psychiatric disorders, by demonstrating how an altered/dysfunctional immunological and inflammatory system may underpin a psychiatric condition. Particularly, several studies specifically investigated the role of a neuroinflammatory biomarker, named C-reactive protein (CRP), in psychiatric disorders. Overall, even though scientific literature so far published still does not appear definitive, CRP is more likely reported to be elevated in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, a low-grade inflammation (CRP >3 mg/L) has been more likely observed in a subgroup of patients affected with a more severe psychopathological symptomatology, more treatment resistance and worst clinical mental illness course, strengthening the hypothesis of the need for a different clinical and prognostic characterization based on this concomitant neuroinflammatory predisposition. However, even though further research studies are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence, CRP may represent a potential clinical routine biomarker which could be integrated in the clinical routine practice to better characterize clinical picture and course as well as address clinicians towards a personalized treatment.


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Inflammation/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis
10.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(6): 577-585, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The co-occurrence of different classes of population-level stressors, such as social unrest and public health crises, is common in contemporary societies. Yet, few studies explored their combined mental health impact. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of repeated exposure to social unrest-related traumatic events (TEs), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related events (PEs), and stressful life events (SLEs) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, and the potential mediating role of event-based rumination (rumination of TEs-related anger, injustice, guilt, and insecurity) between TEs and PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Community members in Hong Kong who had utilized a screening tool for PTSD and depressive symptoms were invited to complete a survey on exposure to stressful events and event-based rumination. RESULTS: A total of 10,110 individuals completed the survey. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that rumination, TEs, and SLEs were among the significant predictors for PTSD symptoms (all P < 0.001), accounting for 32% of the variance. For depression, rumination, SLEs, and PEs were among the significant predictors (all P < 0.001), explaining 24.9% of the variance. Two-way analysis of variance of different recent and prior TEs showed significant dose-effect relationships. The effect of recent TEs on PTSD symptoms was potentiated by prior TEs (P = 0.005). COVID-19 PEs and prior TEs additively contributed to PTSD symptoms, with no significant interaction (P = 0.94). Meanwhile, recent TEs were also potentiated by SLEs (P = 0.002). The effects of TEs on PTSD symptoms were mediated by rumination (ß = 0.38, standard error = 0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.36 to 0.41), with 40.4% of the total effect explained. All 4 rumination subtypes were significant mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Prior and ongoing TEs, PEs, and SLEs cumulatively exacerbated PTSD and depressive symptoms. The role of event-based rumination and their interventions should be prioritized for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Rumination, Cognitive/classification , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Life Change Events , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mental Health , Psychological Techniques , Public Health , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociological Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study between March and May 2020 at the Lille University Hospital (France), including all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Psychological distress symptoms were measured 3 weeks after onset of COVID-19 symptoms using the Impact of Event Scale-6 items (IES-6). The evaluation of PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) took place 1 month later. Bivariate analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between PCL-5 scores and the demographic and health variables. The significant variables were then introduced into a multivariable linear regression analysis to establish their relative contributions to the severity of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: 180 patients were included in this study, and 138 patients completed the 2 evaluations. Among the 180 patients, 70.4% patients required hospitalization, and 30.7% were admitted to the intensive care unit. The prevalence of PTSD was 6.5%, and the predictive factors of PTSD included psychological distress at the onset of the illness and a stay in an intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PTSD in patients with COVID-19 is not as high as that reported among patients during previous epidemics. Initial psychological responses were predictive of a PTSD diagnosis, even though most patients showing acute psychological distress (33.5% of the sample) improved in the following weeks. PTSD symptoms also increased following a stay in an intensive care unit. Future studies should assess the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on patients' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
12.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 18(1): 6, 2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying patients in primary care services with opioid use disorder and co-occurring mental health disorders is critical to providing treatment. Objectives of this study were to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting people to screen in-person for opioid use disorder and co-occurring mental health disorders (depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder) in primary care clinic waiting rooms in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, and (2) compare results of detecting these disorders by universal in-person screening compared to electronic health record (EHR) diagnoses. METHODS: This cross-sectional feasibility and pilot study recruited participants from four primary care clinics, two rural and two urban, from three health care organizations in New Mexico. Inclusion criteria were adults (≥ 18 years), attending one of the four clinics as a patient, and who spoke English or Spanish. Exclusion criteria were people attending the clinic for a non-primary care visit (e.g., dental, prescription pick up, social support). The main outcomes and measures were (1) recruitment feasibility which was assessed by frequencies and proportions of people approached and consented for in-person screening, and (2) relative differences of detecting opioid use disorder and co-occurring mental health disorders in waiting rooms relative to aggregate EHR data from each clinic, measured by prevalence and prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Over two-weeks, 1478 potential participants were approached and 1145 were consented and screened (77.5% of patients approached). Probable opioid use disorder and co-occurring mental health disorders were identified in 2.4% of those screened compared to 0.8% in EHR. Similarly, universal screening relative to EHR identified higher proportions of probable opioid use disorder (4.5% vs. 3.4%), depression (17.5% vs. 12.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (19.0% vs. 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Universal screening for opioid use disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder was feasible, and identified three times as many patients with these co-occurring disorders compared to EHR. Higher proportions of each condition were also identified, especially post-traumatic stress disorder. Results support that there are likely gaps in identification of these disorders in primary care services and demonstrate the need to better address the persistent public health problem of these co-occurring disorders.


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , New Mexico/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 190, 2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A widespread outbreak of epidemics like Covid-19 is a lethal threat to physical and mental health. Recent studies reported a higher prevalence of mental problems in younger individuals, contrary to the general assumption expected in older people. Therefore, it is necessary to compare anxiety, stress, depression and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) symptoms in different age groups during the Covid-19 crisis. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was performed (from Dec. 2020 to Feb. 2021) on three age groups of elderly, middle-aged and young people. Data were collected by DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale) and IES-R (Impact of Event Revised Scale) and analyzed using ANOVA, χ2 test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 601 participants completed the questionnaires, including 23.3% of the elderly (≥ 60 years), 29.5% of the young (18-29 years) and 47.3% of the middle-aged (30-59 years) with 71.4% of women. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of PTSD in young people was higher than in the elderly (ß = 2.242, CI: 1.03-4.87, P = 0.041), while the risk of depression, anxiety and stress did not differ significantly among the three age groups. Female gender, occupation, lower economic status, solitary life, and chronic disease were risk factors for psychological symptoms during the Covid-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Findings on the higher odds ratio of PTSD symptoms in younger individuals have interestingly potential implications to meet the needs of mental health services during Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Aged , Middle Aged , Female , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
14.
Respir Investig ; 61(3): 321-331, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term trends of COVID-19 mental sequelae remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to survey the one-year temporal trends of PTSD and health-related quality of life of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were followed up at three, six, and 12 months after discharge. Patients with COVID-19 who were able to communicate and complete the questionnaires were included in the study. All participants were asked to complete the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health (SF-36) survey and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The cutoff point of 24/25 of IES-R was defined as preliminary PTSD. Patients exhibiting PTSD symptoms at six months or later were regarded as "delayed patients," while those exhibiting PTSD symptoms at all the time points were "persistent patients." RESULTS: Of the 98 patients screened between June and November 2020, 72 participated in the study. A total of 11 (15.3%) had preliminary PTSD at three months, 10 (13.9%) at six months, and 10 (13.9%) at 12 months; delayed and persistent patients were four patients (7.54%) each. Patients with preliminary PTSD had lower mental summary scores in SF-36; 47 (IQR 45, 53) for patients with preliminary PTSD and 60 (49, 64) without preliminary PTSD at three months, 50 (45, 51) and 58 (52, 64) at six months, and 46 (38, 52) and 59 (52, 64) at 12 months. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should care about the courses of PTSD in COVID-19 survivors and be aware that patients with PTSD symptoms may have a lower health-related quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Hospitalization
15.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 21(3): 265-272.e7, 2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer may be particularly vulnerable to psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the prevalence and evolution of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in patients with cancer during the pandemic waves, and we investigated factors associated with high symptoms. METHODS: COVIPACT is a 1-year longitudinal prospective study of French patients with solid/hematologic malignancies receiving treatment during the first nationwide lockdown. PTSS were measured every 3 months from April 2020 using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Patients also completed questionnaires on their quality of life, cognitive complaints, insomnia, and COVID-19 lockdown experience. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses involved 386 patients with at least one PTSS assessment after baseline (median age, 63 years; 76% female). Among them, 21.5% had moderate/severe PTSS during the first lockdown. The rate of patients reporting PTSS decreased at lockdown release (13.6%), increased again at second lockdown (23.2%), and slightly declined from the second release period (22.7%) to the third lockdown (17.5%). Patients were grouped into 3 trajectories of evolution. Most patients had stable low symptoms throughout the period, 6% had high baseline symptoms slowly decreasing over time, and 17.6% had moderate symptoms worsening during the second lockdown. Female sex, feeling socially isolated, worrying about COVID-19 infection, and using psychotropic drugs were associated with PTSS. PTSS were associated with impaired quality of life, sleep, and cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-fourth of patients with cancer experienced high and persistent PTSS over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and may benefit from psychological support. CLINICALTRIALS: gov identifier: NCT04366154.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
16.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 74, 2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic anger is a commonly reported emotion among people who have experienced traumatic events. The current study aimed to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the South Korean version of the DAR-5 (DAR-5-K). The DAR-5 is a single scale with 5 items which measures posttraumatic anger. The DAR-5 is composed of five items that measure anger frequency, intensity, duration, aggression, and its interference with social relations. METHODS: Data were collected from 814 South Korean adults who had experienced traumatic events and participated in the study and analyzed via the combination of exploratory factor analysis (n = 405) and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 409). RESULTS: Results supported the one-factor structure, as reported in previous validation studies. The scale demonstrated robust internal reliability and concurrent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. The DAR-5 cut-off score of 12 that was established in the original validation study successfully differentiated high from low scorers with regard to PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the DAR-5-K is a brief and psychometrically robust measure of anger that can be used to examine South Korean adults who have experienced traumatic events.


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Adult , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Psychometrics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Anger , Republic of Korea
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 180, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to explore changes in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the general population during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic and to investigate risk factors and adaptive/nonadaptive strategies. METHODS: A web-based longitudinal survey was conducted across five timepoints from 2020 to 2022 in Japan. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), PTSD was measured using Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IESR), and coping strategies were measured using Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (Brief COPE). Higher scores of PHQ-9 and IESR indicate more symptoms and Higher score of Brief COPE indicate that these means of coping are used very frequently. RESULTS: A total of 1,366 participants (mean age = 52.76, SD = 15.57) were analyzed. Regarding levels of depression, PHQ-9 scores in 2022 were lower than in 2020 and 2021 (all p < 0.01). Regarding levels of PTSD, IESR scores in 2022 were lower than in 2021 among females (p < 0.001). Being younger (ß = -0.08 and - 0.13, both p < 0.01) and engaging in self-blame (ß = 0.12 and 0.18, both p < 0.01) increased PHQ-9 scores regardless of sex. For males, not working (ß = 0.09, p = 0.004) and having suffered an economic impact (ß = 0.07, p = 0.003) were risk factors for depressive symptoms, and active coping (ß = -0.10, p = 0.005) was associated with decreased depressive symptoms. For females, substance use (ß = 0.07, p = 0.032) and behavioral disengagement (ß = 0.10, p = 0.006) increased depressive symptoms, and females did not show strategies that decreased the symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of depression might have increased in the early stages of the pandemic and decreased in January 2022. Although males need to improve their economic situation to decrease depressive symptoms, adaptive strategies might be difficult to identify due to the prolonged pandemic among both sexes. In addition, the pandemic might be a depressive event but not a traumatic event among the general population, at least in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Australas Psychiatry ; 31(2): 136-138, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Navigating a high-stakes clinical environment, medical doctors tend to consider trauma and adverse workplace events as 'part of their job'. This often leads to delays in help-seeking in doctors who develop acute traumatic stress symptoms (ATSS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their comorbidities. This article outlines the prevalence of acute traumatic stress and PTSD in this population and summarises the emerging evidence base for Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) early-intervention protocols of this population. CONCLUSION: Doctors have higher prevalence rates of ATSS and PTSD than the general public. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing therapy's early-intervention protocols for recent, prolonged and ongoing traumatic stress have the potential to be a widely acceptable, timely and cost-effective intervention for doctors and other healthcare workers (HCWs), as highlighted in the emerging evidence base, which has grown considerably in response to the impact of the COVID pandemic on HCWs' mental health. These evidence-based interventions could potentially be routinely offered to doctors and other HCWs within 1 month of an adverse workplace experience to reduce ATSS, PTSD and other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing/methods , Eye Movements , Mental Health , Treatment Outcome
19.
Eur J Neurol ; 30(7): 1880-1890, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the brain, leading to long-term complaints. Studies combining brain abnormalities with objective and subjective consequences are lacking. Long-term structural brain abnormalities, neurological and (neuro)psychological consequences in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or general ward were investigated. The aim was to create a multidisciplinary view on the impact of severe COVID-19 on functioning and to compare long-term consequences between ICU and general ward patients. METHODS: This multicentre prospective cohort study assessed brain abnormalities (3 T magnetic resonance imaging), cognitive dysfunction (neuropsychological test battery), neurological symptoms, cognitive complaints, emotional distress and wellbeing (self-report questionnaires) in ICU and general ward (non-ICU) survivors. RESULTS: In al, 101 ICU and 104 non-ICU patients participated 8-10 months post-hospital discharge. Significantly more ICU patients exhibited cerebral microbleeds (61% vs. 32%, p < 0.001) and had higher numbers of microbleeds (p < 0.001). No group differences were found in cognitive dysfunction, neurological symptoms, cognitive complaints, emotional distress or wellbeing. The number of microbleeds did not predict cognitive dysfunction. In the complete sample, cognitive screening suggested cognitive dysfunction in 41%, and standard neuropsychological testing showed cognitive dysfunction in 12%; 62% reported ≥3 cognitive complaints. Clinically relevant scores of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress were found in 15%, 19% and 12%, respectively; 28% experienced insomnia and 51% severe fatigue. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 ICU survivors had a higher prevalence for microbleeds but not for cognitive dysfunction compared to general ward survivors. Self-reported symptoms exceeded cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive complaints, neurological symptoms and severe fatigue were frequently reported in both groups, fitting the post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Patients' Rooms , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Depression/epidemiology , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Survivors/psychology , Fatigue/etiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage
20.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 82: 103500, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254039

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the role of shame, guilt, and fear activations related to Covid-19 stressful experiences in predicting traumatic symptoms. We focused on 72 Italian adults recruited in Italy. The primary outcome was to explore the traumatic symptoms severity and negative emotions associated with COVID-19-related experiences. The presence of traumatic symptoms was met by a total of 36%. Shame and fear activations predicted traumatic scales. Qualitative content analysis identified Self-centered, and Externally-centered counterfactual thoughts and five relevant subcategories were also identified. The present findings suggest the importance of shame in the maintenance of traumatic symptoms related to COVID-19 experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Emotions , Shame , Guilt , Fear
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