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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(6): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Of the work is a cross-cultural analysis of the characteristics of student response in a pandemic situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of students of NSMU and the Kazakh National University. Al-Farabi in the amount of 37 people aged 20 to 23; The battery of psychological methods was compiled by Spielberger and Khanina; Mississippi Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (civil version) and PSM-25 Psychological Stress Scale. RESULTS: 52.7% of respondents showed an average level of stress, 47.3% - a low level, which indicates insufficient psychological adaptation to psychological stress. High rates of personal and situational anxiety were diagnosed in 67.57% of cases; the average level of reactive anxiety - in 29.73% of cases and personal - in 27.03% of respondents. The majority of respondents showed average levels of post-traumatic stress reactions (50%, n=37), while a low level of post-traumatic stress reactions occurs in 11 (14.87%) people, a low level - in 17 (22.97%) people and increased - in 9 (12.16%) people. Stress level indicators tend to have significant differences: the frequency of occurrence of average stress indicators in the sample of students from Kazakhstan is higher (75.6%) compared to Russian students (24.32%) (p<0.05).Adapting to changing academic workloads in a pandemic situation does not contribute to the psychological well-being of students, as evidenced by the results of diagnosing anxiety and post-traumatic stress reactions. The results obtained emphasize the importance of taking into account cultural factors in stressful situations. CONCLUSION: Cross-cultural differences in the level of emotional response of students in a pandemic situation were revealed.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology
2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1025, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations between COVID-19 related stigma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and the associations between PTSS and COVID-19 related stigma, HIV status, COVID-19 status and key HIV population status. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data of 12,355 study participants generated through an online survey that recruited adults from 152 countries between July and December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19-related stigma and PTSS. The independent variables were HIV status (positive/negative), transaction sex (yes/no), use of psychoactive drugs (yes/no), and vulnerability status (transaction sex workers, people who use psychoactive drugs, living with HIV, and COVID-19 status). The confounding variables were age, sex at birth (male/female), level of education, sexual minority individuals (yes/no) and country income level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: There were 835 (6.8%) participants who experienced COVID-19 related stigma during the pandemic and 3,824 (31.0%) participants reported PTSS. Respondents who were living with HIV (AOR: 1.979; 95%CI: 1.522-2.573), tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 3.369; 95%CI: 2.692-4.217), engaged in transactional sex (AOR: 1.428; 95%CI: 1.060-1.922) and used psychoactive drugs (AOR: 1.364; 95%CI: 1.053-1.767) had significantly higher odds of experiencing COVID-19 related stigma. Individuals with vulnerability status (AOR:4.610; 95%CI: 1.590-13.368) and who experienced COVID-19 related stigma (AOR: 2.218; 95%CI: 1.920-2.561) had significantly higher odds of PTSS. CONCLUSION: Individuals with vulnerability status may be at increased risk for COVID-19 related stigma. Key and vulnerable populations who were living with HIV and who experienced stigma may be at a higher risk of experiencing PTSS. Populations at risk for PTSS should be routinely screened and provided adequate support when they contract COVID-19 to reduce the risk for poor mental health during COVID-19 outbreaks and during future health crisis with similar magnitude as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Perception
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 379, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, most Chinese college students were home-quarantined to prevent the spread of the virus. COVID-19-associated impact has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic symptoms disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the psychological processes that mediate this association. This study investigated the association between COVID-19-associated impact and PTSD and examined whether past stressful events, psychological resilience, and social support have mediating effects on this association. METHODS: The 12,397 valid responses from 31cities in China via an online survey assessed PTSD symptoms, past stressful events, psychological resilience, social support and social-demographic variables. AMOS was used to test the hypotheses of mediating effects. RESULTS: On the 39th day of the declared COVID-19 epidemic in China, 6.75% of the surveyed sample showed PTSD symptoms. A positive mediating effect of past stressful events was found between COVID-19-associated impact and PTSD, whereas psychological resilience and social support had negative mediating effects. The fit indices for the path model were found to be significant (ß = 0.28, p < 0.001), COVID-19-associated impact indirectly affects the risk of PTSD through mediating pathways (past stressful events → psychological resilience → social support) on PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be paid to the effects of past stressful events of Chinese college students who were home-quarantined during the COVID-19 epidemic, and strategies should also be implemented to improve social support and develop psychological resilience. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Southwest Minzu University.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Pandemics , Social Support , Students/psychology
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e939485, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic has caused varying degrees of psychological stress among medical students. This research explored the post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) of medical students in China and their relationship with positive coping and social support. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the form of cross-sectional online survey, 2280 medical students locked down at home were selected by random cluster method to investigate social support, coping style, and PTSS using the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), respectively. RESULTS This research found that the PTSS detection rate in medical students was 10.42% during the COVID-19 pandemic. The PTSS scores of females were significantly higher than that of the males. However, the PTSS detection rate in females (9.71%) was not significantly different from that in males (11.24%). Compared with those of the non-PTSS group, the total score and its all-factor score of social support, the total score of coping style and the positive coping score of the PTSS group were much lower, while the negative coping score of the PTSS group was much higher (P<0.01). Positive coping was positively correlated with social support, while positive coping and social support were negatively correlated with PTSS. The total effect of positive coping on PTSS was -0.310 (P<0.001), the direct effect was -0.128 (P<0.01), and the indirect effect was -0.182 (P<0.001). Social support played a mediating role between positive coping and PTSS, with the mediating effect accounting for 58.81% of the total effect. CONCLUSIONS Social support plays a mediating role between positive coping and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Objective support and positive coping are the 2 main protective factors of PTSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Students, Medical , Male , Female , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , China/epidemiology
5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 65(5): 378-386, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328237

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This observational study aimed to determine whether attachment style predicted first responders' mental health and resilience. METHOD: Data were from a treatment-seeking sample of first responders ( N = 237). Each participant completed six assessments measuring attachment, resilience, generalized anxiety, depression, suicidality, and posttraumatic stress disorder. RESULTS: On the attachment assessment, 25.3% were categorized as secure, 19.0% as dismissive, 25.3% as preoccupied, and 30.4% as fearfully attached. As predicted, securely attached participants had the lowest scores for generalized anxiety, depression, suicidality, and posttraumatic stress disorder and the highest scores on the resiliency measure, followed by dismissive, preoccupied, and fearfully attached participants. LIMITATIONS: These data are cross-sectional and causality cannot be inferred. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the importance of the study of attachment to psychotherapy and mental health treatment with first responders.


Subject(s)
Emergency Responders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology
6.
J Affect Disord ; 337: 50-56, 2023 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of COVID-19 infections has increased sharply and quickly after optimizing the COVID-19 response in China. In the context of this population-size infection, college students' psychological response is yet to be understood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate anxiety, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among college students from December 31, 2022, to January 7, 2023. The questionnaire included the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Impact of Event Scale (IES-R), and self-designed questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 22,624 respondents, the self-reported prevalence of anxiety, depression, insomnia, PTSD, and any of the four psychological symptoms appeared as 12.7 %, 25.8 %, 11.6 %, 7.9 %, and 29.7 %, respectively. The self-reported COVID-19 infection rate was 80.2 %. Changes in the place for learning, longer time online, not recovering after infection, a higher proportion of family member infection, insufficient drug reserve, worry about sequela after infection, future studies, or employment contributed to a higher risk of anxiety/depression/insomnia symptoms or PTSD symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression showed that those who spent more extended time on the Internet, recovered after infection, and had insufficient drug reserves were less likely to have PTSD than anxiety/depression/insomnia symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The study was a non-probability sampling survey. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety, depression, insomnia, and PTSD were common psychological symptoms among college students when infection went through a large-scale population. This study highlights the importance of continuing to care for the psychological symptoms of college students, especially timely responses to their concerns related to the epidemic situation and COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Students/psychology , China/epidemiology
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1153820, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327164

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the end of 2019, Corona Virus Disease 2019, also known as COVID-19, has broken out in various countries. However, the change of China's COVID-19 prevention and control policy and the sharp increase in the number of infected people are making the teenagers have post-traumatic reactions. Negative post-traumatic reactions include: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety. Positive post-traumatic reaction mainly refers to post-traumatic growth (PTG). The purpose of this study is to explore the post-traumatic reaction, which refers to PTSD, depression, anxiety and the co-occurrence pattern of growth after trauma and to further explore the influence of family function on different categories of Post-traumatic Reactions. Methods: Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to explore the co-occurrence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and PTG. Multiple logistics regression was used to analyze the influence of family function on different categories of post-traumatic response. Results: There were three categories of post-traumatic reactions in adolescents infected with COVID-19 adolescents infected with COVID-19, namely: growth class, struggling class, and pain class. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that the growth class and struggling class were affected by problem solving and behavior control in family function, while the growth class and pain class were affected by problem solving, roles, behavior control, and general functioning. Multiple logistic regression showed that the growth class and struggling class were affected by problem solving and roles. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide evidence for the identification of high-risk individuals and the provision of effective interventions in clinical practice, as well as the influence of family functioning on the different categories of PTSD among adolescents infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , East Asian People , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Pain
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 91(5): 267-279, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Measurement-based care is designed to track symptom levels during treatment and leverage clinically significant change benchmarks to improve quality and outcomes. Though the Veterans Health Administration promotes monitoring progress within posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clinical teams, actionability of data is diminished by a lack of population-based benchmarks for clinically significant change. We reported the state of repeated measurement within PTSD clinical teams, generated benchmarks, and examined outcomes based on these benchmarks. METHOD: PTSD Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition data were culled from the Corporate Data Warehouse from the pre-COVID-19 year for Veterans who received at least eight sessions in 14 weeks (episode of care [EOC] cohort) and those who received sporadic care (modal cohort). We used the Jacobson and Truax (1991) approach to generate clinically significant change benchmarks at clinic, regional, and national levels and calculated the frequency of cases that deteriorated, were unchanged, improved, or probably recovered, using our generated benchmarks and benchmarks from a recent study, for both cohorts. RESULTS: Both the number of repeated measurements and the cases who had multisession care in the Corporate Data Warehouse were very low. Clinically significant change benchmarks were similar across locality levels. The modal cohort had worse outcomes than the EOC cohort. CONCLUSIONS: National benchmarks for clinically significant change could improve the actionability of assessment data for measurement-based care. Benchmarks created using data from Veterans who received multisession care had better outcomes than those receiving sporadic care. Measurement-based care in PTSD clinical teams is hampered by low rates of repeated assessments of outcome. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Veterans , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Benchmarking , Metadata
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318309

ABSTRACT

The current study examined the psychometric properties of a short form of the trait scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants consisted of a convenience sample of students (n = 322) who completed the five-item version of the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, the nine-item version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. We used classical test theory and item response theory (Rasch and Mokken analyses) to examine the psychometric properties of a previously proposed five-item version of this scale. These approaches confirmed that the five-item measure of anxiety had satisfactory reliability and validity, and also confirmed that the five items comprised a unidimensional scale.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , South Africa , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Psychometrics/methods
10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e410, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Frontline healthcare workers (FHCWs) exposed to COVID-19 patients are at an increased risk of developing psychological burden. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mental health symptoms and associated factors among Mexican FHCWs attending COVID-19 patients. METHODS: FHCWs, including attending physicians, residents/fellows, and nurses providing care to COVID-19 patients at a private hospital in Monterrey, Mexico, were invited to answer an online survey between August 28, and November 30, 2020. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Multivariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with each outcome. RESULTS: 131 FHCWs, 43.5% attending physicians, 19.8% residents/fellows, and 36.6% nurses were included. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia was 36%, 21%, 23%, and 24% respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that residents/fellows and nurses reported more depression and insomnia than attending physicians. Although not significant, residents/fellows were more likely to experience all symptoms than nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican FHCWs, especially nurses and residents/fellows, experienced a significant psychological burden while attending to COVID-19 patients. Tailored interventions providing support to FHCWs during future outbreaks are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Prevalence , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals
11.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 188, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 survivors may present long-term cognitive and emotional difficulties after hospital discharge. This study aims to characterize the neuropsychological dysfunction of COVID-19 survivors 12 months after ICU discharge, and to study whether the use of a measure of perceived cognitive deficit allows the detection of objective cognitive impairment. We also explore the relationship between demographic, clinical and emotional factors, and both objective and subjective cognitive deficits. METHODS: Critically ill COVID-19 survivors from two medical ICUs underwent cognitive and emotional assessment one year after discharge. The perception of cognitive deficit and emotional state was screened through self-rated questionnaires (Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Davidson Trauma Scale), and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was carried out. Demographic and clinical data from ICU admission were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Out of eighty participants included in the final analysis, 31.3% were women, 61.3% received mechanical ventilation and the median age of patients was 60.73 years. Objective cognitive impairment was observed in 30% of COVID-19 survivors. The worst performance was detected in executive functions, processing speed and recognition memory. Almost one in three patients manifested cognitive complaints, and 22.5%, 26.3% and 27.5% reported anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, respectively. No significant differences were found in the perception of cognitive deficit between patients with and without objective cognitive impairment. Gender and PTSD symptomatology were significantly associated with perceived cognitive deficit, and cognitive reserve with objective cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of COVID-19 survivors suffered objective cognitive impairment with a frontal-subcortical dysfunction 12 months after ICU discharge. Emotional disturbances and perceived cognitive deficits were common. Female gender and PTSD symptoms emerged as predictive factors for perceiving worse cognitive performance. Cognitive reserve emerged as a protective factor for objective cognitive functioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04422444; June 9, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cognition , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Survivors
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306857

ABSTRACT

A substantial number of survivors of disasters, pandemics, and other severe stressors develop persistent distress that impairs mental health and well-being. However, only a few brief psychological interventions target distress or subclinical symptoms. This systematic review aimed to identify and describe brief psychological interventions to reduce distress or subclinical symptoms in survivors of disasters, pandemics, and other severe stressors. Based on a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PTSDpubs, and Web of Science), we reviewed published studies and study protocols on self-help, psychosocial support, or brief psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce distress and/or subclinical symptoms following natural hazards and man-made disasters, pandemics, or other traumatic events. We included 27 published studies or study protocols (n = 15 RCTs, n = 3 controlled pre-post studies, and n = 9 uncontrolled pre-post studies) describing 22 interventions. We found evidence for reducing psychological distress and/or subclinical symptoms in 9 out of 15 RCTs, 2 out of 3 controlled pre-post studies, and 9 out of 9 uncontrolled pre-post studies. One RCT provided evidence of increasing well-being. Innovative brief interventions have been developed to reduce distress and/or subclinical symptoms that have an emerging evidence base.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Crisis Intervention , Psychosocial Intervention , Pandemics
14.
J Health Commun ; 27(7): 471-483, 2022 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299078

ABSTRACT

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been portrayed in media in a skewed way such that the coverage overrepresents combat-precipitated trauma and neglects to communicate treatment options, which has direct implications for people with PTSD. Given the traumatic nature of contemporary events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of social movements concerning traumatic violence such as #MeToo and Black Lives Matter, this study examines if media coverage of PTSD has evolved to account for these changes. We specifically examined sourcing and framing in PTSD news coverage published by The New York Times from 1999 to 2020 using quantitative content analysis. The findings indicate that the coverage overrepresents combat trauma and neglects to communicate treatment options; favors men over women in sourcing of the news stories; and uses more thematic, compared to episodic framing. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Male , Female , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Mental Health , New York , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
15.
PLoS Med ; 20(4): e1004206, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There remains uncertainty about the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health. This umbrella review provides a comprehensive overview of the association between the pandemic and common mental disorders. We qualitatively summarized evidence from reviews with meta-analyses of individual study-data in the general population, healthcare workers, and specific at-risk populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic search was carried out in 5 databases for peer-reviewed systematic reviews with meta-analyses of prevalence of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the pandemic published between December 31, 2019 until August 12, 2022. We identified 123 reviews of which 7 provided standardized mean differences (SMDs) either from longitudinal pre- to during pandemic study-data or from cross-sectional study-data compared to matched pre-pandemic data. Methodological quality rated with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews checklist scores (AMSTAR 2) instrument was generally low to moderate. Small but significant increases of depression, anxiety, and/or general mental health symptoms were reported in the general population, in people with preexisting physical health conditions, and in children (3 reviews; SMDs ranged from 0.11 to 0.28). Mental health and depression symptoms significantly increased during periods of social restrictions (1 review; SMDs of 0.41 and 0.83, respectively) but anxiety symptoms did not (SMD: 0.26). Increases of depression symptoms were generally larger and longer-lasting during the pandemic (3 reviews; SMDs depression ranged from 0.16 to 0.23) than those of anxiety (2 reviews: SMDs 0.12 and 0.18). Females showed a significantly larger increase in anxiety symptoms than males (1 review: SMD 0.15). In healthcare workers, people with preexisting mental disorders, any patient group, children and adolescents, and in students, no significant differences from pre- to during pandemic were found (2 reviews; SMD's ranging from -0.16 to 0.48). In 116 reviews pooled cross-sectional prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms ranged from 9% to 48% across populations. Although heterogeneity between studies was high and largely unexplained, assessment tools and cut-offs used, age, sex or gender, and COVID-19 exposure factors were found to be moderators in some reviews. The major limitations are the inability to quantify and explain the high heterogeneity across reviews included and the shortage of within-person data from multiple longitudinal studies. CONCLUSIONS: A small but consistent deterioration of mental health and particularly depression during early pandemic and during social restrictions has been found in the general population and in people with chronic somatic disorders. Also, associations between mental health and the pandemic were stronger in females and younger age groups than in others. Explanatory individual-level, COVID-19 exposure, and time-course factors were scarce and showed inconsistencies across reviews. For policy and research, repeated assessments of mental health in population panels including vulnerable individuals are recommended to respond to current and future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology
16.
Mil Psychol ; 35(3): 245-251, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304890

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound mental and behavioral health implications for the general U.S. population. However, little is known regarding outcomes for U.S. veterans, who represent a population with high rates of depression, stress, and e-cigarette use. One month prior to the pandemic-related closures (February 2020), 1230 OEF/OIF veterans (ages 18-40) completed an online baseline survey. Six months later, participants completed a follow-up survey (83% retention rate). Hierarchical negative binomial regressions were used to examine the relationship between baseline depression and past 30-day e-cigarette use at follow-up and whether baseline stress moderated this relationship. Veterans who screened positive for depression or who endorsed higher stress levels reported greater e-cigarette use at follow-up. Stress also moderated the relationship between depression and e-cigarette use, such that regardless of stress levels, a positive depression screen was associated with greater rates of later e-cigarette use. However, for those with a negative depression screen, higher stress levels were associated with greater e-cigarette use relative to lower stress levels. Veterans with pre-pandemic depression and stress may be at highest risk for e-cigarette use. Ongoing assessment and treatment for depression and promoting stress management skills for veterans in e-cigarette use prevention and intervention programs may be valuable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Vaping , Veterans , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Veterans/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 284, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Lebanon has witnessed its worst economic crisis, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and a massive explosion of its capital. Amidst these stressors, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing hemodialysis in an academic hospital destroyed by the explosion. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted 6 months after the blast included adults on hemodialysis, with no previous diagnoses of dementia or intellectual disability. It explores prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, in addition to other medical and psychosocial variables such as frailty, malnutrition, sarcopenia, quality of life and religiosity. RESULTS: Forty two patients (mean age 66.1; SD: 11.2 years) undergoing hemodialysis for 6.12 years (SD:7.22 years) were included. Anxiety and depression rates reached 54.8% and 57.1% using cut-offs of 6 and 7 respectively on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale. 9.5% of the patients reported being in the hospital at the time of the blast and 7.1% reported being injured. 33.3% screened positively for PTSD using a cut-off of 23 on the PCL-5. 26.2% had passive death wishes and 7.1% had suicide plans, however no one had attempted it. 23.8% were found cognitively impaired as shown by the Mini-Cog (<3). Around two-third of participants were moderately to severely malnourished per the GLIM criteria. One third suffered from frailty, according to the FRAIL screening tool. Around 60% suffered from sarcopenia, based on handgrip strength measures. These findings contrast with "acceptable to good" quality of life subjectively reported by participants on the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. While one-third of participants participated in organizational religious activities, 88% reported significant subjective meaning of religion in their heart. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD, suicidality, and cognitive impairment were found to be alarming in the setting of an urban dialysis unit following a major explosion. Psychiatric disorders were found to be compounded with increased prevalence of malnutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. These findings urge healthcare providers to implement early diagnostic and intervention strategies to improve both mental and physical wellbeing of this vulnerable population, in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6785, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296421

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae in hospitalized Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may result in limited quality of life. The current study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after COVID-19 hospitalization in non-intensive care unit (ICU) and ICU patients. This is a single-center study at the University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Germany. Patients eligible were hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 2020 and December 2020. Patients were interviewed 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Questionnaires included the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 5 Level (EQ-5D-5L), patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the generalized anxiety disorder 7 scale (GAD-7), FACIT fatigue scale, perceived stress scale (PSS-10) and posttraumatic symptom scale 10 (PTSS-10). 85 patients were included in the study. The EQ5D-5L-Index significantly differed between non-ICU (0.78 ± 0.33 and 0.84 ± 0.23) and ICU (0.71 ± 0.27; 0.74 ± 0.2) patients after 3- and 12-months. Of non-ICU 87% and 80% of ICU survivors lived at home without support after 12 months. One-third of ICU and half of the non-ICU patients returned to work. A higher percentage of ICU patients was limited in their activities of daily living compared to non-ICU patients. Depression and fatigue were present in one fifth of the ICU patients. Stress levels remained high with only 24% of non-ICU and 3% of ICU patients (p = 0.0186) having low perceived stress. Posttraumatic symptoms were present in 5% of non-ICU and 10% of ICU patients. HRQoL is limited in COVID-19 ICU patients 3- and 12-months post COVID-19 hospitalization, with significantly less improvement at 12-months compared to non-ICU patients. Mental disorders were common highlighting the complexity of post-COVID-19 symptoms as well as the necessity to educate patients and primary care providers about monitoring mental well-being post COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Activities of Daily Living , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Fatigue
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300133

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in survivors of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome that needed ICU care; to investigate risk factors and their impact on the Health-Related Quality of life (HR-QoL). Materials and Methods: This multicenter, prospective, observational study included all patients who were discharged from the ICU. Patients were administered the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 5 Level Version (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, the Short-Form Health Survey 36Version 2 (SF-36v2), a socioeconomic question set and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to assess PTSD. Results: The multivariate logistic regression model found that an International Standard Classification of Education Score (ISCED) higher than 2 (OR 3.42 (95% CI 1.28-9.85)), monthly income less than EUR 1500 (OR 0.36 (95% CI 0.13-0.97)), and more than two comorbidities (OR 4.62 (95% CI 1.33-16.88)) are risk factors for developing PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD symptoms are more likely to present a worsening in their quality of life as assessed by EQ-5D-5L and SF-36 scales. Conclusion: The main factors associated with the development of PTSD-related symptoms were a higher education level, a lower monthly income, and more than two comorbidities. Patients who developed symptoms of PTSD reported a significantly lower Health-Related Quality of life as compared to patients without PTSD. Future research areas should be oriented toward recognizing potential psychosocial and psychopathological variables capable of influencing the quality of life of patients discharged from the intensive care unit to better recognize the prognosis and longtime effects of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Quality of Life/psychology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Survivors/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors
20.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study between March and May 2020 at the Lille University Hospital (France), including all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Psychological distress symptoms were measured 3 weeks after onset of COVID-19 symptoms using the Impact of Event Scale-6 items (IES-6). The evaluation of PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) took place 1 month later. Bivariate analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between PCL-5 scores and the demographic and health variables. The significant variables were then introduced into a multivariable linear regression analysis to establish their relative contributions to the severity of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: 180 patients were included in this study, and 138 patients completed the 2 evaluations. Among the 180 patients, 70.4% patients required hospitalization, and 30.7% were admitted to the intensive care unit. The prevalence of PTSD was 6.5%, and the predictive factors of PTSD included psychological distress at the onset of the illness and a stay in an intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PTSD in patients with COVID-19 is not as high as that reported among patients during previous epidemics. Initial psychological responses were predictive of a PTSD diagnosis, even though most patients showing acute psychological distress (33.5% of the sample) improved in the following weeks. PTSD symptoms also increased following a stay in an intensive care unit. Future studies should assess the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on patients' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
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