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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 578-586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic, which still continues to affect the whole world, has led to an increase in PTSD symptoms in societies, especially individuals who have been diagnosed with the disease and recovered are at significant risk for PTSD have been reported. Although it has been observed that PTSD symptoms of individuals who were infected in the past epidemics such as SARS and Ebola continued for a long time even after the epidemic, it is noteworthy that the studies conducted during the COVID-19 process do not focus enough on people who survived the COVID-19 disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect impact of positivity on PTSD symptoms of individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 and the role of rumination and fear of COVID-19 as potential mediators in this effect. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the study, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Ruminative Response Scale, Positivity Scale, and Fear of COVID-19 Scale were applied to 551 Turkish participants, who survived the COVID-19 disease. SEM-based mediation analysis was used to test hypothesized relationships. RESULTS: Mediating roles of fear of COVID-19 and rumination between positivity and PTSD were tested. Results indicated that rumination and fear of COVID-19 had a full mediating role in the relationship between positivity and PTSD. CONCLUSION: These findings pointed out that positivity might be an indirect protective disposition against COVID-19-related PTSD and might reduce risk factors associated with PTSD among COVID-19 survivors. Mental health practices for COVID-19 patients should aim to increase positive thinking, since they have ruminative thoughts about transmission of the virus and hospitalization process and these thoughts may lead to negative mental health conditions. In this sense, positive psychology-focused implementations can be organized for COVID-19 patients and survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Survivors/psychology
2.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S27-S30, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144162

ABSTRACT

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally life threatening or horrifying events. People suffering from PTSD are vulnerable for both physical and mental health. Objectives: To find out sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and to plot receiver operating characteristic curve taking Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview-Kid (MINIKID) as the gold standard and Child PTSD Symptom Scale 5I (CPSS-5I) as the newer diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021 at R. L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Kolar, Karnataka through telephonic interviews. All the data entered in Microsoft office Excel sheet, analyzed using the SPSSv22 (IBM Corp). Results: Sensitivity of the CPSS-5I was 56% and specificity was 96% compared with MINIKID. 83% and 85%, respectively, was PPV and NPV of the CPSS-5I compared with MINIKID. Area under the curve is 83.9% with P < 0.001 (72.5-95.2) indicating CPSS-5I is 84% sensitive proving to be a very good diagnostic tool for diagnosing PTSD. Furthermore, scores of 9.5 or 10.5 from CPSS-5I can be used as cutoff in diagnosing PTSD using CPSS 51. Conclusion: CPSS-5I is extremely well designed, helpful and functional tool used in diagnosing PTSD. With the current study showing CPSS-5I can be used in post-COVID PTSD diagnosis, it also provides cutoff which can be helpful in mass screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuropsychiatry , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , India
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277883, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dissociative experiences are psychological manifestations characterized by a loss of connection and continuity between thoughts, emotions, environment, behavior, and identity. Lebanon has been facing indescribable events in the last few years, including the COVID-19 pandemic, the Beirut explosion, a crushing economic crisis with the highest inflation rate the country has known in over three decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress symptoms from the economic crisis, the Beirut blast, the COVID-19 pandemic, and other mental health issues in a sample of Lebanese university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 419 active university students (18-35 years) from all over Lebanon (May and August 2021). The respondents received the online soft copy of a survey by a snowball sampling technique through social media and messaging apps. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES-II), the PTSD Checklist Specific Version (PCL-S), the Financial Wellbeing Scale, the Beirut Distress Scale, the Lebanese Anxiety Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the DES fitted best according to CFI, RMSEA and χ2/df values, but modestly according to TLI. The two factors were absorption and amnesia/depersonalization. Higher stress (Beta = 0.95) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.29) and from the economic crisis (Beta = 0.23) were significantly associated with more absorption. A personal history of depression (Beta = 6.03), higher stress (Beta = 0.36) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.27) and from the COVID-19 pandemic (Beta = 0.16) were significantly associated with more amnesia/depersonalization. CONCLUSION: Significant rates of dissociative experiences and their sub-manifestations (amnesia/depersonalization and absorption) were found among Lebanese university students, with remarkable co-occurrence of a traumatic/stressful pattern, whether on an individual (history of PTSD) or a collective level (Post-traumatic manifestations from Beirut blast, COVID-19 pandemic and/or economic crisis), or whether correlated to an acute single event or to certain chronic stressors, or even to a personal history of depression. Such findings must raise the attention to serious mental and psychosocial alteration in the Lebanese national identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Explosions , Economic Recession , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Amnesia , Students/psychology
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 706, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupation groups like police officers and fire fighters are exposed to a number of traumatic events which put them at a risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have found the prevalence of PTSD in police officers to vary between 7 and 19%. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in western setting with little research having been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among field police patrol officers serving in Kampala Metropolitan Police (KMP) North Region. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 392 field police patrol officers serving in KMP North Region. Diagnosis of PTSD was undertaken using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5. In order to assess for psychiatric comorbidities, the study used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of PTSD was 7.4%. An additional 62.5% had sub-threshold PTSD, which was defined as, the presence of at least one PTSD symptom but not meeting full criteria for PTSD diagnosis. The factors found to be significantly associated with PTSD were all related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidities, namely the presence of: a current major depressive episode (aOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.5- 14.8; p = .009); an alcohol use disorder (aOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 2.0-13.0; p = .001); and presence of dissociation symptoms (aOR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.0-22.2; p = .002). CONCLUSION: PTSD is one of the common psychiatric disorders experienced by serving police officers in Uganda. The tendency of PTSD in this group to co-occur with other psychiatric disorders means that any treatment program to address it should be part of a comprehensive multi-disorder mental health treatment programme in the police office.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Police/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 482, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133309

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk for physical illnesses and early mortality. However, we do not know if it also increases the risk for adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective cohort study, we examined associations of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders with risk for hospitalization and death in the 60 days following a COVID-19 infection in 228,367 U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) patients who tested positive for COVID-19 between February 2020 and August 2021 (age m = 60.6, 89.5% male). Generalized linear models estimated associations of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders with outcomes following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, adjusting for socio-demographic, medical, and behavioral factors. Among 228,367 VA patients, 25.6% had PTSD, and 28.2% had a psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. In the 60 days following a positive COVID-19 test, 15% of patients were hospitalized, and 6% died. Patients with PTSD had an increased risk for both hospitalization (adjusted relative risk, ARR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.15-1.21) and death (ARR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19) relative to those with no psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographics. Estimates remained significant when models were additionally adjusted for medical comorbidities and smoking. Patients with other psychiatric disorders also had an increased risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, with larger effect sizes than PTSD in older (≥65 years) but not younger patients. In this large-scale study of VA patients, individuals with PTSD, and other psychiatric disorders, had heightened vulnerability to severe adverse outcomes of COVID-19; thus, individuals with PTSD should also be considered at higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and potentially prioritized for vaccination, screening, and early treatment intervention for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): 934-941, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent did health care workers experience the pandemic as a severe stress event. METHODS: This cross-sectional evaluation of 8299 health care workers, representing a 22% response rate, utilized machine learning to predict high levels of escalating stress based on demographics and known predictors for adverse psychological outcomes after trauma. RESULTS: A third of health care workers experienced the pandemic as a potentially traumatic stress event; a greater proportion of health care workers experienced high levels of escalating stress. Predictive factors included sense of control, ability to manage work-life demands, guilt or shame, age, and level of education. Gender was no longer predictive after controlling for other factors. Escalating stress was especially high among nonclinical academics and clinical private practitioners. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest adverse effects on total worker health, care quality, professionalism, retention, and acute and chronic mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self-Assessment , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and alcohol, tobacco, or nicotine use are frequently associated conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a stressful situation globally and has worsened mental health conditions and addictions in the population. Our systematic review explores the links between PTSSs and (1) alcohol use and (2) tobacco or nicotine use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for studies published between January 2020 and 16 December 2021. We included studies published in English concerning adults or adolescents. Included articles dealt simultaneously with the COVID-19 pandemic, PTSSs, and alcohol, tobacco, or nicotine use. The reports included were cross-sectional, longitudinal, or cohort studies. We categorized the reports according to the population explored. Our main outcomes are the impacts of PTSSs on (1) alcohol use and (2) tobacco and nicotine use and their relation to COVID-19-related stressors (worries, exposure, lockdown, and infection, either of self or relatives). RESULTS: Of the 503 reports identified, 44 were assessed for eligibility, and 16 were included in our review, encompassing 34,408 participants. The populations explored were the general population, healthcare workers, war veterans, patients with substance use disorders, and other vulnerable populations. Most studies were online surveys (14) with cross-sectional designs (11). Every study explored alcohol use, while only two assessed tobacco use. In most populations explored, a high level of PTSSs was associated with alcohol use increase. COVID-19-related stress was frequently correlated with either high PTSSs or alcohol use. In healthcare workers, PTSSs and alcohol use were not associated, while COVID-19 worries were related to both PTSSs and alcohol use. DISCUSSION: 1. PTSSs and increased alcohol use are frequently associated, while COVID-19 worries might trigger both conditions and worsen their association. Alcohol use increase may represent either an inadequate way of coping with PTSSs or a vulnerability amid the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to PTSSs. As most studies were cross-sectional online surveys, longitudinal prospective studies are needed to ascertain the direction of the associations between these conditions. These studies need to be sufficiently powered and control for potential bias and confounders. 2. Our review highlighted that research about PTSSs and tobacco or nicotine use is scarce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tobacco , Nicotine , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Birth-related post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in 4.7% of mothers. No previous study focusing precisely on the stress factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic regarding this important public mental health issue has been conducted. However, the stress load brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic could have influenced this risk. METHODS: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of traumatic childbirth and birth-related PTSD and to analyze the risk and protective factors involved, including the risk factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a prospective cohort study of women who delivered at the University Hospitals of Geneva between 25 January 2021 and 10 March 2022 with an assessment within 3 days of delivery and a clinical interview at one month post-partum. RESULTS: Among the 254 participants included, 35 (21.1%, 95% CI: 15.1-28.1%) experienced a traumatic childbirth and 15 (9.1%, 95% CI: 5.2-14.6%) developed a birth-related PTSD at one month post-partum according to DSM-5. Known risk factors of birth-related PTSD such as antenatal depression, previous traumatic events, neonatal complications, peritraumatic distress and peritraumatic dissociation were confirmed. Among the factors related to COVID-19, only limited access to prenatal care increased the risk of birth-related PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the challenges of early mental health screening during the maternity stay when seeking to provide an early intervention and reduce the risk of developing birth-related PTSD. We found a modest influence of stress factors directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic on this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Parturition/psychology
10.
JAMA ; 328(12): 1199-1200, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084330

ABSTRACT

In this narrative medicine essay, a third-year family medicine resident on the threshold of his career meditates on the systemic racial inequities that stymie his ability to heal his most vulnerable and oppressed patients.


Subject(s)
Resilience, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 151: 399-404, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076448

ABSTRACT

Understanding correlates of COVID-19 vaccine intentions is critical for increasing vaccine uptake. Given associations of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with alterations in threat sensitivity and health behaviors, we hypothesized they could influence COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy and be important variables to consider in the design of vaccination campaigns. Data came from a longitudinal online study of 544 US adults with high levels of pre-pandemic trauma and PTSD, assessed in August/September 2020 and March/April 2021. Individuals reported socio-demographic factors, pandemic factors, lifetime trauma history and PTSD symptoms, and COVID-19 vaccinations or intentions. We estimated bivariate associations between socio-demographics, pandemic factors, and trauma and PTSD symptoms at baseline and follow-up with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance versus hesitancy (i.e., vaccinated against COVID-19 or willing to get vaccinated versus unsure or unwilling to get vaccinated) six months later. Multiple socio-demographics (e.g., race/ethnicity, income, education, political preference) and pandemic factors (e.g., perceived likelihood of infection, household COVID-19 infection) were associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (27.2% were hesitant). However, trauma history, PTSD symptoms, and other mental health factors were not associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance versus hesitancy. Socio-demographic and pandemic-related factors appear more important than trauma or mental health for understanding COVID-19 vaccine intentions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy
12.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2785, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has had a negative psychological impact on the medical staff. However, the long-term psychological effects of COVID-19 were still unclear. We aimed to assess the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among medical staff 2 years after COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, China. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in five general hospitals in Wuhan, China. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-5. Depression was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association among demographic variables, depressive indicators, and PTSD. RESULTS: In a sample of 1795 medical staff, 295 (16.40%) participants reported PTSD and 329 (18.30%) reported depression. After multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses, participants involved in COVID-19 clinical work, unsafe working environment, poor doctor-patient relationship, unhealth status, work dissatisfaction, and low family support were at a high risk for PTSD and depression 2 years after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Although it has been more than 2 years after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, the mental health of medical staff remains a concern. In particular, medical staff involved in the clinical care of COVID-19 patients showed a higher risk of PTSD and depression 2 years after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study may provide some useful suggestions for psychological interventions for medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physician-Patient Relations , Anxiety/psychology , Medical Staff , China/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071423

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed changes in the psychological health of students who were in the final year of their nursing degree during the COVID-19 pandemic and later served as nursing professionals in hospitals. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted over two periods of time (the first in April 2020 and the second 6 months later, in December 2020) with 296 students for a T0 baseline (rate response 68.83%) and 92 students for a T1 post-test sample (response rate 31.08%). The data were electronically collected using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, and a post-traumatic stress questionnaire. The mean age of the sample participants was 24.17 years (SD = 5.51), and 89.11% were female. During the pandemic, 14.11% of students showed scores that indicated depression, and 32.61% showed scores that indicated anxiety. In December 2020, 86.5% of the participants were working as nurses, and the percentages of those with anxiety (12%) and depression (4.3%) were significantly lower than in the first sample period. A total of 20.7% of the participants had post-traumatic stress. High scores for resilience were significantly associated with better quality of life and lower levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Conclusions: Although the percentages of participants with anxiety and depression decreased, they still presented with mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Students, Nursing , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Quality of Life , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066005

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, three out of four of the general population have reported experiencing violence. Governments should address solutions to violence and its effects on mental health. The study aimed to determine depressive, anxious, and posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the violence experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. The study was conducted with 18,449 Mexicans of 33 years (SD = 11.00, range = 18-59), with 12,188 (66.10%) being women, 3559 (19.29%) having COVID-19, 2706 (14.67%) seeking psychological care, and 5712 (30.96%) experiencing violence. Subjects completed the Major Depressive Episode (MDE) Checklist, Generalized Anxiety (GA) Scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) Checklists (PCL-5) programmed in a WebApp application. We assessed the dimensionality of the scales through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), the measurement invariance, and a structural equation model (SEM). In the total sample, 28.10% fulfilled the MDE criteria, and 42.30% had high levels of GA. In the sample of those experiencing violence, 48.40% met the MDE criteria, 61.70% had high GA symptoms, and 50% met the criteria for a PTS disorder. Experiencing violence was associated with GA and severe PTS symptoms when the discomfort had bothered them for over a month since the onset of these symptoms. Subjects who had experienced violence and had mental health symptoms seemed ready for treatment. Further studies will evaluate the effect of remote psychological care to help reduce the treatment gap.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Violence/psychology
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16921, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062266

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess postacute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome (PACS) symptoms according to the onset of the infection while evaluating the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on the symptoms of PACS. We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study in which nonhospitalized COVID-19 survivors and healthy controls were compared for the occurrence of PACS. The total number of patients in this study was 472. At 6-12 and > 12 months after the infection, COVID-19 survivors had a significantly higher incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety than the non-COVID-19 cohort. Furthermore, depression, cognitive deficit, tics, impaired quality of life and general health impairment were significantly more prevalent among COVID-19 survivors at < 6 months, 6-12 months and > 12 months than in the non-COVID-19 cohort. However, respiratory symptoms were significantly more prevalent among COVID-19 survivors only in the first 6 months after infection. In addition, cognitive deficit (OR = 0.15; 95% CI 0.03-0.87) and impaired quality of life (B = - 2.11; 95% CI - 4.21 to - 0.20) were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated COVID-19 survivors than among nonvaccinated survivors. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish the time that should elapse after COVID-19 infection for the symptoms of PACS to appear. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the possibility that COVID-19 vaccines might relieve PACS symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Survivors/psychology
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 532, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness that develops in some people after they have experienced a stunning, scary, or dangerous incident. Due to major disasters like as the Economic Crisis and the Beirut Blast, Lebanese people are struggling with a variety of mental health issues. The study objectives were to find the rate of PTSD and its association with stress, anxiety, depression, financial well-being and coping strategies among university students in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted between May and August 2021, which enrolled 419 university students from all districts of Lebanon. The PTSD Checklist-Specific Version (PCL-S) was used to evaluate manifestation of PSTD. RESULTS: The results showed that 132 (31.5%), 109 (26.0%) and 169 (40.3%) had PTSD from COVID, Beirut blast and economic crisis respectively. More avoidant coping (Beta = 0.52) and more anxiety (Beta = 0.62) were significantly associated with more PTSD from the Beirut Blast. More avoidant coping (Beta = 0.56), depression (Beta = 0.40) and anxiety (Beta = 0.49) were significantly associated with more PTSD from the economic crisis, whereas more financial wellbeing (Beta = - 0.31) was significantly associated with less PTSD from the economic crisis. CONCLUSION: Significant rates of PTSD were found in our sample of Lebanese university students, whether from the Beirut blast, or from the current economic crisis. Significant correlations of these PTSD rates were found with factors such as avoidant coping, depression, anxiety and financial wellbeing. Such findings must raise the attention to serious mental and psychosocial alteration endured by Lebanese youth that are still under fatal cumulative traumatic events, that were and even may be, intergenerationally and unintentionally transmissible, therefore, affecting not only the present, but also the future of a whole nation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Recession , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities
17.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 464-473, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate stress levels among the health care workers (HCWs) of the radiation oncology community in Asian countries. METHODS: HCWs of the radiation oncology departments from 29 tertiary cancer care centers of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Nepal were studied from May 2020 to July 2020. A total of 758 eligible HCWs were identified. The 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, and 22-Item Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used for assessing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify the causative factors affecting mental health. RESULTS: A total of 758 participants from 794 HCWs were analyzed. The median age was 31 years (IQR, 27-28). The incidence of moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress was 34.8%, 31.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. Severe personal concerns were noticed by 60.9% of the staff. On multivariate analysis, the presence of commonly reported symptoms of COVID-19 during the previous 2 weeks, contact history (harzard ratio [HR], 2.04; CI, 1.15 to 3.63), and compliance with precautionary measures (HR, 1.69; CI, 1.19 to 2.45) for COVID-19 significantly predicted for increasing anxiety (HR, 2.67; CI, 1.93 to 3.70), depression (HR, 3.38; CI 2.36 to 4.84), and stress (HR, 2.89; CI, 1.88 to 4.43) (P < .001). A significant regional variation was also noticed for anxiety, stress, and personal concerns. CONCLUSION: This survey conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that a significant proportion of HCWs in the radiation oncology community experiences moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. This trend is alarming and it is important to identify and intervene at the right time to improve the mental health of HCWs to avoid any long-term impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Radiation Oncology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(5): 567-575, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study of people with HIV (PWH) and those without HIV conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in 2020 examines the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on COVID-19 burden, defined as pandemic-related disruptions. METHODS: Data consisted of survey responses on PTSD among participants (N = 2434) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV (WIHS) cohorts. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to examine the association of PTSD with COVID-19 burden (overall and domain-specific burdens). Quasi-Poisson regression models were used to assess associations with the COVID-19 burden score and 2 domain-specific burdens: (1) changes in resources and (2) interruptions in health care. Analyses was adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, HIV serostatus, current smoking status, number of comorbidities, education, and study regions. RESULTS: Study participants were a median age of 58 (interquartile range, 52-65) years. In both bivariate and multivariable models, PTSD severity was associated with greater overall COVID-19 burden. PTSD severity was associated with the number of resource changes and number of interruptions in medical care. These findings were also consistent across cohorts (MACS/WIHS) and across HIV serostatus, suggesting a greater risk for COVID-19 burden with greater PTSD severity, which remained significant after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the impact of mental health on the burden and disruption associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, providing context specific to PWH. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease disruption to resources and health resource needs among these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(10): 525-535, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the traumatic stress and resilience of nurses who cared for patients with COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a high proportion of healthcare workers are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder after a pandemic. Resilience factors are believed to play an important role in the well-being of healthcare professionals. METHODS: This was a triangulated mixed methods study; a phenomenological qualitative approach with survey data was used to triangulate the findings, and sensemaking was used as the theoretical framework. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from the study: 1) phases of traumatic stress response to perceived threats; 2) honoring their sacrifice; 3) professional self-identity; and 4) sustaining resilience in a stressful work environment. Quantitative results on traumatic stress, general resilience, and moral resilience supported the themes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings will help leaders understand the potential for postpandemic mental health problems and the role of resilience in maintaining well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
20.
J Affect Disord ; 319: 638-645, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is considered as a prevalent outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to present a global picture of the prevalence of PTSD in high-risk groups for COVID-19 (HRGs-COVID19) and determine its risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies published between March 11, 2020, and October 11, 2021, in English, were searched in seven databases on the prevalence of PTSD in HRGs-COVID19. After screening the retrieved records, their quality was assessed, and the required data were extracted. R-4.1.3 software and random effect model with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to synthesize and analyze the data. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of PTSD in HRGs-COVID19 was 30 % (95 % CI: 21-39 %). The pooled prevalence of PTSD was significantly different in terms of the variables of data collection during the lockdown, gender, and data collection season (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses could not identify sources of heterogeneity. LIMITATIONS: The included studies did not cover all HRGs-COVID19 such as smokers and the elderly. CONCLUSION: Considering the higher pooled prevalence of PTSD in HRGs-COVID19 than the general population, COVID-19 patients, and health care workers, prioritizing this subgroup for prevention and treatment of psychological outcomes is highly recommended. Predicting and implementing psychological interventions early in the pandemic is more critical when applying restrictive measures and among HRGs-COVID19 women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Female , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Prevalence
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