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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
2.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(5): 1061-1067, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568217

ABSTRACT

The papers in this Journal of Traumatic Stress special issue on disproportionate adversity cover the gamut of discrimination traumas and stressors, including microaggressions, a more insidious forms of discrimination, and their often-devastating and wide-ranging mental health sequelae, in disproportionately affected disenfranchised groups. Discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation commonly confers cumulative and chronic effects. In the field of traumatic stress studies, several types of identity-linked traumatic events have been identified and empirically investigated as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-producing experiences. Collectively, the 13 papers included in this special issue raise questions about the definition, conceptualization, and categorization of various forms of explicit and implicit identity-linked trauma. These papers highlight the need for acceptance of a shared nomenclature and better differentiation of both causal and correlational associations with acute and chronic PTSD, depression, suicide risk, alcohol misuse, and other mental health outcomes. In this commentary, the discussion is extended to COVID-19, a disease that has been globally devastating for many. On multiple levels (i.e., physical, mental, emotional, economic, and social), COVID-19 has magnified the prepandemic fault lines of race, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. Applying a syndemic framework to the health impact of COVID-19 and, arguably, the most pervasive identity linked epidemic worldwide-systemic racism-brings perspective to the biological and social forces that are likely to be driving the convergence of COVID-19, systemic racism, and chronic health inequities, and may be informative in guiding evidence-based strategies for managing racial trauma in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Crime Victims/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Social Discrimination/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511836

ABSTRACT

Medical leaders have warned of the potential public health burden of a "parallel pandemic" faced by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. These individuals may have experienced scenarios in which their moral code was violated resulting in potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs). In the present study, hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to examine the role of PMIEs on COVID-19 pandemic-related difficulties in psychosocial functioning among 211 healthcare providers (83% female, 89% White, and an average of 11.30 years in their healthcare profession [9.31]) over a 10-month span (May 2020 -March 2021). Reported exposure to PMIEs was associated with statistically significant poorer self-reported psychosocial functioning at baseline and over the course of 10-months of data collection. Within exploratory examinations of PMIE type, perceptions of transgressions by self or others (e.g., "I acted in ways that violated my own moral code or values"), but not perceived betrayal (e.g., "I feel betrayed by leaders who I once trusted"), was associated with poorer COVID-19 related psychosocial functioning (e.g., feeling connected to others, relationship with spouse or partner). Findings from this study speak to the importance of investing in intervention and prevention efforts to mitigate the consequences of exposure to PMIEs among healthcare providers. Interventions for healthcare providers targeting psychosocial functioning in the context of moral injury is an important area for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Military Personnel/psychology , Psychosocial Functioning , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Veterans/psychology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Allied Health Personnel , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1984049, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506934

ABSTRACT

Background: Frontline healthcare workers, recovered COVID+ patients who had severe illness, and close others of COVID+ patients who have recovered or died are at risk for clinical levels of mental health symptoms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESTORE (Recovering from Extreme Stressors Through Online Resources and E-health) was specifically designed for this context. RESTORE is a transdiagnostic guided online intervention adapted from evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapies. Objectives: RESTORE was designed to address depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms associated with exposure to COVID-19-related traumatic and extreme stressors, and to overcome multiple barriers to accessing psychotherapies. Method: This paper describes the intervention components and platform, as well as the principles used to develop RESTORE. Current research and future directions in developing and testing RESTORE are outlined. Results: Preliminary data from an initial uncontrolled trial evaluating RESTORE in frontline healthcare workers is highly promising. Conclusion: We believe RESTORE has great potential to provide accessible, evidence-based psychological intervention to those in great need.


Antecedentes: Los trabajadores de salud de primera línea, los pacientes de COVID positivo recuperados que tenían una enfermedad grave y las personas cercanas a los pacientes de COVID positivo que se han recuperado o fallecido están en riesgo de presentar niveles clínicos de síntomas de salud mental en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19. RESTORE (por sus siglas en inglés: Recovering from Extreme Stressors Through Online Resources and E-health: Recuperación de estresores extremos a través de recursos en línea y salud electrónica) fue diseñada específicamente para este contexto. RESTORE es una intervención en línea guiada transdiagnóstica adaptada de terapias cognitivo-conductuales basadas en la evidencia.Objetivos: RESTORE fue diseñado para abordar la depresión, la ansiedad y los síntomas del trastorno de estrés postraumático asociados con la exposición a factores estresantes traumáticos y extremos relacionados con COVID-19, y para superar múltiples barreras para acceder a psicoterapias.Método: Este artículo describe los componentes y la plataforma de la intervención, así como los principios utilizados para desarrollar RESTORE. Se describen las investigaciones actuales y las direcciones futuras para desarrollar y testear RESTORE.Resultados: Los datos preliminares de un ensayo inicial no controlado que evalúa RESTORE en trabajadores de salud de primera línea son muy prometedores.Conclusión: Creemos que RESTORE tiene un gran potencial para brindar una intervención psicológica accesible y basada en la evidencia a quienes más lo necesitan.背景: 在 COVID-19 疫情背景下, 一线医护人员, 重症 COVID+ 康复患者以及已康复或死亡的 COVID+ 患者的其他亲友都有出现临床心理健康症状的风险。 RESTORE (通过在线资源和电子健康从极端应激源中恢复) 专为这种情况而设计。 RESTORE 是一种改编自循证认知行为疗法的跨诊断指导的在线干预。目的: RESTORE 旨在致力于 COVID-19 相关创伤性和极端应激源暴露相关的抑郁, 焦虑和创伤后应激障碍症状, 并克服心理治疗可得性的多种障碍。方法: 本文介绍了干预组成和平台, 以及用于开发RESTORE的原则。概述了开发和测试 RESTORE 的当前研究和未来方向。结果: 来自评估一线医护人员 RESTORE 的初始非对照试验的初步数据大有前景。结论: 我们相信 RESTORE 有很大的潜力为急需帮助者提供易得, 询证的心理干预。.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1982502, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504487

ABSTRACT

This special issue of the European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) presents the first studies published by EJPT on COVID-19. We present 26 qualitative and quantitative studies assessing the prevalence of trauma-related symptoms and psychopathology within specific vulnerable populations such as health-care workers, students, children, and managers, or more broadly at a country level with a diverse set of outcomes including post-traumatic stress, moral injury, grief and post-traumatic growth. Intervention studies focus on whether telehealth delivery of mental health therapy in the pandemic environment was useful and effective. It is clear that the pandemic has brought with it a rise in trauma exposure and consequently impacted on trauma-related mental health. While for many individuals, COVID-19-related events met criteria for a DSM-5 Criterion A event, challenges remain in disentangling trauma exposure from stress, anxiety, and other phenomena. It is important to determine the contexts in which a trauma lens makes a useful contribution to understanding the mental health impacts of COVID-19 and the ways in which this may facilitate recovery. The papers included in this Special Issue provide an important and much-needed evidence-based foundation for developing trauma-informed understanding and responses to the pandemic.


Este número especial de la Revista Europea de Psicotraumatología (European Journal of Psychotraumatology­EJPT) presenta los primeros estudios publicados por EJPT sobre COVID-19. Presentamos 26 estudios cualitativos y cuantitativos que evalúan la prevalencia de los síntomas y la psicopatología relacionados con el trauma en poblaciones vulnerables específicas, como trabajadores de la salud, estudiantes, niños y niñas, administradores o, en general, a nivel de país con un conjunto diverso de resultados que incluyen el estrés postraumático, el daño moral, el dolour, y el crecimiento postraumático. Los estudios de intervenciones se centran en si la prestación de telesalud de terapia de salud mental en el entorno pandémico fue útil y eficaz.Está claro que la pandemia ha traído consigo un aumento en la exposición al trauma y, en consecuencia, ha tenido un impacto en la salud mental relacionada con el trauma. Si bien para muchas personas los eventos relacionados con el COVID-19 cumplieron los criterios para un evento del Criterio A del DSM-5, persisten los desafíos para desenredar la exposición al trauma del estrés, la ansiedad, y otros fenómenos. Es importante determinar los contextos en los que un lente de trauma hace una contribución útil para comprender los impactos de COVID-19 en la salud mental y las formas en que esto puede facilitar la recuperación. Los artículos incluidos en este Número Especial brindan una base importante y muy necesaria, basada en la evidencia, para desarrollar una comprensión y respuestas a la pandemia informadas sobre el trauma.欧洲精神创伤学杂志 (EJPT) 的这期特刊介绍了 EJPT 发表的首批COVID-19相关研究。我们提供了 26 项定性和定量研究, 评估了创伤相关症状和精神疾病的流行情况, 特定易感人群 (例如卫生保健工作者, 学生, 儿童, 管理人员), 或更广泛的国家层面多种结果 (包括创伤后应激, 道德伤害, 悲伤和创伤后成长) 。干预研究重点关注在疫情环境中远程医疗提供心理健康治疗是否有用和有效。很明显, 疫情带来了创伤暴露的增加, 从而影响了创伤相关的心理健康。虽然对于许多人来说, COVID-19 相关事件符合 DSM-5 标准 A事件的标准, 但在将创伤暴露与应激, 焦虑和其他现象分开方面仍然存在挑战。确定在何种背景中创伤镜头对理解 COVID 对心理健康的影响以及可能促进康复方法做出有用贡献很重要。本特刊中包含的文章为发展对疫情的创伤知情理解和应对提供了重要且急需的循证基础。.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1924-1934, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced healthcare providers to reorganize their activities to protect the population from infection, postponing or suspending many medical procedures. Patients affected by chronic conditions were among the most affected. In the case of catastrophes, women have a higher lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those with endometriosis have higher anxiety levels, making them fragile in such circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in May 2020, we considered all women aged ≥18 years, followed up at our referral centre for endometriosis. Patients were sent an anonymous 6-section questionnaire via email, containing different validated tools for the evaluation of anxiety levels and the risk of PTSD. A multivariable linear regression was performed to assess the impact of patients' characteristics on the distress caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 468 women recruited, 68.8% were quite-to-extremely worried about not being able to access gynaecologic care, with almost one-third of them scoring ≥33 on the IES-R. Older age and increased levels of anxiety were associated with higher risks of PTSD (age: b = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.44; GAD-7: b = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.38 - 2.05), with up to 71.8% of patients with severe anxiety (GAD-7 > 15) having an IES-R score ≥33 suggestive for PTSD. Women who could leave home to work showed lower levels of PTSD (b = -4.79, 95% CI = -8.44 to - 1.15, ref. unemployed women). The implementation of telemedicine in routine clinical practice was favourably viewed by 75.6% of women. DISCUSSION: Women with endometriosis are particularly exposed to the risk of PTSD during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially if they are older or have higher levels of anxiety. Gynaecologists should resort to additional strategies, and telemedicine could represent a feasible tool to help patients cope with this situation.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the lives of women with endometriosis, who appeared to have a considerable risk of PTSD.Older age, higher anxiety levels and unemployment were independently associated with the risk of developing PTSD.Clinicians should develop successful alternative strategies to help patients cope with this situation, and telemedicine might represent an applicable and acceptable solution.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endometriosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometriosis/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the potential factors associated with mental health outcomes among Chinese adults during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: This is an online cross-sectional survey conducted among Chinese adults in February 2020. Outcome measurements included the three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-2), and two items from the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale. COVID-19 related factors, physical health, lifestyle, and self-efficacy were also measured. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS: This study included 1456 participants (age: 33.8±10.5 years; female: 59.1%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and PTSD symptoms were 11.3%, 7.6%, 38.7%, and 33.9%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, loneliness was associated with being single, separated/divorced/widowed, low level of education, current location, medication, more somatic symptoms, lower self-efficacy, and going out frequently. Depression was associated with fear of infection, binge drinking, more somatic symptoms, lower self-efficacy, and longer screen time. Anxiety was associated with more somatic symptoms and lower self-efficacy. PTSD symptoms were associated with more somatic symptoms, lower self-efficacy, higher perceived risk of infection, fear of infection, and self-rated more negative influence due to the epidemic (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems during the COVID-19 epidemic were associated with various biopsychosocial and COVID-19 related factors. Psychological interventions should be aware of these influencing factors and prioritize support for those people at higher risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Loneliness , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1980274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467269

ABSTRACT

Background: The management of the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic is all the more difficult when subjects suffer from a prior psychiatric illness. BV13 is a 54-month prospective longitudinal cohort study of 111 subjects who were present in the Bataclan concert hall during the November 2015 terrorist attack in Paris. Objectives: Our first objective was to investigate the association between stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic and PTSD symptoms, notably with respect to two positive risk factors: trait mindfulness and social support. The second was to explore how PTSD severity mediated the relationship between trait mindfulness and COVID-19-induced stress. Method: The primary endpoint was evaluated using the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI). PTSD symptoms were evaluated using the PTSD Check List Scale (PCL-5) during the sanitary crisis and two years before. Social support was assessed with a Likert scale that measured perceived support from family, friends and the workplace. Trait mindfulness was measured with the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Results: 54 months after the attack, a univariate analysis identified a significant positive correlation between COVID-19 stress (CPDI) and PCL-5 (r=0.77, p<0.01) scores, on the one hand, and significant negative correlations with FMI (r=-0.59, p<0.01), and social support (r=-0.28, p<0.01) scores, on the other hand. In the multivariate model, CPDI scores were closely associated with PCL-5 scores (p<0.01) after adjustment for FMI and social support scores. CPDI and FMI scores were significantly associated (p=0.05), but not CPDI and social support scores (p=0.89). The PTSD score was a strong mediator of the relationship between trait mindfulness (FMI) and COVID-19 stress (CPDI) scores. Conclusion: PTSD symptoms diminished the beneficial impact of trait mindfulness on stress related to COVID-19. Our finding highlights that subjects with previous experience of trauma need specific treatment for PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis.


Antecedentes: El manejo de las consecuencias psicológicas de la pandemia del COVID-19 es aún más difícil cuando los sujetos padecen de una enfermedad psiquiátrica previa. BV13 es un estudio de cohorte longitudinal prospectivo de 54 meses de 111 sujetos que estuvieron presentes en la sala de conciertos Bataclan durante el ataque terrorista de Noviembre del 2015 en Paris.Objetivos: Nuestro primer objetivo fue el de investigar la asociación entre estrés relacionado con la pandemia de COVID-19 y síntomas de TEPT, en particular con respecto a dos factores de riesgo positivos: rasgos de atención plena (Mindfulness) y apoyo social. El segundo fue de explorar cómo la severidad del TEPT mediaba la relación entre los rasgos de atención plena y el estrés inducido por COVID-19.Método: El criterio de evaluación principal se evaluó usando el Índice de Malestar Peri traumático COVID-19 (CPDI en sus siglas en ingles). Los síntomas de TEPT se evaluaron usando la Escala de lista de chequeo para TEPT (PCL-5) durante la crisis sanitaria y dos años antes. El apoyo social fue evaluado con una escala de Lickert que medía el apoyo percibido por la familia, los amigos y el lugar de trabajo. Los rasgos de atención plena se midieron con el Inventario de Mente plena de Friburgo (FMI en sus siglas en ingles).Resultados: 54 meses después del ataque, un análisis univariado identifico una correlación positiva significativa entre los puntajes de estrés por COVID-19 (CPDI) y el PCL-5 (r= 0.77, p<0.01), por una parte, y una correlación negativa significativa con los puntajes de FMI (r= −0.59, p<0.01) y apoyo social (r= −0.28, p<0.01), por otro lado. En el modelo multivariado, los puntajes de CPDI se asociaron estrechamente con los puntajes del PCL-5 (p<0.01) después del ajuste por FMI y puntajes de apoyo social. Los puntajes de CPDI y FMI se asociaron significativamente (p=.05), pero no los puntajes CPDI y apoyo social (p=.89). El puntaje de TEPT fue un fuerte mediador de la relación entre rasgos de atención plena (FMI) y los puntajes de estrés por COVID-19 (CPDI).Conclusión: Los síntomas de TEPT disminuyeron el impacto beneficioso de los rasgos de atención plena en el estrés relacionado con COVID-19. Nuestros hallazgos enfatizan que los sujetos con experiencias previas de trauma necesitan un tratamiento específico para los síntomas de TEPT durante la crisis COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mass Casualty Incidents/psychology , Mindfulness , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(10): 720-726, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is predicted to increase burnout in health professionals (HPs), but little is known about moral injury (MI) in this context. We administered the Moral Injury Symptoms Scale for Health Professionals (MISS-HP) and the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory via online survey to a global sample of 1831 HPs in April and October 2020. Mean MISS-HP increased from 27.4 (SD, 11.6) in April to 36.4 (SD, 13.8) in October (p < 0.001), with an accompanying increase in personal accomplishment (April: 4.7; SD, 3.1; October: 9.3; SD, 3.1; p < 0.001) and no change in other burnout subscales. In April, 26.7% of respondents reported at least moderate functional impairment from MI, increasing to 45.7% in October (p < 0.001). Predictors of MISS-HP included younger age and being a nurse. Odds of functional impairment were higher in respondents who were widowed, divorced, never married, or had direct experience caring for patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 has increased MI but not burnout in HPs; younger or unmarried individuals, nurses, and frontline workers may benefit from targeted outreach to reduce downstream effects of MI, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Aged , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): 913-920, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine the proportion and characteristics of traumatic injury survivors who perceive a negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their recovery and to define post-injury outcomes for this cohort. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated physical, psychological, and social stressors that may create a uniquely difficult recovery and reintegration environment for injured patients. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of moderate-to-severe injury completed a survey 6 to 14 months post-injury during the COVID-19 pandemic. This survey queried individuals about the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery and assessed post-injury functional and mental health outcomes. Regression models were built to identify factors associated with a perceived negative impact of the pandemic on injury recovery, and to define the relationship between these perceptions and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Of 597 eligible trauma survivors who were contacted, 403 (67.5%) completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent reported that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted their recovery and 24% reported difficulty accessing needed healthcare. Younger age, lower perceived-socioeconomic status, extremity injury, and prior psychiatric illness were independently associated with negative perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery. In adjusted analyses, patients who reported a negative impact of the pandemic on their recovery were more likely to have new functional limitations, daily pain, lower physical and mental component scores of the Short-Form-12 and to screen positive for PTSD and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is negatively impacting the recovery of trauma survivors. It is essential that we recognize the impact of the pandemic on injured patients while focusing on directed efforts to improve the long-term outcomes of this already at-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Survivors/psychology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess psychological effects of the initial peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on United States (US) medical students in clinical training to anticipate sequelae and prepare for future outbreaks. METHODS: Authors emailed a cross-sectional survey in April-May, 2020 to students in clinical training years at six US medical schools which included validated General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and Primary Care-PTSD (PC-PTSD-5) screening tools, and asked students about pandemic-related stress and specific concerns. Authors used quantitative and thematic analysis to present results. RESULTS: Of 2511 eligible students, 741 responded (29.5%). Most students (84.1%) reported at least "somewhat" increased levels of stress and anxiety related to the pandemic. On the GAD-7, 34.3% showed mild, 16.1% moderate, and 9.5% severe anxiety symptoms, with 39.6% demonstrating no/minimal symptoms. One quarter (25.4%) screened positive for PTSD risk symptoms. Top concerns of students chosen from a pre-populated list included inadequate COVID-19 testing, undiagnosed or asymptomatic spread and racial or other disparities in the pandemic. In thematic analysis, students' reactions to removal from clinical learning included: understanding the need to conserve PPE (32.2%), a desire to help (27.7%), worry over infectious risk to others (25.4%) and self (21.2%), and lost learning opportunities (22.5%). Female students were significantly more likely to report anxiety and PTSD risk symptoms. Asian students had a greater risk of moderate anxiety and those underrepresented in medicine (UIM) had greater risk of moderate and severe anxiety symptoms compared to white students. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial peak phase of COVID-19, over 60% of US medical students screened positive for pandemic-related anxiety and one quarter were at risk for PTSD. Female and UIM students were significantly more affected. Medical schools should consider broad support of students, and targeted outreach to female and UIM students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States , Young Adult
13.
Nurs Stand ; 36(11): 40-44, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320628

ABSTRACT

Moral injury may be experienced when a person perpetrates, witnesses or fails to prevent an act that conflicts with their moral values and beliefs. The concept of moral injury has its origins in the context of military personnel encountering ethically challenging decisions during armed conflict. The term has been applied to healthcare and moral injury is increasingly acknowledged to be a challenge for healthcare professionals. Nurses across all specialties and settings are frequently required to make or witness ethically challenging decisions about patient care. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased nurses' risk of sustaining moral injury. This article discusses the manifestations of moral injury and its associated risk factors, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also outlines various strategies that can be used to mitigate and/or prevent moral injury in nurses.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Decision Making/ethics , Nurses/psychology , Patient Care/ethics , Resilience, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Shame , Workforce
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003621, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, 235 million people are impacted by humanitarian emergencies worldwide, presenting increased risk of experiencing a mental disorder. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a brief group psychological treatment delivered by trained facilitators without prior professional mental health training in a disaster-prone setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) from November 25, 2018 through September 30, 2019. Participants in both arms were assessed at baseline, midline (7 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 1 week after treatment in the experimental arm), and endline (20 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 3 months posttreatment). The intervention was Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a psychological treatment of 5 weekly sessions, which was compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) consisting of a family psychoeducation meeting with a referral option to primary care providers trained in mental healthcare. The setting was 72 wards (geographic unit of clustering) in eastern Nepal, with 1 PM+ group per ward in the treatment arm. Wards were eligible if they were in disaster-prone regions and residents spoke Nepali. Wards were assigned to study arms based on covariate constrained randomization. Eligible participants were adult women and men 18 years of age and older who met screening criteria for psychological distress and functional impairment. Outcomes were measured at the participant level, with assessors blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was psychological distress assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, "heart-mind" problems, social support, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment. The hypothesized mediator was skill use aligned with the treatment's mechanisms of action. A total of 324 participants were enrolled in the control arm (36 wards) and 319 in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). The overall sample (N = 611) had a median age of 45 years (range 18-91 years), 82% of participants were female, 50% had recently experienced a natural disaster, and 31% had a chronic physical illness. Endline assessments were completed by 302 participants in the control arm (36 wards) and 303 participants in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). At the midline assessment (immediately after Group PM+ in the experimental arm), mean GHQ-12 total score was 2.7 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 1.7, 3.7, p < 0.001), with standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.4 (95% CI: -0.5, -0.2). At 3 months posttreatment (primary endpoint), mean GHQ-12 total score was 1.4 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 0.3, 2.5, p = 0.014), with SMD of -0.2 (95% CI: -0.4, 0.0). Among the secondary outcomes, Group PM+ was associated with endline with a larger proportion attaining more than 50% reduction in depression symptoms (29.9% of Group PM+ arm versus 17.3% of control arm, risk ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.002). Fewer participants in the Group PM+ arm continued to have "heart-mind" problems at endline (58.8%) compared to the control arm (69.4%), risk ratio = 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0, p = 0.042). Group PM+ was not associated with lower PTSD symptoms or functional impairment. Use of psychosocial skills at midline was estimated to explain 31% of the PM+ effect on endline GHQ-12 scores. Adverse events in the control arm included 1 suicide death and 1 reportable incidence of domestic violence; in the Group PM+ arm, there was 1 death due to physical illness. Study limitations include lack of power to evaluate gender-specific effects, lack of long-term outcomes (e.g., 12 months posttreatment), and lack of cost-effectiveness information. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a 5-session group psychological treatment delivered by nonspecialists modestly reduced psychological distress and depression symptoms in a setting prone to humanitarian emergencies. Benefits were partly explained by the degree of psychosocial skill use in daily life. To improve the treatment benefit, future implementation should focus on approaches to enhance skill use by PM+ participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03747055.


Subject(s)
Depression/therapy , Mental Health , Natural Disasters , Problem Solving , Psychotherapy, Brief , Psychotherapy, Group , Relief Work , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(4): 701-710, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303282

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals have experienced disruptions in social, occupational, and daily life activities. Individuals with mental health difficulties, particularly those with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), may be especially vulnerable to increased impairment as a result of COVID-19. Additionally, demographic factors, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity, may impact individual difficulties related to the pandemic. The current study examined the concurrent and prospective associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, broader anxiety and depression symptoms, and COVID-19-related disability. Participants recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 136) completed questionnaire batteries approximately 1 month apart during the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., Wave 1 and Wave 2). The results indicated that PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were all associated with increased COVID-19-related disability across assessment points, rs = .44-.68. PTSD symptoms, specifically negative alterations in cognition and mood, significantly predicted COVID-19-related disability after accounting for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as demographic factors, ßs = .31-.38. Overall, these findings suggest that individuals experiencing elevated PTSS are particularly vulnerable to increased functional impairment as a result of COVID-19 and suggest a need for additional outreach and clinical care among individuals with elevated PTSD symptoms during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Crowdsourcing/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113978, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275647

ABSTRACT

The aim was to examine the psychological effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women, as well as the factors influencing these effects. The study design was cross-sectional and the participants were 200 pregnant women. The first group called the Pandemic Group (PG) included 100 women who were evaluated with psychological assessment instruments during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second group titled Pre-Pandemic Group (PPG) consisted of 100 women who were evaluated prior to the pandemic. Perceived stress, prenatal concerns and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated and compared. Pandemic Group scored significantly higher than Pre-Pandemic Group in the depression dimension of the SCL-90, in the phobic anxiety dimension, and in the Perceived Stress Scale. In addition, insomnia, along with having recently suffered the loss of a loved one explained 25% of the score variance in the depression dimension of the SCL-90. Insomnia also explained 13% of the variance of the results found in the Perceived Stress Scale. The fear of contagion by COVID-19 increased the scores obtained in the phobic anxiety dimension, explaining 11% of the variance. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic could produce an increase in psychopathological symptomatology and stress, which can lead to negatively affecting pregnant women's mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Spain/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e34, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New recommendations regarding the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during delivery have changed the maternal birth experience. In this study, we investigated the mental perceived impact of PPE use during delivery on the development of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study concerning women who delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic first lockdown period in Israel. Postpartum women were approached and asked to complete a comprehensive online questionnaire. Impact of PPE was graded on a scale of 1-5, and Impact of PPE ≥4 was considered high. PPD and PTSS were assessed using the EPDS and City BiTS questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 421 parturients, 36 (9%) reported high Impact of PPE. Parturients with high Impact of PPE had significantly higher PPD and PTSS scores)EPDS 8.4 ± 5.8 vs. 5.7 ± 5.3; City BiTS 9.2 ± 10.3 vs. 5.8 ± 7.8, p < 0.05 for both). Following adjustment for socio-demographic and delivery confounders and fear of COVID-19 (using Fear of COVID19 scale), Impact of PPE remained positively correlated with PPD symptoms (ß = 0.103, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.029-1.006, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: When examining the risk factors for developing postpartum PTSS-experiences during labor and PPE were found to be significant variables. As the use of PPE is crucial in this era of COVID-19 pandemic in order to protect both parturients and caregivers, creative measures should be taken in order to overcome the communication gap it poses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Postpartum Period/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Israel , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(4): 691-700, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267467

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify the contributions of sociodemographic factors, psychological hardiness, and pandemic-related stressors to the development of peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examined the mediating contribution of peritraumatic distress with respect to the associations between PTSS and (a) individual characteristics and (b) pandemic-related stressors. A total of 1,238 participants (82.1% women, 17.9% men) aged 18-75 years were included in the study. Participants completed the Dispositional Resilience Scale, Peritraumatic Distress Inventory, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist. The results showed that 11.5% of participants scored above the clinical cutoff for peritraumatic distress, and 12.8% of participants scored above the clinical cutoff for PTSS. Regression models showed that higher levels of peritraumatic distress were statistically predicted by female gender, ß = -.12, p < .001; exposure to more than one stressor, ß = .21, p < .001; lower levels of commitment to people and activities, ß = -.12, p = .002; and resistance to challenges, ß = -.17, p < .001. Additionally, male gender, ß = .05, p = .007; younger age, ß = -.05, p = .005; lower levels of commitment to people and activities, ß = -.11, p < .001; lower ratings of hardiness with regard to challenge, ß = -.04, p = .043; and more severe peritraumatic distress, ß = .75, p < .001, predicted more severe PTSS during the pandemic. Peritraumatic distress mediated the associations between PTSS and both the number of experienced stressors and psychological hardiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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