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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 669022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771102

ABSTRACT

Chronic biological stress may adversely affect adolescents' physical and mental health, but insight in the personal and environmental factors that determine chronic stress is limited. We measured 3-month cumulative hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in 419 adolescents, participating in the Flemish Environment and Health Study. Adolescents' health and lifestyle characteristics, household and neighborhood socio-economic status as well as neighborhood urbanicity were assessed as potential determinants of HCC, using multiple linear regression models. We additionally explored heterogeneity of our results by sex. HCC were significantly higher in boys from densely populated neighborhoods, the association was not significant in girls. Accordingly, boys living outside cities had significantly lower HCC than boys, living in cities. HCC was significantly lower in adolescents with an optimal vitality, a measure of a positive mental health status. In adolescent girls, menarcheal status (pre-/postmenarche) was a significant determinant of HCC. Our findings are the first to suggest that residential urbanicity may have an impact on chronic biological stress in a general population of adolescent boys.


Subject(s)
Hydrocortisone , Adolescent , Female , Hair , Humans , Male , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Physiological
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264331, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long Covid is a public health concern that needs defining, quantifying, and describing. We aimed to explore the initial and ongoing symptoms of Long Covid following SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe its impact on daily life. METHODS: We collected self-reported data through an online survey using convenience non-probability sampling. The survey enrolled adults who reported lab-confirmed (PCR or antibody) or suspected COVID-19 who were not hospitalised in the first two weeks of illness. This analysis was restricted to those with self-reported Long Covid. Univariate comparisons between those with and without confirmed COVID-19 infection were carried out and agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to identify specific symptom clusters, and their demographic and functional correlates. RESULTS: We analysed data from 2550 participants with a median duration of illness of 7.6 months (interquartile range (IQR) 7.1-7.9). 26.5% reported lab-confirmation of infection. The mean age was 46.5 years (standard deviation 11 years) with 82.8% females and 79.9% of participants based in the UK. 89.5% described their health as good, very good or excellent before COVID-19. The most common initial symptoms that persisted were exhaustion, chest pressure/tightness, shortness of breath and headache. Cognitive dysfunction and palpitations became more prevalent later in the illness. Most participants described fluctuating (57.7%) or relapsing symptoms (17.6%). Physical activity, stress, and sleep disturbance commonly triggered symptoms. A third (32%) reported they were unable to live alone without any assistance at six weeks from start of illness. 16.9% reported being unable to work solely due to COVID-19 illness. 37.0% reported loss of income due to illness, and 64.4% said they were unable to perform usual activities/duties. Acute systems clustered broadly into two groups: a majority cluster (n = 2235, 88%) with cardiopulmonary predominant symptoms, and a minority cluster (n = 305, 12%) with multisystem symptoms. Similarly, ongoing symptoms broadly clustered in two groups; a majority cluster (n = 2243, 88.8%) exhibiting mainly cardiopulmonary, cognitive symptoms and exhaustion, and a minority cluster (n = 283, 11.2%) exhibiting more multisystem symptoms. Belonging to the more severe multisystem cluster was associated with more severe functional impact, lower income, younger age, being female, worse baseline health, and inadequate rest in the first two weeks of the illness, with no major differences in the cluster patterns when restricting analysis to the lab-confirmed subgroup. CONCLUSION: This is an exploratory survey of Long Covid characteristics. Whilst this is a non-representative population sample, it highlights the heterogeneity of persistent symptoms, and the significant functional impact of prolonged illness following confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. To study prevalence, predictors and prognosis, research is needed in a representative population sample using standardised case definitions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Stress, Physiological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(9): e28989, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730761

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to examine the methods of nursing students to deal with future anxiety and stress.It is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Turkey with 291 students in Çukurova University of Faculty of Health Sciences, Kahramanmaras Sütçü Imam University Health College and Batman University Health College Nursing Department in June 2020. Personal Data Form, Stress Coping Scale, State and Trait Anxiety Scale were sent online to students' smartphones and/or e-mails as data collection tools and it was collected this way.The mean age of the participants was 21.09 ±â€Š2.02 (years). 78% of respondents were women. 48.4% of the participants were students of Çukurova University. It was determined that 201 (69.1%) of the participants isolated themselves during the pandemic. It was found that 171 students (58.8%) spent 23 to 24 hours at home, whereas 284 students (97.6%) spent time with their parents/siblings. 47.4% of respondents stated that they had spent the pandemic watching a series/film. 47.1% of respondents had good family relationships. 50.2% of respondents had good relationships with college friends. 74.9% of respondents said they were happy. Women's trait anxiety scale scores were higher than men's (P < .05). Men have higher problem-Oriented coping scores than women (P < .05). Significant differences were found in the Status Anxiety Scale scores and trait anxiety scale scores according to self-isolation status (P < .05). A significant difference was found in terms of state anxiety scale and trait anxiety scale according to happiness status (P < .05). The problem-based coping scores of those who were happy with the Stress Coping Scale were higher than those who were not happy (P < .05). The state anxiety scale of the students was 42.54, and the trait anxiety scale was 45.16.Nursing students' status and sustained Anxiety Scale scores were moderate. It is important for individuals to have good family and friends and to be happy in the process of the Corona Virus Disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Stress, Physiological , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7772263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625636

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a world pandemic that has affected and continues to affect the social lives of people. Due to its social and economic impact, different countries imposed preventive measures that are aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease. Such control measures include physical distancing, quarantine, hand-washing, travel and boarder restrictions, lockdown, and the use of hand sanitizers. Quarantine, out of the aforementioned control measures, is considered to be more stressful for people to manage. When people are stressed, their body immunity becomes weak, which leads to multiplying of coronavirus within the body. Therefore, a mathematical model consisting of six compartments, Susceptible-Exposed-Quarantine-Infectious-Hospitalized-Recovered (SEQIHR) was developed, aimed at showing the impact of stress on the transmission of COVID-19 disease. From the model formulated, the positivity, bounded region, existence, uniqueness of the solution, the model existence of free and endemic equilibrium points, and local and global stability were theoretically proved. The basic reproduction number (R 0) was derived by using the next-generation matrix method, which shows that, when R 0 < 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable whereas when R 0 > 1 the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Moreover, the Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) method was used to study the correlation between model parameters and R 0. Numerically, the SEQIHR model was solved by using the Rung-Kutta fourth-order method, while the least square method was used for parameter identifiability. Furthermore, graphical presentation revealed that when the mental health of an individual is good, the body immunity becomes strong and hence minimizes the infection. Conclusively, the control parameters have a significant impact in reducing the transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Physiological , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/physiopathology , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological
5.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 283-287, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611428

ABSTRACT

We studied laboratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 against the background of chronic pathologies (cardiovascular pathologies, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus, and cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statins). A decrease in pH and a shift in the electrolyte balance of blood plasma were revealed in all studied groups and were most pronounced in patients with cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statin. It was found that low pH promotes destruction of lipid components of the erythrocyte membranes in patients with chronic pathologies, which was seen from a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity and significant hyponatrenemia. In patients with cardiovascular pathologies and allergy to statins, erythrocyte membranes were most sensitive to a decrease in pH, while erythrocyte membranes of obese patients showed the greatest resistance to low pH and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Drug Hypersensitivity/virology , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Hyponatremia/virology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology
6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 137: 105656, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586777

ABSTRACT

The current study assessed the associations between pandemic-related stressors and physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), for mothers and their children (N = 180) aged 5-14-years old (M = 8.91). The associations between maternal HCC and children's HCC and children's behavioral adjustment were also examined. Mothers reported on COVID-19-related behaviors and children's adjustment, and both mother and child participants collected and mailed hair samples between August and November of 2020. Results indicated that higher maternal HCC was correlated with living in a more urban environment, job loss, working from home, exposure to pandemic-related news, and social isolation. Child HCC was correlated with family job loss and social isolation. Mother HCC and child HCC were significantly associated, and this association was moderated by child age; younger children's HCC was more strongly associated with mothers' HCC than older children's HCC. Finally, maternal HCC was associated with greater child internalizing symptoms, but was not associated with children's externalizing symptoms. Child HCC was not associated with child behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hair , Hydrocortisone , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Emotions , Female , Hair/chemistry , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Mental Health , Mother-Child Relations , Mothers , Pandemics , Stress, Physiological
7.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(6): E940-E946, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients who were incidentally diagnosed with Covid-19 in the postoperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed 826 open cardiac surgeries in five tertiary centers. Most of the surgeries were elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (93.8%). A preoperative RT-PCR test and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were routinely investigated prior to surgery. We also investigated whether the patients already received Covid-19 treatment or had any contact with a Covid-19 patient in the last two weeks. We analyzed high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), d-dimer, and fibrinogen, which plays a main role in the activation of procoagulant state after surgeries. RESULTS: Acute lung injury related to Covid-19 activation was observed in 48 out of 826 patients (5.8%). The median age of 48 patients was 63.9±12.4 years. Euro-Score and body mass index (BMI) were 6.1±1.1 and 29.2±4.1kg/m², respectively. RT-PCR test results were positive in 29 patients (60.4%). We performed thoracic computed tomography (CT) in all patients with or without positive RT-PCR test results. Thoracic CT images showed that there was a different degree of ARDS (mild, moderate, and serious). The median time of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) was 93.2±14.6 min. in on-pump surgery (IQR, 68-155 min.). Common symptoms included dyspnea (N = 22; 45.8%) and fever (N = 12; 25%). Eleven patients needed readmission to ICU. Compared with non-admitted to ICU patients, ICU patients were higher comorbidities and severe laboratory abnormalities (eg, high blood d-dimer and fibrinogen). We also detected significantly low oxygen saturation, hypercapnia, and severe acidosis in readmitted patients. Radiologic investigations showed that there were severe ARDS with bilateral pneumonic infiltration resistant to medical treatment in 6 out of 11 patients who died (54.5%). CONCLUSION: Diffuse pneumonic infiltration related to Covid-19 may develop in asymptomatic cardiac surgery patients with negative RT-PCR test results. Immunologic disorders resulting from ECC, physiologic distress, and anesthesia may activate Covid-19 during the incubation period. We need randomized clinical trials to explain Covid-19 activation in the latent period of the virus, and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/diagnosis , Acute Lung Injury/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Period , Acute Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Physiological , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Virus Activation
8.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200336, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the most frequent words in interviews given by nurses during the coronavirus pandemic. METHOD: This is a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study, carried out with 45 interviews granted by nurses to newspapers of great circulation in Brazil and Portugal. The data were processed using the ATLAS.ti® software and analyzed using the word cloud tool. RESULTS: The seven most frequent words were: "home" (respect for isolation), "nurses" (valuing of the profession and structural problems), "patients/diseased" and "care" (referring to the severity of the disease), "family" (missing her own family/emotional stress) and "fear" (fear of contamination of oneself and others). FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The word cloud revealed how straining nurses' experiences have been and reinforced the urgent need to rethink nursing work and the risks faced. Reflections like this contribute to the construction of more valued nursing and public policies for the protection of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Critical Care/psychology , Emotions , Nurses/psychology , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Portugal/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Stress, Physiological
9.
J Cell Sci ; 134(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484823

ABSTRACT

Molecular chaperones play an important role during the response to different stresses. Since plants are sessile organisms, they need to be able to adapt quickly to different conditions. To do so, plants possess a complex chaperone machinery, composed of HSP70, HSP90, J proteins and other factors. In this study we characterized DJC31 (also known as TPR16) and DJC62 (also known as TPR15) of Arabidopsis thaliana, two J proteins that additionally carry clamp-type tetratricopeptide repeat domains. Using cell fractionation and split GFP, we could show that both proteins are attached to the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Moreover, an interaction with cytosolic HSP70.1 and HSP90.2 could be shown using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Knockout of both DJC31 and DJC62 caused severe defects in growth and development, which affected almost all organs. Furthermore, it could be shown that the double mutant is more sensitive to osmotic stress and treatment with abscisic acid, but surprisingly exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought. Taken together, these findings indicate that DJC31 and DJC62 might act as important regulators of chaperone-dependent signaling pathways involved in plant development and stress responses.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis Proteins , Arabidopsis , Abscisic Acid , Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480799

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was described as the principal component of the stress response 85 years ago, along with the acute-phase reaction, and the defense response at the tissue level. The orchestration of these processes is essential since systemic inflammation is a double-edged sword; whereas inflammation that is timely and of appropriate magnitude is beneficial, exuberant systemic inflammation incites tissue damage with potentially devastating consequences. Apart from its beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects, cortisol exerts a significant immunoregulatory role, a major attribute being that it restrains the excessive inflammatory reaction, thereby preventing unwanted tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the role of the HPA axis in the normal stress response and in critical illness, especially in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, a chapter will be dedicated to the findings from clinical studies in critical illness and COVID-19 on the expression of the mediator of glucocorticoid actions, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/virology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/virology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Critical Illness , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Humans , Stress, Physiological
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480794

ABSTRACT

Sugar transporters play important or even indispensable roles in sugar translocation among adjacent cells in the plant. They are mainly composed of sucrose-proton symporter SUT family members and SWEET family members. In rice, 5 and 21 members are identified in these transporter families, and some of their physiological functions have been characterized on the basis of gene knockout or knockdown strategies. Existing evidence shows that most SUT members play indispensable roles, while many SWEET members are seemingly not so critical in plant growth and development regarding whether their mutants display an aberrant phenotype or not. Generally, the expressions of SUT and SWEET genes focus on the leaf, stem, and grain that represent the source, transport, and sink organs where carbohydrate production, allocation, and storage take place. Rice SUT and SWEET also play roles in both biotic and abiotic stress responses in addition to plant growth and development. At present, these sugar transporter gene regulation mechanisms are largely unclear. In this review, we compare the expressional profiles of these sugar transporter genes on the basis of chip data and elaborate their research advances. Some suggestions concerning future investigation are also proposed.


Subject(s)
Membrane Transport Proteins/physiology , Oryza/physiology , Plant Proteins/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Oryza/microbiology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Sucrose/metabolism , Sugars/metabolism
13.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376993

ABSTRACT

Given the impact of pandemics due to viruses of bat origin, there is increasing interest in comparative investigation into the differences between bat and human immune responses. The practice of comparative biology can be enhanced by computational methods used for dynamic knowledge representation to visualize and interrogate the putative differences between the two systems. We present an agent based model that encompasses and bridges differences between bat and human responses to viral infection: the comparative biology immune agent based model, or CBIABM. The CBIABM examines differences in innate immune mechanisms between bats and humans, specifically regarding inflammasome activity and type 1 interferon dynamics, in terms of tolerance to viral infection. Simulation experiments with the CBIABM demonstrate the efficacy of bat-related features in conferring viral tolerance and also suggest a crucial role for endothelial inflammasome activity as a mechanism for bat systemic viral tolerance and affecting the severity of disease in human viral infections. We hope that this initial study will inspire additional comparative modeling projects to link, compare, and contrast immunological functions shared across different species, and in so doing, provide insight and aid in preparation for future viral pandemics of zoonotic origin.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Computer Simulation , Endothelium/physiology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Physiological , Viral Zoonoses , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Shedding
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 443, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376187

ABSTRACT

Since the Covid-19 outbreak, pandemic-specific stressors have potentiated the-already severe-stress load across the world. However, stress is more than an adverse state, and chronic exposure is causally involved in the development of mental and physical disease. We ask the question whether resilience and the Big Five personality traits predict the biological stress response to the first lockdown in Germany. In a prospective, longitudinal, observational study, N = 80 adult volunteers completed an internet-based survey prior to the first Covid-19-related fatality in Germany (T0), during the first lockdown period (T1), and during the subsequent period of contact restrictions (T2). Hair strands for the assessment of systemic cortisol and cortisone levels were collected at T2. Higher neuroticism predicted higher hair cortisol, cortisone and subjective stress levels. Higher extraversion predicted higher hair cortisone levels. Resilience showed no effects on subjective or physiological stress markers. Our study provides longitudinal evidence that neuroticism and extraversion have predictive utility for the accumulation of biological stress over the course of the pandemic. While in pre-pandemic times individuals high in neuroticism are typically at risk for worse health outcomes, extraverted individuals tend to be protected. We conclude that, in the pandemic context, we cannot simply generalize from pre-pandemic knowledge. Neurotic individuals may currently suffer due to their general emotional lability. Extraverted individuals may primarily be socially stressed. Individualized stress management programs need to be developed, and offered in a lockdown-friendly format, to minimize the stress burden caused by Covid-19 or future pandemics and to protect the most severely affected individuals from the development of stress-associated disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Personality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Physiological
15.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359299

ABSTRACT

Viral RNAs contain the information needed to synthesize their own proteins, to replicate, and to spread to susceptible cells. However, due to their reduced coding capacity RNA viruses rely on host cells to complete their multiplication cycle. This is largely achieved by the concerted action of regulatory structural elements on viral RNAs and a subset of host proteins, whose dedicated function across all stages of the infection steps is critical to complete the viral cycle. Importantly, not only the RNA sequence but also the RNA architecture imposed by the presence of specific structural domains mediates the interaction with host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), ultimately affecting virus multiplication and spreading. In marked difference with other biological systems, the genome of positive strand RNA viruses is also the mRNA. Here we focus on distinct types of positive strand RNA viruses that differ in the regulatory elements used to promote translation of the viral RNA, as well as in the mechanisms used to evade the series of events connected to antiviral response, including translation shutoff induced in infected cells, assembly of stress granules, and trafficking stress.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , RNA Viruses/physiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Response Elements , Biological Transport , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA Virus Infections/metabolism , RNA Virus Infections/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Stress, Physiological , Transport Vesicles/metabolism , Virus Replication
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e31295, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a high degree of psychological distress among health care workers (HCWs). There is a need to characterize which HCWs are at an increased risk of developing psychological effects from the pandemic. Given the differences in the response of individuals to stress, an analysis of both the perceived and physiological consequences of stressors can provide a comprehensive evaluation of its impact. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine characteristics associated with longitudinal perceived stress in HCWs and to assess whether changes in heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic nervous system function, are associated with features protective against longitudinal stress. METHODS: HCWs across 7 hospitals in New York City, NY, were prospectively followed in an ongoing observational digital study using the custom Warrior Watch Study app. Participants wore an Apple Watch for the duration of the study to measure HRV throughout the follow-up period. Surveys measuring perceived stress, resilience, emotional support, quality of life, and optimism were collected at baseline and longitudinally. RESULTS: A total of 361 participants (mean age 36.8, SD 10.1 years; female: n=246, 69.3%) were enrolled. Multivariate analysis found New York City's COVID-19 case count to be associated with increased longitudinal stress (P=.008). Baseline emotional support, quality of life, and resilience were associated with decreased longitudinal stress (P<.001). A significant reduction in stress during the 4-week period after COVID-19 diagnosis was observed in the highest tertial of emotional support (P=.03) and resilience (P=.006). Participants in the highest tertial of baseline emotional support and resilience had a significantly different circadian pattern of longitudinally collected HRV compared to subjects in the low or medium tertial. CONCLUSIONS: High resilience, emotional support, and quality of life place HCWs at reduced risk of longitudinal perceived stress and have a distinct physiological stress profile. Our findings support the use of these characteristics to identify HCWs at risk of the psychological and physiological stress effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , New York City , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(4): 325-329, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the experience of quarantine for international arrivals to South Australia requiring quarantine in a medi-hotel setting during the COVID-19 pandemic and to describe the range of evidence-based support services to mitigate the mental health impacts of quarantine. METHODS: A range of services targeted at physical and mental wellbeing were provided. Data from 533 adult respondents out of 721 passengers were included. The Kessler 10 was used to measure psychological distress at two time points. RESULTS: About 7.1% of respondents reported psychological distress at time one, reduced to 2.4% at time two. There was no significant difference in psychological distress by gender at either time point. The mean K10 score at time one was 13.6 (standard deviation=5.2) and the mean score at time two was 11.5 (standard deviation=3.1), with a significant reduction in mean scores (p<0.001) between the two time points. CONCLUSIONS: The level of psychological stress in repatriated Australians was low at arrival and improved further at the time of release from quarantine. Implications for public health: A collaborative multi-sector approach to provide support services for individuals in quarantine can mitigate risks to mental wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Status , Holistic Health , Mental Disorders/therapy , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Physiological , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South Australia , Young Adult
20.
Cell ; 184(11): 2797-2801, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241746

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted structural inequalities and racism promoting health disparities among communities of color. Taking cardiovascular disease as an example, we provide a framework for multidisciplinary efforts leveraging translational and epidemiologic approaches to decode the biological impacts of inequalities and racism and develop targeted interventions that promote health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Equity , Health Promotion/methods , Racism , Stress, Physiological/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/psychology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/immunology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Racism/psychology , Risk Factors , Sympathetic Nervous System/immunology , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology
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