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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 721-729, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636188

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother's and child's physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide an insight into mental well-being of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19 by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (N=330) completed questionnaires between 8 April and 6 May. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (N=1428). Mental well-being was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. Multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference=1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference=4.0 points). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women questioned during the COVID-19 pandemic showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a non-pandemic period in 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
3.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 741-749, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633693

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on societies and citizens worldwide, raising concerns about potential mental health impacts. We aimed to describe trajectories of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to before the outbreak, and to determine if trajectories were modified by pre-pandemic loneliness, poor sleep quality and mental health problems. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with 1836 Swedish university students entering the study before 13 March 2020, the onset of the pandemic, with follow-ups within three (FU1) and six months (FU2) of the outbreak. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate mean differences in symptom levels over time-periods, and to estimate potential effect modifications. RESULTS: We found small differences in mean levels of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) over time. Compared to before the pandemic, depression increased by 0.25 points of 21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.45) at FU1 and decreased by 0.75/21 (95% CI:-0.97 to -0.53) at FU2. Anxiety decreased from baseline to FU1 by 0.09/21 (95% CI: -0.24 to 0.07) and by 0.77/21 (95% CI: -0.93 to -0.61) to FU2. Stress decreased from baseline to FU1 by 0.30/21 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.09) and by 1.32/21 (95% CI: -1.55 to -1.09) to FU2. Students with pre-pandemic loneliness, poor sleep quality or pre-pandemic mental health problems did not have worse trajectories of mean mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom levels were relatively stable during the first three months of the pandemic, while there was a slight decrease during the summer months, probably due to seasonality effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweden/epidemiology , Universities
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632675

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US populations have experienced elevated rates of financial and psychological distress that could lead to increases in suicide rates. Rapid ongoing mental health monitoring is critical for early intervention, especially in regions most affected by the pandemic, yet traditional surveillance data are available only after long lags. Novel information on real-time population isolation and concerns stemming from the pandemic's social and economic impacts, via cellular mobility tracking and online search data, are potentially important interim surveillance resources. Using these measures, we employed transfer function model time-series analyses to estimate associations between daily mobility indicators (proportion of cellular devices completely at home and time spent at home) and Google Health Trends search volumes for terms pertaining to economic stress, mental health, and suicide during 2020 and 2021 both nationally and in New York City. During the first pandemic wave in early-spring 2020, over 50% of devices remained completely at home and searches for economic stressors exceeded 60,000 per 10 million. We found large concurrent associations across analyses between declining mobility and increasing searches for economic stressor terms (national proportion of devices at home: cross-correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.6 (p-value <0.001)). Nationally, we also found strong associations between declining mobility and increasing mental health and suicide-related searches (time at home: mood/anxiety CC = 0.53 (<0.001), social stressor CC = 0.51 (<0.001), suicide seeking CC = 0.37 (0.006)). Our findings suggest that pandemic-related isolation coincided with acute economic distress and may be a risk factor for poor mental health and suicidal behavior. These emergent relationships warrant ongoing attention and causal assessment given the potential for long-term psychological impact and suicide death. As US populations continue to face stress, Google search data can be used to identify possible warning signs from real-time changes in distributions of population thought patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/trends , Stress, Psychological , Time Factors , United States
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613363

ABSTRACT

In stressful situations such as the COVID-19-pandemic, unpleasant emotions are expected to increase while pleasant emotions will likely decrease. Little is known about the role cognitive appraisals, information management, and upregulating pleasant emotions can play to support emotion regulation in a pandemic. In an online survey (N = 1682), we investigated predictors of changes in pleasant and unpleasant emotions in a German sample (aged 18-88 years) shortly after the first restrictions were imposed. Crisis self-efficacy and felt restriction were predictors of changes in unpleasant emotions and joy alike. The application of emotion up-regulation strategies was weakly associated with changes in joy. Among the different upregulation strategies, only "savouring the moment" predicted changes in joy. Our study informs future research perspectives assessing the role of upregulating pleasant emotions under challenging circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Epidemics/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Virol J ; 19(1): 3, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. In many countries, general people reported the high level of depression, anxiety, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder during recent a pandemic. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of people who survived through this alarming situation of COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, seventy individuals (either gender) between the age of 18-60 years, who contracted COVID-19 previously and then recovered as indicated by negative PCR results, were included. Data was collected by using three tools: impact of event scale (IES-R), patient health questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) and corona anxiety scale (CAS). People with other systemic/mental disorders, ongoing malignancies, upper/lower motor disorders and inability to give consent were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 26.29 + 11.79. All the 70 responders suffered from COVID-19. Among these 23 (32.9%) were asymptomatic and 47(67.1%) had common symptoms related to COVID-19 53 (75.7%) responders also had symptoms post-recovery. Most of the people who suffered COVID-19 had mild depression. Twenty-nine participants (41.4%) reported the highest impact of this traumatic event on their mental health. After suffering from COVID-19, 74.3% reported no anxiety as measured through corona anxiety scale (CAS). CONCLUSION: High level of post-traumatic stress was seen among participants who recovered from COVID-19, especially those patients who were symptomatic. Mild depression and anxiety were also noted among them.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Survivors/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3396-3402, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The COVID-19 emergency may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with regard to people with MS (pwMS) chronic exposure to a wide range of challenging life events has been shown to be correlated with worsening of neurological symptoms, increased lesion burden on brain magnetic resonance imaging and relapses. The aim was to investigate perceived stress, depression, perceived social support, habits and behaviour changes in pwMS through COVID-19 in comparison to a control group. METHODS: A web-based survey was posted on SMsocialnetwork.com to investigate perceived stress (using the Perceived Stress Scale), depression (with Patient Health Questionnaire 2) and perceived social support (using Social Provision Scale 10 item) in pwMS and a control group through the COVID-19 pandemic. A secondary group of people with migraine was investigated. RESULTS: In all, 1286 answers from 612 pwMS and 674 control people were included in the final analysis. The answers from 318 people with migraine were included for a secondary analysis. A higher proportion of pwMS were depressed (43.1% vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001), had a high level of perceived stress (58% vs. 39.8%; p < 0.001) and felt significantly less social support (median 33 vs. 35; Q1-Q3 28-36 vs. 32-37; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. A higher percentage of people with migraine were depressed (50% vs. 43%, p = 0.04) compared to pwMS. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the negative impact that prolonged stress may have on clinical and radiological disease activity of pwMS, and bearing in mind that a beneficial effect has been demonstrated and achieved with stress management, it is suggested to promote stress control in these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a global mental health crisis has affected everyone, including students. The present study aimed to determine and investigate the relationship between health locus of control and perceived stress in students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran) during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study examined 250 students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. We performed simple random sampling and utilized the demographic information form, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLCS) by Wallston, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen to collect data. We analyzed data using the SPSS, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression model with an error level of 5%. RESULTS: The mean perceived stress was 30.74 ± 8.09, and 92.4% of the students had moderate and high stress levels. Among the components of the health locus of control, the internal health locus of control (IHLC) had the highest mean in students (27.55 ± 3.81). Furthermore, the internal health locus of control (R = - 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant inverse relationship, with perceived stress and the chance health locus of control (CHLC) (R = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant direct relationship. In the final regression model, the health locus of control and all the variables predicted 22.7% of the perceived stress variation in students during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the internal health locus of control was associated with a reduction of perceived stress, and the powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) was related to its increase in students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the uncertain future, in the present work, universities are suggested to design web-based educational interventions alongside the curriculum to further strengthen the internal health locus of control and thus help reduce their perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internal-External Control , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28333, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595522

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In addition to the implications that this pandemic has had on physical health, there are other circumstances that threaten the mental health of the population, such as lockdown measures to prevent the spread of the virus, uncertainty, and the increase in infections and deaths. For this reason, this study explored indicators of psychological distress in the Argentine population, as well as its relationship with sociodemographic and health variables.Cross-sectional observational study, with data collection from May to August 2020. A total of 1112 people over the age of 18 who responded to various measurement instruments through an online questionnaire participated. A bivariate analysis and logistic regression were carried out in order to determine predictive factors of psychological distress.The data revealed that 60.9% of the sample presented psychological distress. A greater number with this condition was observed in women, apart from younger people, with a greater number of symptoms associated with the disease and with worse self-perceived health. There was no evidence of association between psychological distress and contact with people infected with coronavirus disease 2019 or with material suspicious of being infected.This research provided an overview of the mental health status of a significant population sample in Argentina, months after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. These findings complement those found in other national and international studies, allowing the accumulation of evidence that states the need to demand to draw attention to the mental health of the population, especially the most vulnerable groups, on behalf of the public authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
13.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(1): 44-49, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among university students during the peak of COVID­19 pandemic in the Slovak Republic in December 2020. The secondary goal was to compare results with a study from 2018 at the same university. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was administered at the Comenius University in Bratislava. The final sample consisted of 1,786 participants (approx. 80 % females) with the mean age and standard deviation of M=21.15 and SD=3.53. An online battery of self-report measures of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, loneliness, and resilience was administered. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of moderately severe to­severe depression and anxiety were 34.3 % and 20.1 %, respectively. Depression and anxiety were associated with younger age, higher perception of stress, higher loneliness, and lower resilience. In comparison with 2018, we found a two-fold increase in depression and anxiety. The increase was present across most of the depression and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: The result of the study revealed elevated rates of depression and anxiety during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Slovakia. Various demographic and psychological factors were associated with more severe depression and anxiety among university students. Some subgroups of students are at the higher risk of mental health problems (Tab. 4, Ref. 26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Students
14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1356, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of breast cancer patients are severely psychologically affected by breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions on public life have additionally caused significant psychological distress for much of the population. It is therefore plausible that breast cancer patients might be particularly susceptible to the additional psychological stress caused by the pandemic, increasing suffering. In this study we therefore aimed to assess the level of psychological distress currently experienced by a defined group of breast cancer patients in our breast cancer centre, compared to distress levels pre-COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Female breast cancer patients of all ages receiving either adjuvant, neoadjuvant, or palliative therapies were recruited for the study. All patients were screened for current or previous COVID-19 infection. The participants completed a self-designed COVID-19 pandemic questionnaire, the Stress and Coping Inventory (SCI), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) Distress Thermometer (DT), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30, and the BR23. RESULTS: Eighty-two breast cancer patients were included. Therapy status and social demographic factors did not have a significant effect on the distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the DT pre and during COVID-19 pandemic did not differ significantly. Using the self-designed COVID-19 pandemic questionnaire, we detected three distinct subgroups demonstrating different levels of concerns in relation to SARS-CoV-2. The subgroup with the highest levels of concern reported significantly decreased life quality, related parameters and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This monocentric study demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected psychological health in a subpopulation of breast cancer patients. The application of a self-created "COVID-19 pandemic questionnaire" could potentially be used to help identify breast cancer patients who are susceptible to increased psychological distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore may need additional intensive psychological support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS-ID: DRKS00022507 .


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Female , Germany , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599154

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lifestyles and training of elite athletes around the world. The detrimental effects of lockdown periods may vary among individuals, as well as among sports and sexes. This study investigated the changes in dietary habits, and the predictors of perceived stress during lockdown and a "bubble" training camp. This cross-sectional, online survey involved 76 elite and world-class athletes from six able-bodied sports and nine parasports, all of whom were involved in a 30-day "bubble" training camp. Questions were asked on socio-demographics, training routines and wellbeing, perceived stress, and dietary habits, pertaining to "normal" training (prelockdown), lockdown training, and "bubble" camp training periods. Changes in perceived stress were trivial to small during lockdown compared to "normal" training, and trivial to moderate during a "bubble" camp, compared to lockdown. Para-athletes, males, older athletes, less experienced athletes, married individuals, and specific ethnicities appeared to be more detrimentally affected (increased perceived stress) by lockdown. These negative experiences, however, were largely reversed during "bubble" camps. During lockdown, more athletes reported increased evening snack consumption (+8%), later meal-times (+6%), decreased fluid intake (-6%), and no breakfast (+7%). These changes were reversed during "bubble" camps (12-18% improvements). Sport classification accounted for 16% of the increased perceived stress (p = 0.001) during lockdown. Overall, socio-demographic factors, improvements in training routines, well-being, and dietary habits explained 28% of the decreased perceived stress during a "bubble" camp. In conclusion, better dietary habits, training routines and well-being have implications for reduced perceived stress. During lockdown, "bubble" camps may be beneficial, but this observation may be a case-by-case consideration, and short split "bubble" periods are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Athletes , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
16.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 43(1): 1-2, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597032
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e051572, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 disease has affected more than a hundred countries worldwide and has exposed the population to an increase in mental health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the emotional impact of the pandemic from a gender perspective, as well as to study the modulating variables of that impact. DESIGN: A descriptive and cross-sectional study through the General Health Questionnaire scale and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale is developed. SETTING: General population of Spain was the target of this study PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 3801 adult subjects living in Spain, without diagnosis for Sars-Cov-2 virus infection during confinement. INTERVENTION: Data collection was carried out using an online questionnaire, from 26 March 2020 to 26 April 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: A sample profile description was obtained, regarding to the study variables. Later, a regression model was implemented in order to test the relationship between these variables, and to achieve a predictive model of psychological discomfort controlling the gender variable. RESULTS: The results showed that women, as compared with men, had increased psychological discomfort during confinement (t=-12.877; p<0.001; d=0.470). In contrast, significantly higher scores were observed on the SOC scale (t=6.336; p<0.001; d=0.231) in men, as compared with those obtained by women. CONCLUSIONS: Women have higher levels of psychological discomfort, increased concern about getting infected with COVID-19 and infecting others, as well as a lower level of SOC and perceived health. In addition, low levels of SOC predict greater concern about contagion and increased psychological discomfort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581752

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major source of stress for a majority of people that might have negative long-term effects on mental health and well-being. In recent years, video games and their potential positive effects on stress relief have been researched and "relaxation" has been an important keyword in marketing a certain kind of video game. In a quasi-experimental design, this study investigated the increase of average daily player peak (ADPPs) for the COVID period compared to the pre-COVID period and if this increase was significantly larger for relaxing games in contrast to non-relaxing games. Results showed a medium-sized increase of ADPPs over all types of games but no difference between relaxing games and non-relaxing games. These results are discussed in regards to their potential of presenting gaps between the current theoretical models of the influence of video games on mental health and actual observed player behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Video Games/psychology , Video Games/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Databases, Factual , Humans , Relaxation , Stress, Psychological
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) self-quarantine period, the transition to online-course has profoundly changed the learning modes of millions of school-aged children and put them at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations of the total screen/online-course time with asthenopia prevalence among that children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the associations were mediated by psychological stress. Methods: Asthenopia was defined according to a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q). We used CVS-Q to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 asthenopia-related eye symptoms of 25,781 children. Demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors, were also collected. Results: The overall asthenopia prevalence was 12.1%, varying from 5.4 to 18.2% across grade/gender-classified subgroups. A 100-h increment of total screen/online-course time were associated with an increased risk of asthenopia by 9% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09] and 11% (OR = 1.11), respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the proportions of total effects mediated by psychological stress were 23.5 and 38.1%, respectively. Age, female gender, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping 34-65 cm between eyes and screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise were all associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the influence of long total screen or online-course time on psychological stress increases asthenopia risk. The findings of this study have provided a new avenue for intervening screen-related asthenopia in addition to incorporating a reasonable schedule of online courses into educational policy.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
20.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 28(6): 1315-1316, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589143
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