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2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 374, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing whether and how pre-existing characteristics impact maternal responses to adversity is difficult: Does prior well-being decrease the likelihood of encountering stressful experiences? Does it protect against adversity's negative effects? We examine whether the interaction between relatively uniformly experienced adversity (due to COVID-19 experience) and individual variation in pre-existing (i.e., pre-pandemic onset) distress predicted mothers' pandemic levels of distress and insensitive caregiving within a country reporting low COVID-19 death rates, and strict nationwide regulations. METHOD: Fifty-one Singaporean mothers and their preschool-aged children provided data across two waves. Pre- pandemic onset maternal distress (i.e., psychological distress, anxiety, and parenting stress) was captured via self-reports and maternal sensitivity was coded from videos. Measures were repeated after the pandemic's onset along with questionnaires concerning perceived COVID-19 adversity (e.g., COVID-19's impact upon stress caring for children, housework, job demands, etc.) and pandemic-related objective experiences (e.g., income, COVID-19 diagnoses, etc.). Regression analyses (SPSS v28) considered pre-pandemic onset maternal distress, COVID-19 stress, and their interaction upon post-pandemic onset maternal distress. Models were re-run with appropriate covariates (e.g., objective experience) when significant findings were observed. To rule out alternative models, follow up analyses (PROCESS Model) considered whether COVID-19 stress mediated pre- and post-pandemic onset associations. Models involving maternal sensitivity followed a similar data analytic plan. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic maternal distress moderated the association between COVID-19 perceived stress and pandemic levels of maternal distress (ß = 0.22, p < 0.01) but not pandemic assessed maternal sensitivity. Perceived COVID-19 stress significantly contributed to post-pandemic onset maternal distress for mothers with pre-pandemic onset distress scores above (ß = 0.30, p = 0.05), but not below (ß = 0.25, p = 0.24), the median. Objective COVID-19 adversity did not account for findings. Post-hoc analyses did not suggest mediation via COVID-19 stress from pre-pandemic to pandemic maternal distress. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing risk may interact with subsequent perceptions of adversity to impact well-being. In combination with existing research, this small study suggests prevention programs should focus upon managing concurrent mental health and may highlight the importance of enhanced screening and proactive coping programs for people entering high stress fields and/or phases of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parenting/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological
3.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 77(8): 485-493, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nearly 0.7 billion workers are involved in the shift work system, leading to concerns about its potential impacts on the large-scale population mental health. This study aimed to synthesise evidence of the associations between matched chronotype and the risk of poor mental health among shift workers. METHODS: Six computerised databases were searched from inception to September 2022. Observational studies were selected if they reported any association between common mental health parameters and chronotype scores/types of shift workers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses checklist was followed. We extracted adjusted risk estimates to calculate pooled effect sizes and explore sources of heterogeneity. The study was registered in PROSPERO: CRD42022357437. RESULTS: Fourteen studies including 49 909 workers were identified. Ever shift workers had a higher risk of poor mental health than the day workers (pooled OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28; I2=14%, p=0.29), with the evening chronotype ever shift workers having a 1.47 times higher risk than those who worked during the day (pooled OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.91; I2=42%, p=0.16). Sensitivity analysis excluding studies with the highest risk of bias of each group demonstrated consistent findings. CONCLUSIONS: Evening chronotype ever shift workers have poorer mental health than shift workers with other chronotypes. Chronotype remains unrecognised in the contemporary rostering system, making it a hidden contributor to occupational mental health. Work-related physical and mental stresses may be prevented/mitigated with further investigation on optimising shift work schedule combined with individual chronotype preference.


Subject(s)
Chronotype , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Mental Health , Time Factors , Stress, Psychological , Sleep
4.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286636, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the corresponding lockdown have drastically changed our lives and led to high psychological distress and mental health problems. This study examined whether psychological factors such as loneliness, perfectionism, and health anxiety are associated with COVID-19 related anxiety and depression during the pandemic in young Korean adults, after controlling for various socio-demographic factors and early life stress. METHODS: A total of 189 participants (58.2% women) completed a cross-sectional online survey including the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 3-item Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and Whiteley Index-6. Hierarchical linear regression analyses with three blocks were employed to identify the factors that contributed to COVID-19 related anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that higher health anxiety was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 related anxiety (standardized regression coefficient, ß = 0.599, p < 0.001). Additionally, higher levels of loneliness (ß = 0.482, p < 0.001), perfectionism (ß = 0.124, p = 0.035), and health anxiety (ß = 0.228, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher depression scores. The three psychological factors explained 32.8% of the total variance in depressive symptom scores, after taking all covariates into account. CONCLUSION: The results showed that health anxiety was a risk factor for both COVID-19 related anxiety and depression in young adults. Loneliness was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the importance of identifying vulnerable individuals and encouraging psychological counselling and social connections to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
5.
Scand J Public Health ; 51(5): 648-655, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236903

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Detrimental effects on health and well-being were reported during the COVID-19-induced lockdown periods in several countries, but these associations have not been studied in small-scale island societies. This study aimed to examine the lockdown period's impact on general well-being, perceived stress and activity levels in the Faroe Islands. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from two extensive population-based surveys of the general health conducted in November 2019 (the pre-COVID survey; n=2906), and four to six weeks into the first national lockdown (the lockdown survey; n=1204). RESULTS: A larger proportion of participants in the lockdown survey versus pre-COVID survey displayed excellent/very good self-rated health (68.1% vs. 62.0%; p<0.001), and the same pattern was observed for reporting good quality of life (85.7% vs. 82.7%; p<0.05). These associations remained statistically significant in a logistic regression model after adjusting for characteristics for which varying impact of the pandemic has been shown. Indicators of health behaviour showed that larger proportions of participants kept active during the lockdown survey versus pre-COVID survey, and these differences were statistically significant for physical, mental and spiritual activities (p<0.001). On the other hand, similar stress levels in the pre-COVID/lockdown periods were observed, but stratified analysis showed that participants with a high-stress level displayed better self-rated health in the lockdown period compared to the pre-COVID period (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that self-reported health and quality of life improved during the early phase of the COVID lockdown, and individuals reported higher activity levels associated with good mental health during the COVID-19-induced lockdown period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quality of Life , Denmark , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(5): 888-894, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine psychological stress experienced by parents and posttraumatic emotional stress experienced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: The study has cross-sectional design and included parents who have 3- to 10 year-old children studying at kindergartens and primary schools under the Yozgat Directorate of National Education in Turkey, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The study was completed with 1,109 parents. School administrators were informed of the study and an online data collection form was distributed through parent WhatsApp groups. RESULTS: Fathers at or above the age of 37 were found to have lower Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10-PDS) scores (p < .05). In the study, K10-PDS scores of parents working as health care employees and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) scores of their children were significantly higher than those of other groups (p < .05). K10-PDS scores of parents with children in the 3-6 age group who had behavioral changes, increased screen usage, and disturbed sleep and diet were found to be higher than those of other groups (p < .05). According to regression analysis K10-PDS scores of parents significantly explained 34% of children's PEDS score (R² = .340) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study determined that COVID-19 causes children to experience posttraumatic stress disorder. In addition, the study found increased stress levels of parents and children experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
7.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 123(4. Vyp. 2): 44-51, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze neurological, psychological and psychiatric aspects of COVID-19, as well as to study the current state of the problem. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 103 patients with COVID-19. The main research method was clinical/psychopathological. To study the impact of activities related to the care of patients with COVID-19 in a hospital setting, the medical and psychological state of 197 hospital workers involved in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 was assessed. The level of anxiety distress was assessed with the Psychological Stress Scale (PSM-25), distress indicators corresponded to values of more than 100 points. The severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: When considering psychopathological disorders in the context of COVID-19, it is necessary to distinguish between two main groups of disorders: mental disorders during the pandemic, and mental disorders directly caused by the causative agent SARS-CoV-2. The analysis of psychological and psychiatric aspects in various periods of the initial stage of COVID-19 showed that each of them was characterized by specific features depending on the nature of the influence of different pathogenic factors. In the structure of nosogenic mental disorders in patients with COVID-19 (103 patients), the following clinical forms were identified: acute reaction to stress (9.7%), anxiety-phobic disorders (41.7%), depressive symptoms (28.1%), hyponosognosic nosogenic reactions (20.5%). At the same time, the majority of the patients had manifestations of somatogenic asthenia (93.2%). A comparative analysis of neurological and psychological/psychiatric aspects of COVID-19 showed that the main mechanisms of the impact of highly contagious coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2, on the central nervous system are: cerebral thrombosis and cerebral thromboembolism, damage to the neurovascular unit, neurodegeneration, including that induced by cytokines, and immune-mediated demyelinating nerve damage. CONCLUSION: Neurological and psychological/psychiatric aspects of COVID-19 should be taken into account both at the stage of disease treatment and in the post-infection period due to the pronounced neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and its effect on the neurovascular unit. Along with helping patients, an important aspect is the preservation of the mental health of medical personnel working in hospitals for infectious diseases, due to special working conditions and a high level of professional stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology
8.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 175, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233667

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Students pursuing higher education and health professional (HP) programs (e.g., nursing, pharmacy, social work, medicine) experience stressors including academic pressures, workload, developing professional competencies, professional socialization, the hidden curriculum, entering clinical practice and navigating relationships with colleagues. Such stress can have detrimental effects on HP students physical and psychological functioning and can adversely affect patient care. This study examined the role of perceived social support and resilience in predicting distress of Atlantic Canadian HP students during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared the findings to a pre-COVID population of age and sex matched Canadians. METHOD: Second year HP students (N = 93) completed a survey assessing distress, perceived social support, and resilience and open-ended questions on student awareness of supports and counselling available to them, their use/barriers to the services, and the impact of COVID-19 on their personal functioning. HP student responses were also compared with age and sex matched Canadian peers from data collected prior to COVID-19. RESULTS: It was found that HP students reported moderate to severe psychological distress, and while they reported high levels of social support on a measure of perceived social support they also reported that the COVID-19 pandemic made them feel isolated and that they lacked social support. It was found that the sample of HP students reported significantly higher psychological distress than the mean scores of the age and sex matched sample of Canadian peers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings call for creation of more tailored interventions and supports for HP students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Students/psychology , Social Support
9.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 29(2): 2155135, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has increased stress levels in GPs, who have resorted to different coping strategies to deal with this crisis. Gender differences in coping styles may be contributing factors in the development of psychological distress. OBJECTIVES: To identify differences by gender and by stress level in coping strategies of GPs during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based survey conducted with GPs in Catalonia (Spain), in June-July 2021. via the institution's email distribution list, all GPs members of the Catalan Society of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete a survey assessing sociodemographic, health and work-related characteristics, experienced stress (Stress scale of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-DASS 21) and the frequency of use of a range of coping strategies (Brief-COPE) classified as problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidant strategies, some of which are adaptive and others maladaptive. We compared the scores of each strategy by gender and stress level using Student's t-test. RESULTS: Of 4739 members, 522 GPs participated in the study (response rate 11%; 79.1% women; mean age = 46.9 years, SD = 10.5). Of these, 41.9% reported moderate-severe stress levels. The most common coping strategies were acceptance, active coping, planning, positive reframing and venting. More frequently than men, women resorted to emotional and instrumental support, venting, distraction and self-blame, whereas men used acceptance and humour more commonly than women. Moderate-severe stress levels were associated with non-adaptive coping, with increased use of avoidance strategies, self-blame, religion and venting, and decreased use of positive reframing and acceptance. CONCLUSION: The most common coping strategies were adaptive and differed by gender. However, highly stressful situations caused maladaptive strategies to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Adaptation, Psychological
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 31: e3851, 2023.
Article in Spanish, English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to analyze which technological variables, derived from the use of electronic devices, predict academic stress and its dimensions in Nursing students. METHOD: analytical cross-sectional study carried out with a total of 796 students from six universities in Peru. The SISCO scale was used and four logistic regression models were estimated for the analysis, with selection of variables in stages. RESULTS: among the participants, 87.6% had a high level of academic stress; time using the electronic device, screen brightness, age and sex were associated with academic stress and its three dimensions; the position of using the electronic device was associated with the total scale and the stressors and reactions dimensions. Finally, the distance between the face and the electronic device was associated with the total scale and size of reactions. CONCLUSION: technological variables and sociodemographic characteristics predict academic stress in nursing students. It is suggested to optimize the time of use of computers, regulate the brightness of the screen, avoid sitting in inappropriate positions and pay attention to the distance, in order to reduce academic stress during distance learning.


analizar cuáles son las variables tecnológicas, derivadas del uso de dispositivo electrónico, predicen el estrés académico, y sus dimensiones en estudiantes de enfermería. estudio transversal de tipo analítico, realizado en 796 estudiantes de seis universidades de Perú. Se empleó la escala SISCO y para el análisis se estimaron cuatro modelos de regresión logística, con selección de variables por pasos. entre los participantes, 87,6% presentaron un nivel alto de estrés académico; el tiempo de uso del dispositivo electrónico, el brillo de la pantalla, la edad y el sexo, estuvieron asociados con el estrés académico y sus tres dimensiones; la posición de uso del dispositivo electrónico estuvo asociada con la escala total y con las dimensiones estresores y reacciones. Finalmente, la distancia entre el rostro y el dispositivo electrónico estuvo asociada con la escala total y la dimensión reacciones. las variables tecnológicas y las características sociodemográficas predicen el estrés académico en estudiantes de enfermería. Se sugiere optimizar el tiempo de uso de las computadoras, regular el brillo de la pantalla, evitar sentarse en posiciones inadecuadas y vigilar la distancia, con la finalidad de reducir el estrés académico durante la enseñanza a distancia.


(1) Los estudiantes de enfermería presentan un nivel alto de estrés académico. (2) El tiempo de uso de la computadora es un predictor del estrés académico. (3) El brillo de la pantalla de la computadora es un predictor del estrés académico. (4) Tener entre 30 a 39 años y ser hombre es un factor protector del estrés académico. (5) Estudio realizado en seis universidades peruanas.


analisar quais variáveis tecnológicas, derivadas do uso de dispositivos eletrônicos, predizem o estresse acadêmico e suas dimensões em estudantes de enfermagem. estudo transversal do tipo analítico, realizado em 796 estudantes de seis universidades do Peru. Foi utilizada a escala SISCO e foram estimados quatro modelos de regressão logística para a análise, com seleção das variáveis por etapas. entre os participantes, 87,6% apresentaram alto nível de estresse acadêmico; o tempo de uso do aparelho eletrônico, o brilho da tela, a idade e o sexo foram associados ao estresse acadêmico e suas três dimensões; a posição de uso do aparelho eletrônico foi associada à escala total e às dimensões estressores e reações. Por fim, a distância entre o rosto e o dispositivo eletrônico foi associada à escala total e à dimensão das reações. variáveis tecnológicas e características sociodemográficas predizem estresse acadêmico em estudantes de Enfermagem. Sugere-se otimizar o tempo de uso dos computadores, regular o brilho da tela, evitar sentar-se em posições inadequadas e atentar-se à distância da tela, a fim de diminuir o estresse acadêmico durante o ensino a distância.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Humans , Stress, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities
11.
Korean J Med Educ ; 35(2): 125-141, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245048

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In February 2020, the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu, South Korea, and confirmed cases increased sharply, sparking intense anxiety among residents. This study analyzed the data of a mental health survey on students enrolled at a medical school located in Daegu in 2020. METHODS: An online survey was administered to 654 medical school students (pre-medical course: 220 students, medical course: 434 students) from August to October 2020, with 61.16% (n=400) valid responses. The questionnaire included items about COVID-19-related experiences, stress, stress resilience, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: Of the survey participants, 15.5% had experienced unbearable stress, with the most significant stress factors (in descending order) being limited leisure activities, unusual experiences related to COVID-19, and limited social activities. Approximately 28.8% reported psychological distress, and their most experienced negative emotions were helplessness, depression, and anxiety (in descending order). The mean Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores were 2.44 and 6.08, respectively, both within normal ranges. Approximately 8.3% had mild or greater anxiety, and 15% had mild or greater depression. For students under psychological distress, the experience of unbearable stress before COVID-19 affected anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 0.198; p<0.05), and having an underlying condition affected depression (OR, 0.190; p<0.05). With respect to their psychological distress during August-October 2020 compared with that during February-March 2020 (2 months from the initial outbreak), anxiety stayed the same while depression increased and resilience decreased at a statistically significant level. CONCLUSION: It was found that some medical students were suffering from psychological difficulties related to COVID-19, and there were several risk factors for them. This finding suggests that medical schools need to not only develop academic management systems but also provide programs that can help students manage their mental health and emotions in preparation for an infectious disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Students, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
12.
BMC Med Ethics ; 24(1): 40, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic causes moral challenges and moral distress for healthcare professionals and, due to an increased work load, reduces time and opportunities for clinical ethics support services. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals could also identify essential elements to maintain or change in the future, as moral distress and moral challenges can indicate opportunities to strengthen moral resilience of healthcare professionals and organisations. This study describes 1) the experienced moral distress, challenges and ethical climate concerning end-of-life care of Intensive Care Unit staff during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and 2) their positive experiences and lessons learned, which function as directions for future forms of ethics support. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey combining quantitative and qualitative elements was sent to all healthcare professionals who worked at the Intensive Care Unit of the Amsterdam UMC - Location AMC during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey consisted of 36 items about moral distress (concerning quality of care and emotional stress), team cooperation, ethical climate and (ways of dealing with) end-of-life decisions, and two open questions about positive experiences and suggestions for work improvement. RESULTS: All 178 respondents (response rate: 25-32%) showed signs of moral distress, and experienced moral dilemmas in end-of-life decisions, whereas they experienced a relatively positive ethical climate. Nurses scored significantly higher than physicians on most items. Positive experiences were mostly related to 'team cooperation', 'team solidarity' and 'work ethic'. Lessons learned were mostly related to 'quality of care' and 'professional qualities'. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the crisis, positive experiences related to ethical climate, team members and overall work ethic were reported by Intensive Care Unit staff and quality and organisation of care lessons were learned. Ethics support services can be tailored to reflect on morally challenging situations, restore moral resilience, create space for self-care and strengthen team spirit. This can improve healthcare professionals' dealing of inherent moral challenges and moral distress in order to strengthen both individual and organisational moral resilience. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on The Netherlands Trial Register, number NL9177.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Attitude of Health Personnel , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Morals , Surveys and Questionnaires , Death
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243629

ABSTRACT

This paper reports on the development and validation of the COVID Psychosocial Impacts Scale (CPIS), a self-report measure that comprehensively examines both positive and negative psychosocial impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic. This is the first part of the program of work in which the CPIS was administered and compared with a measure of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, K-10) and wellbeing (World Health Organization Well-Being Index, WHO-5). The data were obtained online in 2020 and 2022 at two distinct time points to capture different exposures to the pandemic in the New Zealand population to a non-representative sample of 663 and 687 adults, respectively. Two hundred seventy-one participants took part in both surveys. Findings indicate a unidimensional structure within CPIS subscales and inter-relatedness among CPIS stress-related subscales. The scatter plots and correlation matrix indicate CPIS having a positive moderate correlation with K10 and a negative moderate correlation with WHO-5, indicative of construct validity. The paper outlines contextual factors surrounding CPIS development and makes suggestions for future iterations of CPIS. Further work will examine its psychometric properties across cultures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(10): 4792-4800, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Even before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns regarding college students' mental health were on the rise due to the increasing number of students afflicted with mental health issues. Exposure to numerous pandemic-related measures exacerbated existing issues with anxiety, depression, and stress. This study aimed to assess depression, anxiety, and stress levels among university students in the Aseer region in Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from eligible individuals using a web-based, self-administered DASS-21 questionnaire. This questionnaire consists of 21 questions with a rating scale of 0-3. Each of the psychological factors of depression, anxiety, and stress was categorized as normal, mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Results were expressed using descriptive statistics as proportions, and the Mann-Whitney/Kruskal-Wallis' test was used to evaluate the presence of a significant difference between each of the socio-demographic factors of the respondents and the psychological outcomes. RESULTS: Respondents aged between 18-24 years reported higher rates of extremely severe depression than other age groups. Females had higher rates of depression, especially severe and extremely severe forms. Extremely severe anxiety had a relatively high prevalence across all age groups. Extremely severe stress was more common among respondents aged between 18-24 years, while respondents older than 34 years reported the highest prevalence of severe stress. The Mann-Whitney/Kruskal-Wallis' tests showed statistically significant differences between participants in the different groups. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a high psychological impact on university students, which indicates that a psychological support program should be implemented to reduce this impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychological Well-Being , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
15.
GMS J Med Educ ; 40(2): Doc21, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230981

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Changes in academic conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic are potential stressors for medical students and can make them vulnerable for the development of psychiatric disorders.Previous pandemics had a negative impairment on well-being due to social isolation and the perceived threat, an increase in fear, anger and frustration and an increase in post-traumatic stress disorder among health professionals. Therefore, this study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students' mental health and possible psychological consequences. Methods: In this anonymous online survey (online 12/01/2021-03/31/2022), we examined the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health of 561 German medical students aged between 18 und 45 years. Perceived anxiety and burden were assessed retrospectively from spring 2020 to autumn 2021. Changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), quality of life was assessed using the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL BREF). Results: Anxiety and burden showed wavelike courses with higher scores in autumn, winter and spring. The scores for depression and anxiety increased after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the time before (p<.001). Results of a multifactorial ANOVA showed, that previous psychiatric illness (p<.001), being in the first two years of studies (p=.006), higher burden (p=.013) and greater differences in symptoms of depression (p<.001) were associated with a decreased quality of life in medical students. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on mental health of medical students and their actual quality of life. Therefore, medical faculties should establish specific support to prevent the development of psychiatric sequelae probably resulting in long-term medical leaves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1158698, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327111

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aims to shed light on parent-child relationships and the psychological health of parents from low-income families after the easing of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 553 parents of children aged 13-24 years in low-income community settings. The Parent-Child Conflict scale of the Parental Environment Questionnaire (PEQ) was used to measure parent-child conflict. Psychological distress was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale short form (DASS-21). Results: The study revealed a low level of parent-child conflict in the overall study population, with a median PEQ of 48.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 36 to 48). Concerning demographics, married parents reported a likelihood of having a higher level of parent-child conflict over 3 times higher than single parents (OR = 3.18 95%, CI 1.30-7.75). More parent-child conflicts were also found in parents aged 60-72 years old who were unemployed, retired, or housewives and from lower-income groups. In regard to lifestyle factors, a higher level of physical activity and having enough sleep were associated with lower levels of parent-child conflict. Only approximately 1% of the participants reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Discussion: Low risk exists for parent-child conflict and psychological sequelae following the easing of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, which could be due to various support measures implemented by the government. Vulnerable parents identified as being at risk of parent-child conflict warrant attention in future advocacy efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Parents/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 369, 2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal in Canada introduced accompanying patients (APs) into the breast cancer care trajectory. APs are patients who have been treated for breast cancer and have been integrated into the clinical team to expand the services offered to people affected by cancer. This study describes the profiles of the people who received the support and explores whether one-offs vs ongoing encounters with APs influence their experience of care, on self-efficacy in coping with cancer, and on their level of psychological distress. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out among patients to compare patients who had one encounter with an AP (G1) with those who had had several encounters (G2). Five questionnaires were administered on socio-demographic characteristics, care pathway, evaluation of the support experience, self-efficacy in coping with cancer, and level of psychological distress. Logbooks, completed by the APs, determined the number of encounters. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between the number of encounters, patient characteristics, care pathway, number of topics discussed, self-efficacy measures in coping with cancer, and level of psychological distress. RESULTS: Between April 2020 and December 2021, 60% of 535 patients who were offered support from an AP accepted. Of these, one hundred and twenty-four patients participated in the study. The study aimed to recruit a minimum of 70 patients with the expectation of obtaining at least 50 participants, assuming a response rate of 70%. There were no differences between G1 and G2 in terms of sociodemographic data and care pathways. Statistical differences were found between G1 and G2 for impacts on and the return to daily life (p = 0.000), the return to the work and impacts on professional life (p = 0.044), announcement of a diagnosis to family and friends (p = 0.033), and strategies for living with treatment under the best conditions (p = 0.000). Significant differences were found on the topics of cancer (p = 0.000), genetic testing (p = 0.023), therapeutic options (p = 0.000), fatigue following treatment (p = 0.005), pain and discomfort after treatment or surgery (p = 0.000), potential emotions and their management (p = 0.000) and the decision-making processes (p = 0.011). A significant relationship was found between the two groups for patients' ability to cope with cancer (p = 0.038), and their level of psychological distress at different stages of the care pathway (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between one-time and ongoing support for cancer patients. It highlights the potential for APs to help patients develop self-efficacy and cope with the challenges of cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Psychological Distress , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Self Efficacy , Adaptation, Psychological , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Affect Disord ; 335: 377-382, 2023 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shanghai undergone COVID-19 lockdown for 2 months in 2022, affecting >25 million population. We aim to find changes in mental health during Shanghai lockdown and if mental health was associated with Shanghai lockdown, loneliness, and perceived stress. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional online surveys in China, which were before and at the end of Shanghai lockdown (survey 1 in January 2022, N = 1123; survey 2 in June 2022, N = 2139). Participants reported mental health, loneliness, and perceived stress through the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the short-form UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8), and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). We compared data between survey 1 and 2. We ran a multiple linear regression model to investigate the impact of Shanghai lockdown, loneliness and perceived stress on mental health. RESULTS: There's an increase in the proportion of lonely people during Shanghai lockdown (49.77 % to 65.26 %). During Shanghai lockdown, the proportion of lonely people (68.97 % VS. 61.35 %, p < 0.001) and risk for mental health conditions (50.50 % VS. 43.27 %, p < 0.001) were higher among residents in Shanghai than outside Shanghai. Shanghai lockdown (b = 0.556, p = 0.02), higher ULS-8 (b = 0.284, p < 0.001) and higher PSS-10 (b = 0.365, p < 0.001) were associated with higher GHQ-12. LIMITATIONS: Participants reported their mental health status during Shanghai lockdown retrospectively. CONCLUSION: Shanghai lockdown had psychological impacts not only on residents in Shanghai but also outside Shanghai. Addressing loneliness and perceived stress accommodated to the lockdown situation should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 32(6): 937-949, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323113

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal, prospective study investigated associations between perceived COVID-19-related stress, coping strategies, and mental health status among adolescents during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic and one year after the lockdown in Switzerland within a large, national sample. A self-report on-line survey was completed by 553 adolescents (age-range 12-18 years in 2021) in the summers of 2020 and 2021, assessing symptoms of various mental health problems, perceived COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies. Overall, participants reported less COVID-19 related stress one year after the lockdown, though mental health status remained stable. 'Challenges at home or with others' were significantly associated with mental health problems in both genders, whereas 'trouble getting medical care or mental health services 'was associated with mental health problems in girls. Perceived stress and pre-existing psychiatric problem were significantly linked to all mental health outcomes at both time points. Parents' poor relationships with partners during the lockdown was associated with increased anxiety symptoms in their children. Using cognitive restructuring to cope with stress was associated with less, while negative coping was associated with more anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms one year post lockdown. Girls appear to have been more affected by the pandemic than boys, with youths with pre-existing psychiatric problems especially vulnerable to its detrimental effects. Healthcare and school professionals should support to identify high-risk adolescents with negative and avoidant coping strategies and train youths to use positive coping strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Switzerland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Adaptation, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Health Status
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