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1.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(2): 359-366, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714243

ABSTRACT

AIM: The main aim of this study was to understand what health and wellbeing initiatives are helpful for health care workers' stress and psychological distress during the Covid-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: Health care workers are at increased risk of poor mental health during health emergencies; understanding support required for health care workers is of paramount importance. METHODS: Participants were health care workers at a health and social care organization (N = 159). The study included an online questionnaire including an evaluation of health and wellbeing initiatives and measures of perceived stress and psychological distress. RESULTS: The highest rated resources were counselling, personal protective equipment (PPE) and Covid-19 testing. Those who accessed yoga reported significantly less stress and psychological distress than those who did not access yoga. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers with higher stress and psychological distress felt less supported by their organization, less listened to and less involved in organizational decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Practical implications are discussed such as forward planning for health emergencies (e.g., PPE supply), accessible Covid-19 testing as well as budgeting for counselling services and exercise classes. In addition, targeted support for those diagnosed with Covid-19 is recommended, alongside involvement of staff members in organizational decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 13): 412-414, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1678961

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks, like current COVID-19 Pandemic, given the fact that consequences of a period of intense stress and anxiety during pregnancy, as spontaneous preterm labor and psychiatric postpartum disorders, are already known. As fetal brain faces neurodevelopmental challenges in a cytotoxic environment of possible inflammation and increased catecholamine levels, mother also has to cope with a hostile environment of uncertainty, rich in bio-social threats that can be devastating for both maternal and fetal health, as well as for Public Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications
3.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580544

ABSTRACT

There are many ways to regulate emotions. People use both adaptive (e.g., regulation by music) and maladaptive (e.g., regulation by food) strategies to do this. We hypothesized that participants with a high level of food-based regulatory strategies and a low level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the least adaptive form of emotion regulation) would have significantly greater levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress, as well as a significantly lower level of healthy eating behaviours than those with a low level of food-based regulatory strategies and a high level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the greatest adaptive form of emotion regulation). Participants (N = 410; Mage = 31.77, SD = 13.53) completed: the Brief Music in Mood Regulation Scale, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behavior Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and a socio-demographic survey. The four clusters were identified: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 148): low food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (b) Cluster 2 (N = 42): high food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (c) Cluster 3 (N = 70): high food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies; (d) Cluster 4 (N = 150): low food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies. Overall, our outcomes partially support our hypothesis, as higher levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress were observed in participants with high food-based and low music-based regulatory strategies as compared with adults with low food-based and high music-based regulatory strategies. To sum up, the results obtained indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic the group of people regulating their emotional state and unhealthy eating predominantly with food is potentially characterized by worse functioning than the group of people regulating with music. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who regulate their functioning using food should be included in preventive measures by specialists. During the visit, psychologists and primary care physicians can ask patients about their daily strategies and based on this information specialists can estimate the potential risk of developing high levels of stress and anxiety, depressive disorders and unhealthy eating habits and provide specific (match) intervention.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Music/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cluster Analysis , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Emotional Regulation , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 828, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early postpartum period is recognized cross-culturally as being important for recovery, with new parents receiving increased levels of community support. However, COVID-19-related lockdown measures may have disrupted these support systems, with possible implications for mental health. Here, we use a cross-sectional analysis among individuals who gave birth at different stages of the pandemic to test (i) if instrumental support access in the form of help with household tasks, newborn care, and care for older children has varied temporally across the pandemic, and (ii) whether access to these forms of instrumental support is associated with lower postpartum depression scores. METHODS: This study used data from the COVID-19 And Reproductive Effects (CARE) study, an online survey of pregnant persons in the United States. Participants completed postnatal surveys between April 30 - November 18, 2020 (n = 971). Logistic regression analysis tested whether birth timing during the pandemic was associated with odds of reported sustained instrumental support. Linear regression analyses assessed whether instrumental support was associated with lower depression scores as measured via the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression survey. RESULTS: Participants who gave birth later in the pandemic were more likely to report that the pandemic had not affected the help they received with household work and newborn care (p < 0.001), while access to childcare for older children appeared to vary non-linearly throughout the pandemic. Additionally, respondents who reported that the pandemic had not impacted their childcare access or help received around the house displayed significantly lower depression scores compared to participants who reported pandemic-related disruptions to these support types (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The maintenance of postpartum instrumental support during the pandemic appears to be associated with better maternal mental health. Healthcare providers should therefore consider disrupted support systems as a risk factor for postpartum depression and ask patients how the pandemic has affected support access. Policymakers seeking to improve parental wellbeing should design strategies that reduce disease transmission, while facilitating safe interactions within immediate social networks (e.g., through investment in COVID-19 testing and contact tracing). Cumulatively, postpartum instrumental support represents a potential tool to protect against depression, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Care , Depression, Postpartum , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Care/methods , Child Care/psychology , Child Care/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , /trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/trends , Needs Assessment , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2137395, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555044

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had considerable mental health consequences for children and adolescents, including the exacerbation of previously diagnosed eating disorders. Whether the pandemic is a factor associated with the concomitant increase in new-onset anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa remains unknown. Objective: To assess the incidence and severity of newly diagnosed anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa in a national sample of youth before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated cross-sectional study analyzed new eating disorder assessments that were conducted at 6 pediatric tertiary-care hospitals in Canada between January 1, 2015, and November 30, 2020. Patients aged 9 to 18 years with a new anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa diagnosis at the index assessment were included. Exposures: COVID-19-associated public health confinement measures during the first wave of the pandemic (March 1 to November 30, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were the incidence and hospitalization rates within 7 days of de novo anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa diagnosis. Event rate trends during the first wave were compared with trends in the 5-year prepandemic period (January 1, 2015, to February 28, 2020) using an interrupted time series with linear regression models. Demographic and clinical variables were compared using a χ2 test for categorical data and t tests for continuous data. Results: Overall, 1883 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa (median [IQR] age, 15.9 [13.8-16.9] years; 1713 female patients [91.0%]) were included. Prepandemic anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa diagnoses were stable over time (mean [SD], 24.5 [1.6] cases per month; ß coefficient, 0.043; P = .33). New diagnoses increased during the first wave of the pandemic to a mean (SD) of 40.6 (20.1) cases per month with a steep upward trend (ß coefficient, 5.97; P < .001). Similarly, hospitalizations for newly diagnosed patients increased from a mean (SD) of 7.5 (2.8) to 20.0 (9.8) cases per month, with a significant increase in linear trend (ß coefficient, -0.008 vs 3.23; P < .001). These trends were more pronounced in Canadian provinces with higher rates of COVID-19 infections. Markers of disease severity were worse among patients who were diagnosed during the first wave rather than before the pandemic, including more rapid progression (mean [SD], 7.0 [4.2] months vs 9.8 [7.4] months; P < .001), greater mean (SD) weight loss (19.2% [9.4%] vs 17.5% [9.6%]; P = .01), and more profound bradycardia (mean [SD] heart rate, 57 [15.8] beats per minute vs 63 [15.9] beats per minute; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a higher number of new diagnoses of and hospitalizations for anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia nervosa in children and adolescents during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Research is needed to better understand the drivers and prognosis for these patients and to prepare for their mental health needs in the event of future pandemics or prolonged social isolation.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Anorexia Nervosa/complications , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Weight Loss
7.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(2): 359-366, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537842

ABSTRACT

AIM: The main aim of this study was to understand what health and wellbeing initiatives are helpful for health care workers' stress and psychological distress during the Covid-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: Health care workers are at increased risk of poor mental health during health emergencies; understanding support required for health care workers is of paramount importance. METHODS: Participants were health care workers at a health and social care organization (N = 159). The study included an online questionnaire including an evaluation of health and wellbeing initiatives and measures of perceived stress and psychological distress. RESULTS: The highest rated resources were counselling, personal protective equipment (PPE) and Covid-19 testing. Those who accessed yoga reported significantly less stress and psychological distress than those who did not access yoga. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers with higher stress and psychological distress felt less supported by their organization, less listened to and less involved in organizational decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Practical implications are discussed such as forward planning for health emergencies (e.g., PPE supply), accessible Covid-19 testing as well as budgeting for counselling services and exercise classes. In addition, targeted support for those diagnosed with Covid-19 is recommended, alongside involvement of staff members in organizational decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: Psychological and physical well-being of health personnel has been significantly affected by COVID-19. Work overload and continuous exposure to positive COVID-19 cases have caused them fatigue, stress, anxiety, insomnia and other detriments. This research aims: 1) to analyze whether the use of cognitive reevaluation and emotional suppression strategies decreases and increases, respectively, stress levels of health personnel; 2) to quantify the impact of contact with patients with COVID-19 on stress levels of medical staff. METHOD: Emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reevaluation and emotional expression) and stress levels were evaluated in 155 Dominican physicians who were treating people infected with COVID-19 at the moment of the study (67.9% women and 32.1% men; mean age = 34.89; SD = 9.26). In addition, a questionnaire created by the researchers quantified the impact that contact with those infected had on their stress levels. RESULTS: Contact with patients with COVID-19 predicts increased use of emotion suppression strategies, although is not associated with the use of cognitive reevaluation. These findings lead to an even greater increase in stress on health care providers. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual contingencies demand immediate responses and may not allow health personnel to use cognitive re-evaluation strategies, leaning more towards emotion suppression. However, findings regarding high levels of stress require the implementation of intervention programs focused on the promotion of more functional emotion regulation strategies. Such programs may reduce current stress and prevent post-traumatic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Stress/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Aerophagy/epidemiology , Aerophagy/etiology , Aerophagy/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/psychology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Italy , Male , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Rumination Syndrome/epidemiology , Rumination Syndrome/etiology , Rumination Syndrome/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/psychology
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444281

ABSTRACT

Binge watching is becoming increasingly common and may impact energy balance and body weight. The COVID-19 pandemic has created conditions conducive to binge watching and increased stress. We investigated relationships between COVID-related stress and binge watching behaviors, and potential variation in this relationship by body weight. Adults (n = 466) completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing binge watching behaviors during and before the pandemic, COVID-related stress, and body weight. Participants reported an increase in binge watching frequency from before to during the pandemic (F1,401 = 99.970, p < 0.001), with rates of high binge watching ("3-4 times per week" to "3 or more times per day") increasing from 14.6% to 33.0%. Binge watching episode duration increased from 3.26 ± 1.89 h to 3.92 ± 2.08 h (p < 0.001). The increase in binge watching frequency was greatest in individuals with obesity and high stress (F 4,401 = 4.098, p = 0.003). Participants reporting high stress reported higher frequency of eating while binge watching, as well as higher levels of negative emotional triggers, consequences to binge watching, and lack of control over binge watching (all p < 0.001). Our results show that binge watching increased during the pandemic, with greater increases among individuals reporting higher COVID-related stress, especially those with obesity, and concomitant effects on eating, and highlight a need for interventions to minimize the obesogenic impact of binge watching during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19/psychology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/psychology , Screen Time , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
Placenta ; 115: 37-44, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The reported effects of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnancy outcomes are conflicting; studies frequently overlook the placenta, which is critical for the health of the mother and infant(s). This study aimed to determine the effect of pandemic stress ± SARS CoV-2 infection on placental histopathology. METHODS: Women were recruited in Canada (n = 69); France (n = 21) or in the UK (n = 25), between March and October 2020. Historic controls (N = 20) were also included. Placenta and fetal membrane samples were collected rapidly after delivery and were fixed and stained for histopathological analysis. Maternal demographical data and obstetric outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Over 80% of the placentas from SARS-CoV-2+ pregnancies had histopathological abnormalities: predominantly structural (71-86%) or inflammatory (9-22%), depending on geographical location. Excessive fibrin was seen in all sites, whereas deciduitis (Canada), calcifications (UK), agglutinations and chorangiosis (France) predominated in different locations. The frequency of abnormalities was significantly higher than in SARS-CoV-2 negative women (50%, p < 0.05). Demographic and obstetric data were similar in the SARS-CoV-2+ women across all sites - characterised by predominantly Black/Middle Eastern women, and women with elevated body mass index. DISCUSSION: Overall, the frequency of placental abnormalities is increased in SARS-CoV-2+ women, but the incidence of placental abnormalities is also higher in SARS-CoV-2- women that gave birth during the pandemic, which highlights the importance of appropriate control groups to ascertain the roles of pandemic stress and SARS-CoV-2 infection on the placenta and pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/epidemiology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/psychology , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/pathology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
13.
Autism Res ; 14(10): 2183-2188, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344962

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may disproportionately impact parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Loss of services and supports, heightened fears about increased infection rates, and disruption of daily routines likely adversely affect the well-being of children with ASD and their families. The goal of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress-as defined by symptoms of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and hyperarousal-between parents raising a child with ASD and parents in the US as a whole during the early stages of the pandemic (March-April 2020). Parents raising a child with ASD (n = 3556) were recruited through SPARK, a national ASD research registry, whereas a representative sample of parents in the US (n = 5506) were recruited from the Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel. All data were captured via online surveys. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions examined psychological distress at the item and summary score level. Parents of children with ASD reported higher levels of overall psychological distress (48% vs. 25%; aOR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.84, p < 0.001). Hyperarousal, or feelings of panic when thinking about COVID-19, was particularly prevalent among parents of children with ASD compared to parents in the US (25% vs. 9%; aOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.83, 3.07, p < 0.001). Findings highlight the importance of considering the policies and practices that contribute to poor mental health in parents, particularly those raising a child with ASD, to ensure mental health services remain accessible. LAY SUMMARY: This study examined the mental health of parents raising a child with ASD during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results demonstrated substantially higher levels of psychological distress, particularly those related to feelings of panic, among parents raising a child with ASD when compared to parents in the US as a whole. These data suggest the need for ensuring mental health services are accessible to parents, particularly those raising a child with ASD, during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
14.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 34(2): e14197, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine with social distancing has reduced transmission of COVID-19; however, fear of the disease and these remedial measures cause anxiety and stress. It is not known whether these events have impacted the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and disorders of brain-gut interaction (DGBI). METHODS: An online platform evaluated the prevalence of GI symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collection utilized validated questionnaires and was fully anonymized. Findings were compared with identical data acquired in 2019. The association of results with stress and anxiety was analyzed. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1896 subjects May - August 2019 to 980 non-identical subjects May - June 2020. GI symptoms were reported by 68.9% during the COVID-19 lockdown compared with 56.0% the previous year (p < 0.001). The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (26.3% vs. 20.0%; p < 0.001), functional dyspepsia (18.3% vs. 12.7%; p < 0.001), heartburn (31.7% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.002), and self-reported milk intolerance (43.5% vs. 37.8% p = 0.004) was higher during the pandemic. Many individuals reported multiple symptoms. Anxiety was associated with presence of all GI symptoms. High levels of stress impacted functional dyspepsia (p = 0.045) and abdominal pain (p = 0.013). The presence of DGBI (p < 0.001; OR 22.99), self-reported milk intolerance (p < 0.001; OR 2.50), and anxiety (p < 0.001; OR 2.18) was independently associated with increased GI symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher during the COVID-19 lockdown than under normal circumstances the previous year. This increase was attributable to increased numbers of patients with DGBI, an effect that was associated with anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Bulgaria/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 869-874, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated COVID-19 risk and burden among people with HIV (PWH) in a US city with high rates of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and examined the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and COVID-19 risk and burden. SETTING: Participants were drawn from an existing consent to contact database of PWH. Database candidates were PWH, adults older than 18 years, people who had received HIV care at the University of Miami HIV clinics, people who spoke English or Spanish, and people who had agreed to be contacted for future research. METHODS: An adapted version of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study COVID-19 survey was telephonically administered, requiring 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: Psychological stress was a predictor of COVID-19 burden (financial and social burden) and COVID-19 risk (health factors associated with an increased risk of severe health outcomes due to infection with COVID-19). Having a history of traumatic events was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and stress was associated with increased COVID-19 burden and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics may be most profound among those who have experienced traumatic events; and traumatic events may be associated with heightened vigilance regarding illness and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Depression/complications , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Stress, Psychological/complications
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 865-875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the physical and emotional health of older adults living with dementia and their care partners. OBJECTIVE: Using a patient-centered approach, we explored the experiences and needs of people living with dementia and their care partners during the COVID-19 pandemic as part of an ongoing evaluation of dementia support services in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed around the priorities identified in the context of the COVID-19 and Dementia Task Force convened by the Alzheimer Society of Canada. RESULTS: A total of 417 surveys were analyzed. Overall, respondents were able to access information that was helpful for maintaining their own health and managing a period of social distancing. Care partners reported a number of serious concerns, including the inability to visit the person that they care for in long-term or palliative care. Participants also reported that the pandemic increased their levels of stress overall and that they felt lonelier and more isolated than they did before the pandemic. The use of technology was reported as a way to connect socially with their loved ones, with the majority of participants connecting with others at least twice per week. CONCLUSION: Looking at the complex effects of a global pandemic through the experiences of people living with dementia and their care partners is vital to inform healthcare priorities to restore their quality of life and health and better prepare for the future.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Aged , British Columbia , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Nurs Manag ; 29(7): 1916-1923, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175096

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine the perceived stress and affecting factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic of emergency nurses at the first stage of the pandemic. BACKGROUND: During pandemic process, nurses reported to experience stress due to a very high risk of being infected and hard work. METHOD: A descriptive study. The sample of the study consisted of 169 emergency nurses. To collect data, a personal information form was used together with the Perceived Stress Scale. RESULTS: The factors that significantly affect the perceived stress score of emergency nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic included applying respiratory isolation, changing the way of life, not being able to access protective equipment, insufficient nurses in the unit and thinking that COVID-19 will be transmitted to oneself. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of the emergency nurses perceived stress above average during pandemic, and their working conditions affected this situation. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Meeting physiological needs and applying psychological guidance and counselling interventions in the stress management of emergency nurses may contribute to the reduction of their stress levels. Effective infection control, reducing workload, increasing the number of nurses and strengthening the coping mechanisms can minimize the perceived stress level of emergency nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Turkey
20.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1631-1639, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154594

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: The COVID-19 outbreak is known to increase stress levels of most patients with chronic diseases. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are highly susceptible to environmental stress. In the current study, we aimed to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic psychologically affected patients with chronic progressive diseases such as AS and RA and the effects of these psychological factors on disease activity. Materials and methods: Age and sex-matched patients with AS (n = 80), RA (n = 80), and healthy controls (n = 80) were included in the study. All participants were evaluated with the "Perceived COVID-19 Threat Form (PCTF)", "Suicide-Ideation Scale (SIS)", "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)", "The Ability to Cope with Trauma (PACT)", and "Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB)" scales. BASDAI was used in patients with AS, and DAS28 was used in patients with RA to assess disease severity. Results: Compared to healthy individuals, patients with RA and AS had lower PGWB scores and higher HADS depression and anxiety subscale scores. Almost all psychometric assessment test scores were worse in AS patients with high-disease activity compared to those in low-disease activity. PACT scores were higher in patients with moderate RA compared to patients with mild RA (p = 0.006). While a positive correlation was identified between BASDAI and most of the psychometric assessment test scores (r = 0 .36 for PCTF, r = 0.53 for depressive scores, r = 0.54 for anxiety scores, r = 0.57 for suicidal ideation), DAS28 scores were found to be associated only with PACT total and PACT perceived forward-focused subscale scores (r = ­.26 and r = .33, respectively). Conclusion: Psychologically, AS and RA patients were found to be worse off compared to healthy controls. The perceived COVID threat and psychological status were associated with disease activity in AS, but not RA patients. Patients with chronic illnesses may be more vulnerable to the psychological effects of the pandemic, which can worsen disease activity.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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